REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
VOL. IV - PART II
Chapter 7. Will, intention and Truthfulness 319
Actions relating to intention 321
Rewards of sincere intention 324
THE REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
The Book of Constructive Virtues
WILL OR INTENTION
Will has got two elements in it-knowledge and action.' Knowledge comes before action as it is the basis of action and action comes after knowledge. Action is the fruit of knowledge and its branch. Action is not complete without three things-Knowledge, will and strength. Man does not will to do a thing which he does not known and so knowledge is necessary for an action. Again he does not do a thing even if he knows it unless he has the will to do it. So will or intention is also necessary. Again will is not sufficient to do a thing. Power or strength is also necessary to implement will. How many people there are who cannot eat for want of their strength even though they have got will to eat. So knowledge, will and strength are necessary for an action. First knowledge and then will and then action follow one after another. Without knowledge of a thing, a man does not intend to have that thing. Without will or intention, there is no movement of physical organs to do that thing. So action is the fruit of will and will is the fruit of knowledge.
Number of Intention or will. A man may have no other intention than a single one to do a thing. Again he may have different intentions to do that thing. If a man sees a tiger, he at once flees away from it. This, fleeing is the only intention in order to ward off its attack and injury. This knowledge enkindles in him a desire to flee and that desire gives movement to his limbs to flee. This is his sole intention and there is no other intention mixed with it.
ONE WHOSE INTENTION IS NEXT WORLD
He who has made his sole object to get happiness in the next world does all his deeds in this world with that object alone and he has got no other objecttin his worldly deeds. He thinks that the food of soul is worship of God. The object of worship of God is to free the soul from diseases, to keep it alive and to make it healthy and better to gain happiness in the next world. The object of divine worship is to get relish of the sight of God. He will not attain this object unless he loves God and dies in that condition. He will not get the love of God unless he attains knowledge about Him. He will not get His knowledge unless he remembers Him
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too often. So the attainment of love of God is the result of constant remembrance of God and thought about Him and His works. Again mind does not turn to His constant remembrance unless it is free from the worldly thoughts and anxieties. Mind does not find time from worldly anxieties unless it is free from worldly greed and temptations, and unless it wills to do good and refrains from evil. A man likes to do good and refrains from evil when he knows that his fortune in the next world is linked with the good deeds he does in this world just as a wise man likes to take bitter pill to get cured from a fatal disease. When linking of mind is acquired along with knowledge, he acquires strength of mind to do good works and then he is habituated to do good works and it becomes then difficult for him to come out of them. Similar is the case with a man who is habituated to evil deeds. Therefore it is said that habit is the second nature.
He whose object is the next worldly happiness should therefore be habituated to clear up his mind for constant remembrance of God. This state of mind cannot be created unless one gives up sins and takes up to virtuous deeds with the help of bodily limbs, because mind is affected by the movements of bodily organs and the bodily organs also are affected by the state of mind and thus there is a close connection between body and mind. Mind is just like a ruler and bodily organs are like servants. So bodily organs are subservient to mind. For this the Holy Prophet of loam said : There is a clot of blood in body. When it is sound the whole body is sound. He also said : 0 God, do good to the ruler and the ruled. Here the ruler means soul or mind. God also said in the Quran : Allah will not accept its blood or meat but He will accept from you Taqwa (meaning God=fear). That is the attribute of mind.
The object of God-worship is to change mind and the propensities of mind, and not to change the bodily limbs. So dou''.t.think that the object of Sajda or prostration is only to place the forehead on the ground, but its real object is to habituate the sense of humility in mind. Whose finds humility of mind, his bodily limbs also assume an humble attitude. This humility of mind and the humble attitude of the bodily limbs make the attribute of modesty perfect. If the mind of anybody becomes soft on seeing an orphan, kindness in his mind is more enkindled if his hand passes over his head. For this reason, action without
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intention is basically not fruitful or beneficial, because if a man's hand touches the head of an orphan unmindfully, softness of his mind does not increase and its effect does not fall in mind. Therefore God- worship without Niyyat (intention) or without application of mind brings no reward while Niyyat followed by action brings reward. The Holy Prophet said : There is written one reward for one who intended to do a good deed but could not translate it into action. The object of cow or animal sacrifice is not to shed blood but to turn away the mind from the temptations of the world for incurring the pleasure of Allah. This reward is attained owing to the object of Sacrifice. For this reason the Holy Prophet said: There are people at Medina who shared, with us the rewards of Jihad (holy war) although they did not actally join it. The reason is that they had pious intention to join it but could not do so owing to satisfactory reason.
