a virtual online library

The Known Ghazalian Corpus: an overview

Know O kind reader, as with any author of his period and fame, many of al-Ghazālī’s works are missing or mislabeled; error prone copies and a host of technical problems brought about by the ravages of time and tumultuous political climate, not to mention scrupulous “publishers” have had their effect on what we have today. It is without a doubt that the Ghazalian corpus fared better than many of his contemporaries. fortuna non omnibus aeque.



  • Jurisprudence (al-fiqhi wa isulihi): [for a more detailed listing see JLT]
    • al-Taʿliqa (The commentary) [M:1; A:1]
    • al-Mankhul min taʿliqat al-iṣul. [M:2; A:2; GAL. no 52; K:11936]
    • al-Basi (The explained) [M:3, A:3, GAL no 48].
    • al-Wasi fi al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the [jurisprudential] school [M:4; A:4; GAL I, 424]
    • al-Wajiz fi fiqh al-imam al-shafiʿi. [M:5?, 36; A:36; GAL I, 424; K:14191]
    • Khulaat al-mukhtar wa naqawat al-muʿtar (The nector of the summary and the clarified pulp) [M:6]
    • Kitab tahib al-uul (Pruning on legal theory)
    • Ghayat al-ghawr fi diryat al-dawar (On the question of divorce) [M:15, 58]
    • al-Mustafa min ʿilm al-uul. (The clarified from legal theory). [M:59 ; A:63; GAL,S. I. 754, no 51; K:11936]
    • Asas al-qiyas (Foundation of analogical [reasoning]). [M:67; A:61]
    • Fatawy al-Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazālī)
  • Sufism & Ethics (al-tauwaf wal akhlaq) :  [for a more detailed listing see SE]
    • Mizan al-ʿamal, (Criterion of Action) [M:21; A:21]
    • Iyaʾ ʿulum al-din (Revival of Islamic Knowledge) – [M:28; A:28; GAL, I, 422, S., I, 748] See Ihyaʾ entry below for more information.
    • al-Imalaʾ ʿala Ishkalat al-Iyaʾ (Notes on Iyaʾs Questionables) [M:61]
    • Bidayat al-hidayah (Beginning of Guidance). [M:35; A:35]
    • al-ʾAraʿbin fi iul al-din (the Forty fundamentals of religion) [M:38, 95; A:38; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]
    • Kimiya-ye saʿadah (Alchemy of Happiness) [M:45; A:45] – Persian
    • Ayah al-wald al-muib (O’ Beloved Son) [M:46; A:46; GAL, I, 423; K:6010] – Persian
    • Naiat al-muluk (Counseling Kings). [M:47; A:47; GAL, I, 423 no 30 & S., I, 750] – Persian
    • Zad akhart (Provision for the hereafter) [M:48] – Persian
    • al-Munqidh min al-alal (Rescuer from Error). [M:56; A:56]
    • Sir al-ʿalamian wa kashf maʾ fi al-darian (Secret of the two worlds and uncovering what is two abodes) [M:60]
    • Minhaj al-ʿabidin (Methodology for the Worshipers) [M:64]
  • Theology (ʿilm al-Kalam wa iul al-din): [for a more detailed listing see Theology]
    • al-Mustahiri or Fadaʾih al-bainiyya wa faaʾil al-mustahiriyya (Infamies of the Batinies) [M:22; A:22; GAL, S., I, 747, no 23a]
    • ujat al-aq (Proof of the Truth) [M:23]
    • al-Iqtiad fil- ʿitiqad (Median in Belief). [M:24; A:25]
    • al-Risala al-qudsia (The Jerusalem Epistle). [M:25; A:26, 133]
    • Mufail al-khilaf (Clarifer of the Disagreement) [M:31]
    • Qawaim al-bainyah awa jawab al-masaʾil al-ʾarbaʿ al-lati saʾalaha al-bainiya bi-hamadhan (Backbreakers of the Esoterics -aka- Answer to the Four Questions that the Esoterics Queried in Hamadan) [M:32]
    • al-Maqad al-ʾasna fi sharah ʾasmaʾ Allahu al-husna (The best means in explaining Allah’s Beautiful Names) [M:33; A:33; K:7475, 12790]
    • Jawahir al-qurʾān wa duraruh (Jewels of the Qurʾān and its Pearls). [M:37; A:37; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]
    • Fayal al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-l-zandaqa (The Criterion of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief) [M:43; A:43; GAL, S., I, 747 no 13]
    • Mishkat al-anwar (The Niche of Light). [M:52; A:52, 257, 258; GAL S., I, 751]
    • Iljam al-ʿawamm ʿan ʿilm al-kalam (Warding off the Masses from Sciences of Theology) [M:63; A:71; GAL. S: I, pp.746-747 no 11 & 12; K:1129]
    • Al-ikmah fi makhluqat illah (Wisdom in God’s Creation) [M:74; A:81; GAL no 43]
    • Qanun al-ta’wil (Methodology of Interpretation) [M:162; A:162]
  • Philosophy and Logic (falsafa wal maniq):  [for a more detailed listing see PL]
    • al-Muntakhal fi al-jadal, (The elect in Dialectics) [M:7; A:7; K:13089]
    • Maqaid al-falasifah (Aims of Philosophers) [M:17; A:16; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 755]
    • Tahafut al-falasifa (Incoherence of philosophers). [M:16; A:17; GAL, I, 425, S., I, 754]
    • Miʿyar al-ʿilm fi fan al-maniq (Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic) [M:18; A:18]
    • Miak al-naar fi al-maniq (Touchstone of Reasoning in Logic) [M:20; A:20]
    • al-Manun bihi ʿala ghyar ahlihi (On the Soul) [M:39; A:39; K:12214, 13243]
    • al-Qisas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance) [M:42; A:42; GAL, S., I, 749, no 28]
    • Maʿarij al-qudus fi madarij maʿrifat al-Nafs (Ascent to the Divine through the path of self-knowledge) [M:76; A:76; GAL, I, 426 no 64a & 64g, S., I, 751]
  • Other Works: [for a more detailed listing see Other]
    • Maktubat imam ghazālī (Correspondences of Imam Ghazālī) [M:325] =? Faaʾilul al-anam min rasaʾili ujjat al-Islam. [M:346; A:346] Persian
    • Majmuʿt Rasiʾl al-Imam al-Ghazālī – collection of the smaller works (treatises and epistles)

