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Imam Ghazali's Oeuvre

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Main: Oeuvre:

Ghazalian Oeuvre

A listing arranged by subject

Know O kind reader, as with any author of his period and fame, many of al-Ghazali's works are missing or mislabeled; error prone copies and a host of technical problems brought about by the ravages of time and tumultuous political climate, not to mention scrupulous "publishers" have had their effect on what we have today. It is without a doubt that the Ghazalian corpus fared better than many of his contemporaries. fortuna non omnibus aeque.

  • Jurisprudence (al-fiqhi wa isulihi): Click here for a detailed listing

    • al-Taʿliqa (The commentary) [M:1; A:1]
    • al-Mankhul min taʿliqat al-iul. [M:2; A:2; GAL. no 52; K:11936]
    • al-Basiṭ (The explained) [M:3, A:3, GAL no 48].
    • al-Wasiṭ fi al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the [jurisprudential] school [M:4; A:4; GAL I, 424]
    • al-Wajiz fi fiqh al-imam al-shafiʿi. [M:5?, 36; A:36; GAL I, 424; K:14191]
    • Khulaṣat al-mukhtaṣr wa naqawat al-muʿtaṣr (The nector of the summary and the clarified pulp) [M:6]
    • Kitab tahẓib al-uṣul (Pruning on legal theory)
    • Ghayat al-ghawr fi diryat al-dawar (On the question of divorce) [M:15, 58]
    • al-Mustaṣfa min ʿilm al-uṣul. (The clarified from legal theory). [M:59 ; A:63; GAL,S. I. 754, no 51; K:11936]
    • Asas al-qiyas (Foundation of analogical [reasoning]). [M:67; A:61]
    • Fatawy al-Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazali)
  • Sufism & Ethics (al-taṣuwaf wal akhlaq) - click here for a detailed listing

    • Mizan al-ʿamal, (Criterion of Action) [M:21; A:21]
    • Iḥyaʾ ʿulum al-din (Revival of Islamic Knowledge) - [M:28; A:28; GAL, I, 422, S., I, 748] See Ihyaʾ page.
    • al-Imalaʾ ʿala Ishkalat al-Iḥyaʾ (Notes on Iḥyaʾs Questionables) [M:61]
    • Bidayat al-hidayah (Beginning of Guidance). [M:35; A:35]
    • al-ʾAraʿbin fi iṣul al-din (the Forty fundamentals of religion) [M:38, 95; A:38; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]
    • Kimiya-ye saʿadah (Alchemy of Happiness) [M:45; A:45] - Persian
    • Ayah al-wald al-muḥib (O' Beloved Son) [M:46; A:46; GAL, I, 423; K:6010] - Persian
    • Naṣiḥat al-muluk (Counseling Kings). [M:47; A:47; GAL, I, 423 no 30 & S., I, 750] - Persian
    • Zad akhart (Provision for the hereafter) [M:48] - Persian
    • al-Munqidh min al-ḍalal (Rescuer from Error). [M:56; A:56]
    • Sir al-ʿalamian wa kashf maʾ fi al-darian (Secret of the two worlds and uncovering what is two abodes) [M:60]
    • Minhaj al-ʿabidin (Methodology for the Worshipers) [M:64]