ACTIONS RELATING TO INTENTION These actions can mainly be divided into three classes Sinful actions, pious actions and lawful actions.
(1) Sinful actions. If the intention is good, a sinful act does not turn to a virtuous act. If you backbite a man to please another, if you give to a beggar the food of another person, if you make gift of illegal property to construct a mosque, bridge or such charitable object, you will not absolve yourself from the sinful act although your intention is good and pious. To intend to do a pious action with an illegal thing is also sin. If he does out of ignorance, he will be guilty of ignorance as acquisition of learning is compulsory upon both males and, females. The Holy Prophet said: An ignorant man cannot raise the plea of innocent.
(2) Pious actions. If there is no pious or good intention in a good act, there is no reward. If there is any other intention but to please God in a devotional act, it is a sinful act, but if there are many intentions including one to please God, rewards also multiply. For instance, to keep sitting in a mosque is a good act but it admits of many intentions - (1) to hope for sight of God as mosque is considered as a house of God where God can be seen, for the Holy Prophet said : He who keeps sitting in a mosque, meets with God. (2) to wait for the next prayer, for the Prophet said that he who waits for prayer will get the same reward as that of a man who has prayed, (3) to keep the bodily organs from
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sinful acts. (4) to concentrate all thoughts upon Allah, (5) to be engaged in the remembrance of Allah. (6) to enjoin good works and prohibit evils, (7) to get benefit from those who fear Allah. So there might be many good intentions in a pious act and rewards also increase according to the number of such intentions.
Lawful actions. In lawful act, rewards can be increased according to the number of intentions. He suffers much who is unmindful of this fact. The Prophet.said : There is account for what is lawful and there is punishment for what unlawful. He also said : People will be asked on the resurrection day for everything, even why he applied antimony to his eyes, why he muddled the earth with his fingers, why he touched the things of his brother. He said : He applies scent for the sake when Allah will come on the Resurrection Day with such a fragrance which will be more scented than musk. He who applies it for other than Allah will come on the Resurrection Day with the stench more than that of a dead animal. So application of scent is lawful, but intention therefor is necessary. Lawful things are innumerable and it is not possible to count these intentions. A pious man said I think it good to have intentions in everything eating, drinking sleeping, etc. To intend to attain nearness to God in these matters is possible, as these things are necessary for the upkeep of the body. If a man takes food with the intention of bringing fear of God in mind in God-worship, intercourses with his wife to preserve his religion and to give pleasure to the mind of his wife and also to have a pious son, he does true worship of Allah by his food and marriage.
He whose sole object is the next world does not need with obstruction from his food and marriage. Allah sees his mind and intention. He says : He does not utter a word but near which there is not a warner-50:18. A pious man said : -1 wrote a letter and intended to have the ink soaked on placing it on the wall of my neighbour and actually had it thus soaked. Thereafter some one from above said : You will know tomorrow what wrong action you have done by doing this act. The great saint Hazrat Hassan Basari said : A man will come on the Resurrection Day conjoined with another person and say : There is God between you and me. He will say : By God, I don't know you. He will say : You have taken a piece of thread of my cloth. These things pierce the hearts of God fearing men.
