al-Ghazali website

Main: Research Topics: On Philosophy


  • Avicenna, 2005, The Metaphysics of The Healing: A Parallel English-Arabic Text, M.E. Marmura (ed. and trans.). Provo (Utah): Brigham Young University Press.

  • Averroes, 1930, Averroès Tahafot at-Tahafot, M. Bouyges (ed.), Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique. Critcal edition

    • English: Averroes. 1954, Averroes' Tahafut al-tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence), S. van den Bergh (trans.), 2 vols., London: Luzac.(link) Ibn Rushd's answer to some of al-Ghazali's concerns in the tahafut.

    • Latin: Averroes. 1961, Destructio destructionum philosophiae Algazelis in the Latin Version of Calo Calonymos, B.H. Zedler (ed.), Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.

  • al-Ghazali, 1936, Maqasid al-falasifa, M.S. al-Kurdi (ed.), Cairo: al-Matba’a al-Mahmudiyya al-Tijariyya. (N.B. this edition along with other editons are available on this website)
    • Latin: al-Ghazali, 1506, Logica et philosophia Algazelis Arabis, Venice: P. Liechtenstein. Reprint Frankfurt (Germany): Minerva, 1969.
    • Latin: al-Ghazali, 1933, Algazels's Metaphysics: A Medieval Translation, J.T. Muckle (ed.), Toronto: St. Michael's College.
  • al-Ghazali, 1997, The Incoherence of the Philosophers / Tahafut al-falasifa, a Parallel English-Arabic Text, M. E. Marmura (ed. and trans.), Provo (Utah): Brigham Young University Press. 
  • Tahafut of Hocazade (a book by an Ottoman scholar (Mustafa b. Khalil Khawaja zadae Barswae) on the issue of philosophers in the tahafut of Ghazali. (Arabic PDF.) This book and the one that follows were written by the request of Mehmet I (fatih) the Ottoman Sultan. This book was completed first and rewarded well. The next book (by Tusi) was awarded (2nd place). See the introduction by Sa`ada, 1983.  
  • Tahafut of Ala'addin al-Tusi. (yet another book by an Ottoman scholar edited by Rida Sa`ada (Beirut: al-Dar al-Alimyah, 1983). Arabic. (pdf) According to Prof. Recep Duran this book is not as some has claimed a judgement between Ibn Rushd and Ghazali but in fact between Ghazali and the philosophers (namely Ibn Sina -and his followers- and to a lesser degree al-Farabi). For additional information see my correspondence with Prof. Duran JIP vol2.
  • Secondary Source: Schmölders, August, and al-Ghazzali. 1842. Essai sur les écoles philsophiques chez les Arabes, et notamment sur la doctrine d'Algazzali. Paris: Firmin Didot freres. (pdf) googlebooks


  • Griffel, F., "Al-Ghazali", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2007 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) for a detailed overview of al-Ghazali's positions on philosophy. (link)
  • Griffel, F. 2006, "MS London, British Library Or. 3126: An Unknown Work by al-Ghazali on  Metaphysics and Philosophical Theology." Journal of Islamic Studies 17 (2006):1-42: (PDF)
  • Griffel, F. 2005, "Taqlid of the Philosopher's: Al-Ghazali's Initial Accusations in his Tahafut" In Gunther, Sebastian; Ideas, Images, And Methods of Portrayal: Insights into Classical Arabic Literature and Islam, (Leiden: Brill, 2005) pp. 273-296 (PDF)
  • Macdonald, D. B. 1936, The Meanings of the Philosophers by al-GhazzaliIsis, Vol. 25, No. 1. (May, 1936), pp. 9-15. (PDF)
  • Macdonald, D. B. 1937, Note on "The Meanings of the Philosophers by al-Ghazzali". Isis, Vol. 27, No. 1. (May, 1937), pp. 9-10. (PDF)
  • Hourani, G. F. 1958, “The Dialogue Between al Ghazali and the Philosophers on the Origin of the World,” Muslim World 48:183–191, 308–314. (PDF) (Part I).
  • Hourani, G. F. 1976, “Ghazali on the Ethics of Action,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 96: 69–88.
  • Montada, J. P. Ibn Rushd Vs. Al-Ghazali a reconsideration of a Polemic.  (PDF)
  • Tomeh, G. J.  The Climax of a Philosophical Conflict in Islam. (PDF)
  • Kogan, B. Ghazali and Averroes on Necessary connection and Miracles.   (PDF)
  • Lohr, C.H., 1965, “Logica Algazelis: Introduction and Critical Text,” Traditio 21:223–90. (PDF)
    • A translation of the Latin text in English is provided by Prof. Longeway. (link)
  • Marmura, M. E. 1959, “The Logical Role of the Argument from Time in the Tahafut's Second Proof for the World's Pre-Eternity,” Muslim World 49: 306–14.
  • Marmura, M. E. 1965, “Ghazali and Demonstrative Science,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 3:183–204.
  • Marmura, M. E. 1968–69, “Ghazali on Ethical Premises,” The Philosophical Forum 4: 393–403.
  • Marmura, M. E. 1981, “Al-Ghazali's Second Causal Theory in the 17th Discussion of His Tahafut,” in Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism, P. Morewedge (ed.), Delmar (N.Y.): Caravan Books, pp. 85–112.
  • Marmura, M. E. 1995, “Ghazalian Causes and Intermediaries,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 115: 89–100.


  More on Ghazali and philosophy see a list by F. Sezgin. The above information was expanded based on bibliographic entries from articles above and mainly Griffel's SEP entry. 



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