al-Ghazali website

Main: Oeuvre: Sufism and Ethics


Sufism and Ethics


  • {ميزان العمل} Mizan al-'amal, (Criterion of Action).  [M:21; A:21

    • Arabic:  Edited by S. Dunya in Arabic (pdf)
    • Arabic: Mizan al-'amal. (Arabic html) from al-waraq site.
    • Turkish: Amellerde Ilahi Terazi, trans. Abdullah Aydin, Istanbul: Aydin Yayinevi, 1971.
    • Urdu:
    • Persian: A translation by A. A. Kasmm'i, Tehran, 1995. of the edition ed. by S. Dunya above. (pdf)
    • Malay: Timbangan amal: menuju kebahagiaan akhirat tr.M. Ali Chasan Umar; A. Chumaidi Umar / Kuala Lumpur: Alharamain, 1984. 239 p.
    • English Translation of a two sample chapters from Dunya's edition.
    • An article on its Hebrew translation (Arabic PDF)
    • Italian translation by Prof.  M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL'AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 97-274 with extensive introduction in 96 pp. ISBN: 8802060746.
    • German Translation: Das Kriterium des Handelns = Mizan al-`amal / Abu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali ; aus dem Arabischen u¨bersetzt, mit einer Einleitung, mit Anmerkungen und Indices ; herausgegeben von `Abd-Elsamad `Abd-Elhamid Elschazli. Darmstadt : WBG, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2006.
    • French Translation: Crite`re de l'action = Mizan al-a`mal : traite´ d'e´thique psychologique et mystique / de Abou-Hamid Mouhammad b. Mouhammad b. Mouhammad al-Ghazzali ; version franc¸aise et e´tude analytique par Hikmat Hachem ; pre´face de Louis Massignon. Published/Created: Paris : G.P. Maisonneuve, 1945.
  • {إحياء علوم الدين} Ihya' 'ulum al-din (Revival of Islamic Knowledge) - [M:28; A:28; GAL, I, 422, S., I, 748]- Badawi's Bibliographical entry (complete in word format). For detailed information see our Ihya' page.

  • {مختصر إحياء علوم الدين / لباب إحياء علوم الدين} Mukhtasr ihya' ulum al-din (Summary of the Ihya') It is most likely by Al-Ghazali's brother Ahmad (abu al-futuh d. 1126) also called (lubab Ihya' 'ulum al-din) [M:219, 220; A:93]

    • Arabic: Mukhtasr ihya' ulum al-din printed by mu'asat al-kutub al-thaqifia (Beirut, 1990) 286pp. (PDF) Note that the publisher claims that it is by al-Ghazali! 

  • {بداية الهداية} Bidayat al-hidayah (Beginning of Guidance) [M:35; A:35]

    • Arabic Editions:

      • Bidayat al-hidayah fi al-adab wa-al-akhlaq wa-al-tasawwuf lil-Shaykh Zayn al-Din Hujjat al-Islam Abi Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazzali al-Tusi. Wa-yaliha al-Risalah al-wa`ziyah, al-Maktabah al-Tijariyah al-Kubrá (Cairo, N.D. 19??).

      • Bidayat al-hidayah edited by Muhammad Saud al-Ma'yni, (Baghdad, 1988) (PDF)

      • Bidayat al-hidayah, edited by Abdelhamid Muhammad al-Darwish, Dar Sader, Beirut 1998 (PDF)

      • Bidayat al-hidayah (PDF) ed. by Hajjar, 2001.

      • Bidayat al-hidayah (PDF) ed. by Kasht, Cairo, 1985.

      • Bidayat al-hidayah (PDF) published in India.

    • English: Partially translated by W. M. Watt, who claimed that the second half as unauthentic(?) and fully translated by Muhammad Abul Qasem, self published in Malaysia. (pdf)

    • Dual language edition (Arabic/English) by M. Al-Allaf. (St. Louis, 2004) (more info)

    • Chechen translation (word file)

  • {الاربعين في إصول الدين} al-'Arabin fi isul al-din (the Forty fundamentals of religion) [M:38, 95; A:38; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746] Originally written as part of Jawahir al-Qur'an and permission was given for it to be a separate work.

    • M. S. Kurdi edition (Cairo, 1328 and 1344 => by al-istiqamah Press)

    • edited by 'Abdullah A.H. 'Arawni, dar al-qalam (Damascus, 2003) 303pp. An edition based on Kurdi's published edition and Mss from al-zaytuna, Tunisia. (PDF) Nicely produced volume.

    • Partial translation was completed as an MA thesis in AUC.

  • {كميائي سعادات} Kimiya-ye Saadah (Alchemy of Happiness) [M:45; A:45] Al-Ghazali's own Persian version of the Ihya' a shorter work. Considering al-Ghazali's pedagogical tendencies one could assume that the Ihya' is larger/deeper work on the subject, the Kimiya to be the medium work and the 'arbain to be the summary work.  