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It is reported that the Prophet Zakaria was raising an earthen wall as a labourer for some person. He used to eat the earnings of his own hand. He began to take his food but when a person begged of him something to eat, he did not give it to him. The people around him were surprised to see the action of the Prophet as he was too much reported for his generosity and asceticism. He then said : I work as a labourer of some persons. They gave me this bread in order to gain strength and do their work. If he- had taken food with me, it would not have been sufficient for him, nor for me. By that, I would not have been able to complete their work. The man who has got clear insight takes care of even these small things with the help of Divine light. The great saint Sufiyan said : If a man calls another to take share in his food without really intending to part anything of his food, he will be guilty of hypocrisy even if the man partakes of his food, Had he known his intention, he would not have partaken of his food. So examine your intention in all affairs and do not do any action without intention.
MEANING OF INTENTION
Meaning of Intention is not only expression by mouth but also will to that expression. It is the liking of mind for that-for which expression is used by the month. When there is no liking or intention of mind, mere verbal expression means nothing. So Niyyat or intention in prayer by only verbal expression without application of mind is meaningless. It is just like the expression,l, love so and so without actually meaning the same. Arran turns towards one whom he believes to be his friend. There are many causes for willingness or unwillingness of mind and causes vary according to. the different conditions of man. When a man desires to marry a girl in order to satisfy his carnal desire, he can not have the will to get a son by copulation with her. The reason of copulation is the satisfaction of his canal desire, and not to have a child, If he says by mouth "I copulate with you to have a son"; it will be falsehood. It is not his word of mind, but of mouth, For this reason, some of the former saints did not do anything without forming a definite niyyat or intention for that.
It is reported that the great saint Ibn Sirin did not pray Janaja prayer over the deadbody of Hazrat Hasan Basari as he said that the niyyat of Janaja did not as yet arise in his mind. Ahmed-bSolaiman was a reputed learned man of Kufa. When he died, the
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great saint Sufiyan Saori was requested to say his funereal prayer. He said : Had I had the intention, I would have performed it. Once the great saint Taus was requested to pray for the people, He said : When I will, I shall do it. These saints knew that Niyyat is not the only expression by mouth but it is also a desire of mind, a flow of current from Allah. Sometimes it is easy and sometimes it becomes difficult. It is true that the intention of the man in whose heart the affairs of the religion are easy becomes easy for doing good deeds, as his mind keeps inclined to good things for most part of the times, but the intention of the man whose mind keeps inclined to evil deeds does not become so easy for doing goods deeds, even the obligatory duties also become difficult to him.
Different intentions in God-worship. Man may have different intentions in divine service. Some do good deeds out of hope of getting happiness in Paradise. If they do these deeds with the sole intention of pleasing God and to declare His glory and majesty and with no other intention, their intention is said to be pure and unadulterated. If one does good deeds for satisfying carnal desire with Hurs, he will get it in Paradise. If he does this to meet with Allah. he will be blessed with His sight. The most honourable and glorious are they who do good deeds out of love for Him ind out of a desire to be blessed with His love and sight. The ;puran praises them in the following words : Rather they call their Lord morning and evening only for His pleasure. They will gel J'ewards according to their intentions. When they will be blessed with His sight, they will think the sight of the beautiful Hurs very little.
REWARDS OF PURE INTENTION
The Holy Quran says: They were not ordered except to worship Allah, being sincere to Him along. It again says : Behold, reli*ion is only for Allah (39:5) He also says : Let one who hopes to meet his Lord do good works and do not associate anyone in the service of his Lord-18:110. The Prophet said : The heart of a Muslim does not play treachery in three things to work sincerely for Allah, to give admonition to the ruler and to remain united. He also said: Allah says : Ikhlas or to work sincerely for Allah is a fidden treasure out of My hidden treasures. I put it in the heart of one whom I love. He also said : The fountain of wisdom flows in his heart who worships Allah sincerely for 40 days. The Holy
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Prophet said that three classes of persons who did not do good works sincerely for Him but for other purposes will go to Hell inspite of their ostensible good works a learned man, a benevolent man and a warrior.