NOTE: This page utilizes Gentium font which is a open source (free) font. The numbers listed above in square brackets refer to M = Bouyges, Maurice. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-ghazali (Algazel). Edited by Michel Allard. Beirut: L’Institue de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth, 1959; A = Badwai, ‘Abd al-Rahman, Muʾallafat al-Ghazali. 2nd ed. Kuwait: Wakalat al-Mutbu’at, 1977- numbers as listed. The links are provided to the individual page in Bouyges or Badawi. The GAL listing is given below. The following numbers are offered as mentioned in Bouyges 1959: Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen litteratur. 2 vols. plus 3 suppl. vols., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1937-42, Second edition: 1943-45.   [GAL, S] GAL, I: 534-546 (PDF: 1943); S, I: 744-756. (PDF: 1937). Kâtip Çelebi. Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum … ad codicum Vindobonensium Parisiensium et Berolinensis fidem primum edidit Latine vertit et commentario indicibusque instruxit Gustavus Fluegel.  Arabic text with Latin trans. by Gustav Lebrecht Fluegel. 7 vols., Leipzig: Published for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1835-1858.  [K]

Disclaimers: This above is NOT (by any means) a comprehensive list of al-Ghazali’s Oeuvre but a selective sample of what is available. According to al-Zabidi al-Ghazali wrote 70 works of various sizes from multi volume works to smaller pamphlet size of these 23 were printed. For more information on a more complete list of his work see the bibliography page. I have a graph (click here) of the ghazalian oeuvre according to scholars (Boyges and Hourani) who wrote on the topic. Do note that a work of this magnitude is liable to have some errors that may have crept into it. Although my ego assures me that I have not made any mistakes considering the time that I put into it. So if you see a glaring error or have strong opinions, supported by fact or argument, about any work listed above or missing do let me know. Of course I always prefer a pat on the back to a slap in the face. Just in case you are looking for the old page here it is!