REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
Chapter I. Tauba (Repentance) 7
Meaning of Tauba 7 Merits of Tauba . 9
Condition of acceptance of Tauba 19
Conditions of Tauba 37
Medicines for unwillingness of Tauba 47
Chapter 2. Patience and gratefulness 61
Merits of patience 61
Merits of gratefulness 76
God's plan in creation of gold and silver 83
and hoarding of food staffs and ownership of land
Modes of expressing gratefulness 88
Rewards of patience in calamities 108
Chapter 3. Fear and hope 113
Merits of hope 114 What is fear? 121
Causes of evil end 132
Fear of angels, Prophets companions and sages 136
Chapter 4. Poverty and Renunciation 146
Merits of property 147
Causes of lawful begging's 165
Renunciation of the world 167'
Renunciation of the world 180
Chapter 5. Tauhid and Tawakkal 195
What is Tauhid? 197
Freedom of will , 200
Meaning of God-reliance 210
Condition of God-reliance 225
To take medicines not opposed to God-reliance 234
The Book of Constructive Virtues' is the fourth and the last volume of Imam Gazzali's world renowned
master piece Ihya Ulum- id-Din or the Revival of religious learnings. This work is an attempt to
translate the fourth part of the Ihya not too literally but in substance from the original written in
Arabic. It consists of two parts. 'The Book of Constructive Virtues' consists of two parts. Part II
deals with love and attachment, will and intention, meditation and self examination, pondering over
good, death and subsequent events, death of the Prophet and four caliphs and events before and after
Resurrection and Paradise and Hell. A litteral translation is avoided in order to omit the unnecessary
arguments of sects and sub-sects then prevailing in the world and also to omit the sayings of the sages
of less importance. But it should be noted that no verse of the Holy Quran or the Hadis of the Holy
Prophet has been omitted in this translation.
Translations of the other parts of Ihya will soon be out of press very shortly by the grace of Almighty
God with full details of the Ihya and a short life and activities of Imam Gazzali, the greatest thinker
and philosopher of the Muslim world.
I pray to the Almighty Allah that He may guide the people of the world in accordance with the teachings
of the Holy Quran and Sunnah and the spirit in which the Ihya was written by Hujjatul Islam (the Proof
of Islam), a title received by Imam Gazzali and about which it has been said "If all the books of Islam
were destroyed, it would be but a slight loss if only the Ihya of Gazzali were preserved."
Dacca Fazlul Karim October, 1971
THE REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
The Book of Constructive Virtues
MEANING OF TAUBA
Tauba means repentance for a sin by taking promise not to do the same evil again and to return to God.
Repentance is the beginning in the life of a person who intends to walk in the path of religion. It is
the root of the fortune of those who are successful, the first step of a disciple, the key to guidance
to the straight path, the weapon of purification of those who wish to come close to God and a dear
thing of all prophets. So it is no wonder that man will commit sins. Hazrat Adam introduced the rule of
repentance and he repented for the sin he committed in the past. It is necessary for man to return to
God penitently after commission of sins. He who does good deeds is close to God and he who does always
sinful deeds is close to the devil. He who does good deeds after commission of a sin is a real man.'
FOUR PRINCIPLES OF TAUBA
Human nature is mixed up of two elements. Every man has got the nature of angel, nature of man and
nature of devil. He who does always sinful acts keeps connection with the devil. He who does always
good acts keeps connection with angels Nothing can give salvation to a man except the fire of
repentance. So repentance or Tauba has got four cardinal principles.
(1) The fist principle is form of repentance, its limit and its knowledge. It is the bounded duty of a
man to make repentance after sin. If it is sincere, it is accepted.
(2) The second principle is to turn away from sins, to know the major and minor sins, to know the
duties towards God and to men, to know man's progress and retrogression for virtues and vices and to
know the causes of minor sins turning into major sins.
8 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 9
(3) The third principle is to know the conditions of Tauba, search into past sins, expiation of sins
and the classes of those who repent.
(4) The fourth principle is to know the causes of making Tauba and the medicines of persons addicted to
FIRST PRINCIPLE - FORM OF TAUBA,
KNOWLEDGE AND LIMIT
Repentance consists of three elements-knowledge condition and action. Knowledge of Tauba is necessary
for condition, as condition is necessary for action. God promulgated this rule in the physical and
spiritual worlds. Knowledge is necessary for repentance that the harms of sin are very severe. When you
will know it with faith and truth, you will then become repentant for losing an object of love. When
repentance prevails over the mind, another condition arises in mind which is called will or desire. It
has got connection with present, past and future actions. Its connection with the present means that he
wills to give up the sin which he has committed. Its connection with the future means that he becomes
determined to give up to the last stage of his life the sin for which he is to be. separated from his
dear ones. It connection with the past means that he wills to make expiation for not doing an action
which he should have done.