There is a story in the anecdotes of the children of Israel. A saint had at his credit divine service for long long year. One day some people were worshipping a tree besides Allah, At this, the saint Got angry and went to cut it with an axe. In the mean time, the devil came in the form of an old man and asked him : Where are you going? The saint said : I am going to cut off this tree. The devil said: Are you in this thought? You have come down to do this leaving aside your Divine service? The saint said : This work is also included in Divine service. The devil said : I will not permit you to cut down this tree. At this he fell down upon the saint but the latter overpowered him, threw him down on the ground and sat upon his chest. The devil said : Desist from this action or I will kill you. At this he let off the devil who said to him : 0 saint, Allah has taken over this responsibility from you. He has not made it compulsory for you. You yourself do not worship this tree and the affairs of others have not developed on you. This is the duty of Prophets. Had he willed, He would have certainly sent a Prophet to the inhabitants of this place and ordered him to cut down this tree. Then the saint said : To cut down this tree is also a part of my duty.
The saint then fell upon the devil and threw him away and got on his chest. The devil again having been discomfitted said to him : There is an affair between you and me which is good and beneficial for you. The saint asked him what it was. The devil said : Let me be secure and then I will tell you of it. Thereafter he let him off and the devil said to him : You are a poor man, you have got no property. You are a burden upon your friends and relatives. Perhaps you wish to get more honour than your brethren, to get more sympathy from your religious men and you do not want to depend on the people The saint said : Yes I hope for that. The devil said : In that case, turn away from this affair. I will place two dinars every night near your head. When you will get up at dawn. You will take them and spend them for you and your family and gift a portion to your brothers. This act of yours will be more beneficial to you and the Muslim public than the cutting down of this tree. This tree was planted and there will be
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no good if you cut down this tree. At this, the saint began to ponder and said : This old man has spoken the truth. I have not been ordered to cut down this tree by God. I will incur no sin if I do not cut down this tree. Then he turned his mind from this action of cutting down the tree.
Thereafter the saint went to his place of worship and spent the night. At dawn, he found two dinars near his head and took them. Next day also, this happened. This continued for three days. On the fourth day, he did not find the dinars near his head became very much enraged, and took his journey to cut down the tree. The devil came to him in the form of an old man and said Where are you going? He said : I am going to cut down the tree. The devil said : By God, you will not be able to cut it down, you will also not find your way to go there. Thereupon the saint fell upon him but the saint became just like a sparrow between his ..two legs. The devil then sat upon his chest and said : If you want to'live, get away from here or else I will cut you to pieces. The saint being helpless looked to and fro and said : 0 gentle man, you have defeated me, Let me now go The devil said : Question me now how you have first overpowered me and thereafter I have overpowered you. The devil said : At first you became enraged for the sake of Allah alone and your sole intention was to get success In the hereafter. So God make me subservient to you. But now you have become engaged for your worldly propedsities and desires and so I overpowered you.
This story shows how a man with a pure and unadulterated intention can win and how a man with a motive other than that can lose and be overpowered. This proves the Quranic word Except those who work sincerely for Allah. For this reason the great saint Maruf Karkhi used to beat himself and says : Take recourse to form intention, you will then get salvation. The pure soul Eakub said : He who keeps his good deeds copcealed as he keeps his sins conceded is a man of pure intention. Solaiman said
He is blessed who takes one step in the way of Allah. The second Caliph Hazrat Omar wrote to Imam Abu Musa Ashari : Allah is sufficient for a man whose intention is pure. A certain saint wrote to his brother : Make your intention pure, then a small amount of action will be sufficient for you. Ayub Saktania said : To make intention pure in an action is more difficult than the action itself. The saint Motarref said : He who is pure will be made pure. A
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man was asked in dream : How have you seen your action? He said : I saw the action which I did for Allah. Even I saw the reward of a walnut seed I removed from the path way.
The great saint Ihya-b-Muaz said: Ikhlas or sincerity separates an action from its faults as milk separates itself from urine and blood. There is a story that a man used to wear the dress of women and join the ceremonies of marriage and other festivals where women gathered together. One day he just joined a gathering of some women. It was then noticed that a diamond of a woman was missing and the women raised hue and cry and said : Shut up the doors. We shall search for the diamond. Thereafter they began to search one by one. When the turn of the female-dressed man came, there was a woman with him. He called Allah sincerely and said : I will never do such an act if I get acquitted this time. Immediately then the diamond was found with the woman who was with him. They then cried aloud Leave the rest. We have found out the diamond.