    • Persian original in two volumes (pdf v1 and v2)
    • Introduction by E. Daniels. (PDF) 
    • English: Alchemy of Happiness Widely circulated translation which could be the one from the Hundistani translation of the Arabic translation. A questionable pedigree but widely available on the open market as well as on the net.
    • Arabic Translation (not a complete translation it was originally written in Persian) Arabic pdf [M:223; A:45]
    • Italian translation of the above Arabic version in: by Prof.  M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL'AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 351-370. ISBN: 8802060746.
    • English: Kazi publications is publishing a full English translation of the Persian Original by M. N. Abdelsalam. 
      • Currently there are 24 of the 44 books published seperately adn the complete book has been published in two volumes. 
    • English: A translation by Muhammad Asim Bilal and revised by Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal, Kazi publications, Lahore: 2001. (pdf)
    • Urdu translation (pdf)


  • {إيها الولد المحب} Ayah al-Wald al-Muahib (O beloved Son)  [M:46; A:46; GAL, I, 423; K:6010] Originally written in Persian but was quickly translated into Arabic which became the widely circulated version that was readily available. Persian original was lost and is not available.
    • Arabic: Ayah al-Wald al-Muahib  (Arabic PDF)
    • Arabic: Qadiriyah Library Manuscript # F 1432 and S 1418 ayuha al-walad al-muhib. Edited by Jamil Ibrahim Habib. (Arabic PDF)
    • O Disciple. English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, (Beirut: Catholic Press, 1951) also PDF.
    • My Dear Beloved Son. (A translation from the Urdu translation) (word file).
    • German:
      Ghazzālī, and Joseph Hammer-Purgstall. 1838. O kind! Die berühmte ethische Abhandlung Ghasali's. Arabisch und deutsch, als Neujahrsgeschenk. Wien: Gedruckt bey A. Strauss's sel. Witwe.  (googlebooks) complete in pdf format. alternate
    • Ghazali' letter to a Disciple, a dual language edition translated by Toby Mayer. Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 2004.


  • {التبر المسبوك في نصحية الملوك} al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk (The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings). [M:47; A:47; GAL, I, 423 no 30 & S., I, 750]
    • Manuscript: al-tabr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk wa alwuzara wa al-wulat (MS:l72.2:G4ltbA), Quoting the site: "a manual of advice composed for rulers, ministers and governors on how they should govern their realms. The manuscript was probably produced in Egypt at the beginning of the fifteenth century. It is a fine example of a late Mamluk manuscript that can be seen in the quality of the colored paper, the beauty of the calligraphy and the contemporary brown morocco binding. The [Jafet] library of the American University of Beirut Archives and Special Collection. The entire manuscript is now online and in full color." (link) Now if only other libraries are this generous with their collections!
    • al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk. Arabic (html text minor proof reading) This is the Arabic translation of the book which was originally written in Persian as Nasihat al-Muluk (only the first part of this book was written by al-Ghazali, however. cf. P. Crone Did al-Ghazali Write a Mirror for Princes? in: Jerusalem Studies of Arabic and Islam 10 (1987) pp. 167-191.) 
    • English Translation: Counsel for Kings. translated by F. R. C. Bagley, from the Persian text edited by Jalal Huma'i and the Bodleian Arabic text, edited by H. D. Isaacs, with introduction, notes, and biographical index (London : Oxford University Press, 1964) (PDF)
    • Насихат ал-мулук - Совет владыкам- A Russian Language translation by Alexey A. Khismatulin (pdf) Published by: Петербургское Востоковедение ; Note that: Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali al-Tusi. The Kimiya-yi sa'adat ("ЭЛИКСИР СЧАСТЬЯ"). Part 2: Rukn 2: Obychai (with Supplements A&B) / Tr. from the Persian, Introduction, commentaries and indices by Alexey A. Khismatulin. St.Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, 2007.ISBN 987-5-85803-359-2. The translation of the Nasihat al-muluk is in Supplement A, pp. 369-406. The Persian original was published by Jalal al-din Huma'yi in 1361/1982 (Tehran: Intisharat-i Babak), the 2nd ed. pp. 341-377.