  • Theology (ʿilm al-Kalam wa iṣul al-din): - Click here for details

    • al-Mustaẓhiri or Fadaʾih al-baṭiniyya wa faḍaʾil al-mustaẓhiriyya (Infamies of the Batinies) [M:22; A:22; GAL, S., I, 747, no 23a]
    • Ḥujat al-ḥaq (Proof of the Truth) [M:23]
    • al-Iqtiṣad fil- ʿitiqad (Median in Belief). [M:24; A:25]
    • al-Risala al-qudsia (The Jerusalem Epistle). [M:25; A:26, 133]
    • Mufaṣil al-khilaf (Clarifer of the Disagreement) [M:31]
    • Qawaṣim al-baṭinyah awa jawab al-masaʾil al-ʾarbaʿ al-lati saʾalaha al-baṭiniya bi-hamadhan (Backbreakers of the Esoterics -aka- Answer to the Four Questions that the Esoterics Queried in Hamadan) [M:32]
    • al-Maqṣad al-ʾasna fi sharah ʾasmaʾ Allahu al-husna (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names) [M:33; A:33; K:7475, 12790]
    • Jawahir al-qurʾān wa duraruh (Jewels of the Qurʾān and its Pearls). [M:37; A:37; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]
    • Fayaṣl al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-l-zandaqa (The Criterion of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief) [M:43; A:43; GAL, S., I, 747 no 13]
    • Mishkat al-anwar (The Niche of Light). [M:52; A:52, 257, 258; GAL S., I, 751]
    • Iljam al-ʿawamm ʿan ʿilm al-kalam (Warding off the Masses from Sciences of Theology) [M:63; A:71; GAL. S: I, pp.746-747 no 11 & 12; K:1129]
    • Al-ḥikmah fi makhluqat illah (Wisdom in God's Creation) [M:74; A:81; GAL no 43]
    • Qanun al-ta'wil (Methodology of Interpretation) [M:162; A:162]
  • Philosophy and Logic (falsafa wal maniq):  - Click here for more details

    • al-Muntakhal fi al-jadal, (The elect in Dialectics) [M:7; A:7; K:13089]
    • Maqaṣid al-falasifah (Aims of Philosophers) [M:17; A:16; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 755]
    • Tahafut al-falasifa (Incoherence of philosophers). [M:16; A:17; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 754]
    • Miʿyar al-ʿilm fi fan al-maniq (Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic) [M:18; A:18]
    • Miḥak al-naẓar fi al-manṭiq (Touchstone of Reasoning in Logic) [M:20; A:20]
    • al-Maḍnun bihi ʿala ghyar ahlihi (On the Soul) [M:39; A:39; K:12214, 13243]
    • al-Qisṭas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance) [M:42; A:42; GAL, S., I, 749, no 28]
    • Maʿarij al-qudus fi madarij maʿrifat al-Nafs (Ascent to the Divine through the path of self-knowledge) [M:76; A:76; GAL, I, 426 no 64a & 64g, S., I, 751]

  • Other Works:  - Kindly Click here for detailed information

    • Maktubat imam ghazālī (Correspondences of Imam Ghazālī) [M:325] =? Faḍaʾilul al-anam min rasaʾili ḥujjat al-Islam. [M:346; A:346] Persian
    • Majmuʿt Rasiʾl al-Imam al-Ghazālī - collection of the smaller works (treatises and epistles)





NOTE: This page utilizes Gentium font which is a open source (free) font. The numbers listed above in square brackets refer to M = Bouyges, Maurice. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-ghazali (Algazel). Edited by Michel Allard. Beirut: L'Institue de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth, 1959; A = Badwai, 'Abd al-Rahman, Mu'allafat al-Ghazali. 2nd ed. Kuwait: Wakalat al-Mutbu'at, 1977- numbers as listed. The links are provided to the individual page in Bouyges or Badawi. The GAL listing is given below. The following numbers are offered as mentioned in Bouyges 1959: Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen litteratur. 2 vols. plus 3 suppl. vols., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1937-42, Second edition: 1943-45.   [GAL, S]   GAL, I: 534-546 (PDF: 1943); S, I: 744-756. (PDF: 1937). K‚tip «elebi. Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum ... ad codicum Vindobonensium Parisiensium et Berolinensis fidem primum edidit Latine vertit et commentario indicibusque instruxit Gustavus Fluegel.  Arabic text with Latin trans. by Gustav Lebrecht Fluegel. 7 vols., Leipzig: Published for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1835-1858.  [K]


This above is NOT (by any means) a comprehensive list of al-Ghazali's Oeuvre but a selective sample of what is available. According to al-Zabidi al-Ghazali wrote 70 works of various sizes from multi volume works to smaller pamphlet size of these 23 were printed. For more information on a more complete list of his work see the bibliography page. I have a graph (click here) of the ghazalian oeuvre according to scholars (Boyges and Hourani) who wrote on the topic. Do note that a work of this magnitude is liable to have some errors that may have crept into it. Although my ego assures me that I have not made any mistakes considering the time that I put into it. So if you see a glaring error or have strong opinions, supported by fact or argument, about any work listed above or missing do let me know. Of course I always prefer a pat on the back to a slap in the face. Just in case you are looking for the old page here it is!


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