There is the story of a saint who said: I was travelling by sea for Jihad or holy war. Some one of us wanted to sell his bag and I thought that I should purchase this bag and sell it for a higher price in a city. Then I purchased it but dreamt in that night that two persons got down from heaven and one of them said to the other : Write down the names of the warriors in the way of Allah. The other said : So and so came out only to take a journey. So and so made Jihad only for fame. So and so came to make merchandise. So and so came out only for the sake of Allah. I at once exclaimed : 0 Allah, I have not come out to make merchandise. I have got no such commodities, I have come out for Jihad. Then the other person retorted : 0 man, you intended to make profit after purchasing a bag yesterday. Thereafter I wept bitterly and said : Don't enroll me among the merchants. The man said to his companion : Write, so and so came out as a warrior in the way of Allah. Then he purchased a bag for profit.
The result then rests on Allah.
The saint Sarri Sakti said: Your two rakat prayer in solitude is better than your writing 70 to 700 Hadis with Isnad. Some pious man said : Wisdom is like seed, action is like crop and Ikhlas or sincerity is like water for irrigation. Another pious man said : When God becomes displeased with a man, He grants him three things and prohibits him three things. He grants him the
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company of pious men but does not give him benefits from them. He grants him strength to do good deeds but without sincere intentions. He grants him wisdom but without its practical application. The great saint Susi said : Among the actions of a man, Allah desires only his Ikhlas or sincerity.
What is Ikhlas? (Sincere intention). Know it for certain, 0 good readers, that everything remains mixed up with another thing. When it does not remain mixed up with other things, it is said to be pure or unadultered. When any action is done with only one object, it is said to be done with pure intention. Allah says : There is a lesson in a cow. I give you drink from what is in its belly coming out of its dung and blood-milk pure and wholesome for those who drink-16:66Q. The purity of milk means that there is no mixture of blood or excretion in the milk. Purity is opposite to mixture. What is not pure has got mixture therein. Purity in Tauhid or oneness of God admits no partnership in the existence or in the attributes of God. His existence is unique and His attributes also are unique. So uniqueness admits no partnership commonly called Shirk or setting up partner. This purity or uniqueness is external expression of will. When purpose, and will are the same, the action which flows from them is called sincere work. He whose sole purpose is to show to the people, can also be called to possess unadulterated intention. He whose sole purpose is to gain nearness of God is also called a man having pure intention, If a man intends only to have the pleasure of Allah in divine service, he must get rid of the following intentions (1) to have good health in fasting, (2) to give relief from labour in setting free a slave, (3) to recoup health in journey for Haj, (4) to fight for any other purpose than to please God, (5) to pray Tahajjud to guard the family and properties at night, (6) to acquire money or fame by education (7) to acquire money by writing books, (8) to make ablution to make oneself pure or to purify the bodily limbs, (9) to make I'tigaf in mosque in order to get relief from house rent, (10) to give a beggar so that he may not beg again, (11) to do an act to gain name and fame or to have status in society. Such an action done with an intention mixed with the pleasure of Allah is not pure and unadulterated. It will be to setting up a share with Allah, while Allah says : I am free from the partnership of partners. In short, if any intention is mixed with the intention of securing the pleasure of God, it will be shirk or setting up
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partnership with God. He who is immerged in the thoughts of God can find no other motive or intention in his mind in an action. He takes even food and drink just as he feels necessity to make waters or to ease himself from obnoxious things in his belly. He does not feel necessity for food only for food, but for gaining strength to do divine service. If the pangs of hunger is good for him, he does not take food. He takes food only for the bare existence of life. Such a man does everything for God and God alone. The man whose mind turns towards the attainment of the worldly objects cannot have pleasure and perfection in prayer, fasting and other divine acts.