  • {المنقذ من الضلال} al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Misguidance). considered to be autobiography an apologia pro vita [M:56; A:56]
    • Arabic HTML. Also in word format edited from Farid Jabre's Arabic and Ahmad Shamsaldin's editions (see below) with notes by M. Hozien.
    • Edited with an introduction by J. Saliba and K. Ayyad 7th edition. (Arabic PDF) (near critical edition!)
    • Edited with an introduction by A. Shamsaldin. (Arabic PDF)
    • M. Bejou's edition (Damascus: 1992) with notes, introduction (mini study of the influence of al-Ghazali's methodical doubt on Descartes). (Arabic PDF)
    • A Modern updated translation. (E-text) (Translation notes not included) courtesy of CUA.
    • Watt's Translation. (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1967) Also Available in (PDF)
    • McCarthy, R. J. Freedom and fulfillment : an annotated translation of Al-Ghazalis al-Munqidh min al-dalal and other relevant works of al-Ghazali by Richard Joseph McCarthy. (Boston:Twayne Publishers, c1980). (one of these days!)
    • I'traifat Ghazzali motarjim zainaldin Ki'ya' Nazad. A Persian Translation. (pdf)
    • El-Munkizu Miin-Ad-Dalal. By Hilmi Gungor, a Turkish Translation. (pdf)
    • Khair al-maqal fi tarjamat al-munqidh min al-dalal. Translation and commentary by Muwalwi Syed Mumtaz Ali (Urdu, PDF)
    • Ghazâlî, Abû-Hâmid Muhammad ibn-Muhammad al-: Der Erretter aus dem Irrtum (Al-Munqidh min ad-dalâl). Aus d. Arab. übers., mit e. Einl., mit Anm. u. Indices hrsg. v. 'Abû Elhamîd Elschazlî. Hamburg: Meiner 1988 (Philosophische Bibliothek; Bd. 389). (German pdf)
    • Erreur et Délivrance, Traducion Françasise avec introduction et notes par Farid Jabre. (Deuxième Édition) A dual language edition French Translation/Arabic. Commision Libanaise Pour La Traduction Des Chefs-D'œuvre, Beyrouth: 1969. (pdf)
    • El salvador del error, Introducción y notas del Emilio Tornero. A Spanish Translation. (pdf)
    • Malay: Selamat dari kesesatan tr. Asiah Ali; Kuala Lumpur: Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia, 1983.

    • A TÉVELYGÉSBÔL KIVEZETÔ ÚT in Hungarian (Arabból magyarra fordította / Translated from Arabic into Hungarian by : NÉMETH, Pál)
    • De redder uit de dwaling, Uit het Arabisch vertaald en tocgelicht door Prof. Dr J. H. Kramers. A Dutch (Holland/Netherlands) Translation. (pdf).

    • Hebrew translation by Hava Lazarus-Yafah, Jerusalem 19??. (pdf)


  • {منهاج العابدين} Minhaj al-'abidin (Curriculum of the worshipers). Attributed to al-Ghazali [A:72] As popular as this work it is not an authentic work of al-Ghazali. It is by someone else for the following reasons: According to Ibn 'Arabi (d.1240) it is by abu Hasan 'Ali al-Masqar al-sabti [whom he met in person]. Also in this book many books of the author are referenced which are not known works of al-Ghazali e.g. "al-qurba ila al-Allah" and "akhlaq al-abrar wal najat min al 'ashrar." Also he does not reference any of al-Ghazali's known works. Many times the author mentions word forms that al-Ghazali never mentions in his works e.g. Our sheikh said or My sheikh al-Imam said and he quotes poetry and astute readers of al-Ghazali know that al-Ghazali never mentions this format or mode of writing and quotations even in his early writings completed in his youth. The author of this work has very good knowledge of al-Ghazali's Ihya [not to mention a good grasp of Arabic -which explains its popularity] and has summarized it well with many of his own additions.
    • Arabic edition Edited by Mahmoud Mustafa Halawi. (mu'sasat al-risala: Beirut: 1989) (PDF)
    • Older Arabic edition of 1337h. (PDF)
    • Urdu Translation. (PDF)
    • English Translation. (PDF)



NOTE: The numbers listed above in square brackets refer to M = Bouyges, Maurice. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-ghazali (Algazel). Edited by Michel Allard. Beirut: L'Institue de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth, 1959; A = Badwai, 'Abd al-Rahman, Mu'allafat al-Ghazali. 2nd ed. Kuwait: Wakalat al-Mutbu'at, 1977- numbers as listed. The links are provided to the individual page in Bouyges or Badawi. The GAL listing is given below. The following numbers are offered as mentioned in Bouyges 1959: Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen litteratur. 2 vols. plus 3 suppl. vols., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1937-42, Second edition: 1943-45.   [GAL, S]   GAL, I: 534-546 (PDF: 1943); S, I: 744-756. (PDF: 1937). Kâtip Çelebi. Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum ... ad codicum Vindobonensium Parisiensium et Berolinensis fidem primum edidit Latine vertit et commentario indicibusque instruxit Gustavus Fluegel. .... Arabic text with Latin trans. by Gustav Lebrecht Fluegel. 7 vols., Leipzig: Published for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1835-1858.  [K]

If you see a glaring error or have strong opinions, supported by fact or argument, about any work listed above or missing do let me know.


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