Thus sincerity of purpose is a medicine which breaks the happiness of propensities, cuts the temptations of the world and keeps one engaged in the deeds of the next world. Ikhlas becomes easy for him. It is reported from a pious man that he prayed in the first row in a mosque for thirty years. One day out of some excuse, he prayed in the second row and felt some shame before the people as they saw him praying in the second row. He saw that this was a sign of Riya or show as he wished that the people would have been pleased to see him praying in the first row. This is a very subtle act of show. Those who are unmindful in their prayers will see them fruitless in the next world, as God says And it will be disclosed to them from God which they did not even think of
Allah says : Shall I not inform you of those who will be losers in. their deeds- those whose efforts in the life of this world will be fruitless while they will think that they did good works.
When Hazrat Abu Bakr became the first Caliph, Hazrat Omar was not displeased but rather he became pleased with the fact that the best man was elected, the man who was better than himself. This should be the guiding principle of all learned, educated and pious man.
Some sayings of the sages regarding Ikhlas: The true meaning of Ikhlas is what the Holy Prophet said : The meaning of Ikhlas is to say : Allah is my Lord and to keep firm over what has been ordered by Him. In other words, it is not to worship passions and propensities and not to worship any one except Allah. It is the engage one's thought in Allah keeping away from things other than Allah.
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Things that destroy Ikhlas : There are some evils that destroy Ikhlas. Some are open and some are hidden. (1) Riya or show. It greatly destroys Ikhlas. For instance, a man began to pray quite sincerely for God, but in the midst of his prayers the devil comes to him and says : Some one is looking to your prayer. Pray well, so that they may see your prayer and take you as a great religious man. At this, he becomes humble in prayer. This is open Riya or show. (2) The devil instills in his mind the desire that the people should follow him and therefore instigates him to make his prayer good.
The sage Wahab-b-Monabbah said : I saw written by the side of the Torah 22 wise counsels The religious people of the children of Israel collected them and used to read them. (1) No jewel is more valuable than wisdom. (2) No property is more profitable than patience. (3) No vice is more injurious than anger. (4) No friend is more enchanting than divine service. (5) Nothing is more shameful than ignorance. (6) Nothing is more honourable than God fear. (7) Nothing is more honourable than renunciation of passions. (8) Nothing is more benefiting than pondering. (9) Nothing is more meritorious than forbearance. (10) No guilt is more dishonourable than pride. (11) No medicine is more soothing than mildness. (12) No disease is more painful than foolishness. (13) No emissary is more just than truth. (14) No proof is more instructive than truthfulness. (15) No want is more disgraceful than temptations. (16) No property is more unfortunate than saving. (17) No life is sweeter than health. (18) No livelihood is easier than self abnegation. (19) No divine service is better than modesty: (20) No renunciation is better than self- contentment. (21) No guard is more trustworthy than silence. (22) No unseen thing is nearer than death.
The great sage Mahmmad Ibn Sayyed said : When you seek God with sincerity. He comes to you as a mirror in your hand wherein you can see every wonderful thing of this world and the next world. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : He who has got these four qualities is successful - truthfulness, shame, good conduct and gratefulness. Some pious man said : The learned and the theologians agreed with regard to three things. When these three things are found in a person, he will get salvation and one thing is not made perfect without the help of another - (1) Islam or self surrender freedom from innovation and passion, (2) sincerity in
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divine service and (3) lawful food. The great sage Sahal Tastari was asked : What is the foundation of what we are in? He said Truthfulness, generosity and courage. He was asked : Give us more admonition, He said God-fear, truthfulness shame and lawful food.
TRUTHFULNESS: The Holy Prophet was asked about the means of getting perfection. He replied : Truthfulness in talk and action with sincerity. The man who has got these six things is called Siddiq or a great truthful man. The man who has got one or more of these things is called Sadiq or simple truthful man - (1) truth in talk, (2) truth in will and resolve, (3) truth in promise, (4) truth in fulfilling promise, (5) truth in action, (6) truth in various stages of religion.
(1) Truth in talk. In describing past, present and future events, one must speak the truth, but there are exceptions (1) to bring amicable settlement between two contending parties. (2) to win holy war. (3) and to please wives in case of plurality of wives. In these three cases also, sincerity in intention and good will shall have to be guarded. The Prophet allowed exceptions to truth speaking in these three-cases.
(2) Truth in Intention. It is termed Ikhlas or sincerity of purpose. Such a man moves only for God. Sincerity of purpose d'o'es not remain if it is mixed with temptations or passions. Such a-man may be termed a liar or hypocrite. That is seen in Hadis of the Prophet in which it has been stated that three persons will be asked on the Resurrection Day. Firstly a learned man .will be asked whether he put his learning into practice. He will mention his deeds. God will say to him : You have spoken falsehood as you intended that the people should call you a learned man and so you were called., A sage said : The health of Tauhid lies in truthfulness. God says that He testifies that the hypocrites are liars :'They say that you are the Prophet of God but they do not believe it with their hearts. So their tongue differed from their mind's. Tongue and mind must be the same in case of truthfulness in intention.
(3) Truth in promise. A man may think: If God gives me wealth, I will spend half of it in His way. If I meet with an enemy in the way of God, I will fight with him. If He gives me power of anything, I will administer justice and will not act in party spirit.
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He makes such promises in mind. When these things come to him, he turns back. Hazrat Omar said : The action that you strike my neck is dearer to me than your asking me to rule over a people among whom there is Abu Bakr. He did not accept the reign of Government during the life time of Hazrat Abu Bakr.
(4) Fulfillment of Promise: The fourth claim of truthfulness is fulfillment of promise. God says : There are such people among the believers who fulfill their promise with God-33:23Q. Hazrat Anas reported that his uncle Anas-b-Najar could not join the battle of Badar. This grieved him very much. He said : By God, if He gives me an opportunity of joining a jihad with the Prophet. He will show what I shall do. In the following year when the battle of Uhud occurred he joined it and became a martyr. He received as many as eighty wounds in his body. Then the above mentioned verse was revealed.
The Holy Prophet said: There are four classes of martyrs (1) A believer with sound faith faces the enemy and fulfills his promise till he meets with martyrdom. Then he raised up his hand so high that his cap fell down and he said : To this man, people on the Resurrection Day will look up as such. (2) A believer with sound faith faces the enemy and sees his face injured as if with the thorns of a thorny tree. Then suddenly an arrow pierces him and kills him. He is placed in the second stage. (3) A believer who has got virtues and vices mixed up faces the enemy and fulfills promise with God and is thus killed. (4) A man who has oppressed much on his soul faces the enemy and is killed. Muzahed said : Two men approached the Prophet and said : If God gives us wealth, we shall spend it in charity. When they got it, they did not keep up their promise. For this, the verse was revealed : There are such persons among them who make such promise with God: If He gives us wealth out of kindness, we shall give it in charity and become of the pious men-9:75Q.
(5) Outward behaviour must correspond to inner thought: Another meaning of truthfulness is to make sincere efforts to keep outward conduct and behaviour in consonance with inner thoughts. The inner call must correspond with outward acts. If it does not correspond, show or riya comes in. There are such men who assume humility in prayer and there are such men who stand up in prayer with minds hovering in markets. For this reason the Holy Prophet said : 0 God, make my mind better than
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my outer being and make my outward behaviour good. The saint Atiyyah-b- Abed said : When the inner thoughts and outward behaviours of a believer become the same, God expresses glory for him before the angels and says : This s..rvant of Mine is
(6) Complete progress in religion: This is the highest stage among the stages of religion. It is to keep truth in God-fear, hope, honour, renunciation, contentment, God-reliance, love and other affairs. To this effect, God says : The believers are those who believe in God, His Prophets, and do not entertain any doubt in them and fight with their lives and properties in the way of God. These are they who are truthful - 49:15Q. When the companion Abu Zarr was asked about faith, he mentioned the above verse as the Prophet, being asked, mentioned the above verse. Take one illustration about truthfulness in God-fear. There is no such man who, believing in God and the next world, does not entertain God- fear, but this fear is in name only. It is not the fear of the truthful, For this reason, the Prophet said : I have not seen such a horrible thing as Hell from which a man flees away and falls asleep.
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