So to know and search for doing good deeds as mentioned above is the first condition. This knowledge
means faith and certainty of belief, as the meaning of faith is to know with truth that sin is
destructive like poison. The certainty of belief means to believe as sure the immutable truths. The
light of this faith is enkindled in the heart when the fire of repentance rises up. As a result his
heart becomes dejected. He becomes then like a person who remains in darkness and then the rays of the
sun shine on him or he sees his beloved if the screen is removed from him.
So knowledge, repentance and determination have got connection with the giving up of sin in the present
and future and repentance of the past sins. If these three elements are united in person in an orderly
manner, it is called Tauba or repentance but most people confine Tauba within repentance and do not
consider the other two elements. The Prophet said: Tauba means repentance. It is such a fire of
repentance as burns the heart and even attacks the back-bone. Hazrat Sahal Tastari said: To change
bad habits into good habits is Tauba. Solitude, silence and eating lawful things are conditions of
perfection of Tauba.
MERITS OF TAUBA
Tauba is Wazeb or compulsory. There are different classes of sojourners of religion. (1) One class are
short-sighted. They cannot cross their blind faith at every step. So the Quran and Sunnah of the
Prophet are necessary for them at every step (2) Another class of sojourners are fortunate. God
expanded their breasts for Islam and they are upon light from their Lards and cross the impregnable
stage of the path with care at the slightest hint. The light of the Quran and faith shines upon their
hearts. A slight hint is sufficient for them owing to the brilliance of light. They know that
repentance is compulsory in order to gain permanenet good fortune and security from permanent ruin. The
meaning of Tauba is to give up sins and to determine to do goocrdeeds.
God says: 0 believers, be repentant to God all together that you may get salvation-24 :31. God says : 0
believers, repent to God with sincere penitance-66 : 8. Sincere penitance means to return to God from
sin in order to inncur pleasure of God in a condition free from doubt. God says: God loves those who
are penitent and pure-2: 220. The Prophet said : A penitent man is dear to God. He who returns from sin
is like one who has got no sin.
The Prophet said: Think that a man went to a vast field with a camel loaded with food and fuel. He
slept there after leaning his head. When he awoke, he did not find his camel there. Then he began to
search for it running to and fro and said after getting tired of hunger and sun: I will go to my former
place to sleep such a sleep that it may cause my death. Then he placed his head upon his hands and
slept there to meet with death. When he awoke, he found his camel standing before him with food and
water. His joy then knew no bounds. God becomes more pleased with the repentance of a believer than his
joy in another narration, the Prophet said: He was beside himself with joy and said in an ecstasy of
joy : I am your Lord and You are my servant.
Hazrat Hasan Basari said: When God accepted the penitance of Adam, the angels blessed him and Gabriel
and Michael came to him and said : 0 Adam, God accepted your repentance and cooled you eyes. Adam said
: 0 Gabriel, what will be my rank if after acceptance of this repentance some questions are asked?
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 11
God then revealed to him : 0 Adam, there will come sorrows and difficulties over your followers and
repentance will be open to them. Whoever among them will repent. I will accept his repentance as I have
accepted yours. Whoever seeks My forgiveness. I will not be miser in accepting his forgiveness as I am
near and accept invocations. 0 Adam, when I shall resurrect the repentant men, they will smile and
enjoy and their repentance will be accepted.
Tauba is compulsory according to the unanimous opinion of the jurists. It means to have knowledge that
sin and disobedience to God are harmful and remove the sinner away from God This appertains to
compulsory faith. Tauba is firm determination to give up sin in the present and future and repentance
for past sins. This shows that Tauba is compulsory.
Question: His Man Got Freedom of Action?
Answer: Man has got freedom of action but it is not opposed to our opinion that everything is the
creation of God and man's freedom of will is also the creation of God. When man wishes, his wish has
been created for him. For instance, God created hand, sound and delicious food. He created in mind this
knowledge that the greed will be pacified by this food. He created also the contrary thought whether it
would be good or injurious if the greed for food is satisfied and whether this kind of food is
agreeable or not. He also created this understanding whether it has got any bar or not. If these causes
are united. there comes the will to take that food. As a result of two conflicting thoughts and the
greed for food, will comes in and that is called freedom of will. When all the elements are fulfilled,
there comes will. When God creates the will and makes it firm. He allows his sound hand to extend
towards food, as the unification of will and strength leads compulsorily to action. These two things,
will and strength, are the creations of God.
Out of these creation, one thing is guided to another according to a well arranged plan created also by
God. There is no change of God's plan. He does not move the hand to an well-arranged writing, till He
creates strength in it, till He gives it life and till He creates firm will. He does not raise up firm
will till He creates. greed in mind. He does not create this greed fully till He creates this knowledge
or understanding whether it will
conform to nature in the present or future. He does not create this understanding without other causes
which make movement of limbs, will and knowledge. So understanding and desire of mind follow firm will
and strength. Will comes before movement of bodily limbs. This rule is prevalent in every action. So
everything is created by God and one thing of His creation depends upon another thing. For instance,
will comes after understanding, understanding comes after life, and body comes before life. So the
creation of body is necessary for life but not life for body. Similarly creation of life is necessary
for creation of understanding and not creation of understanding for life. Understanding does not come
if there is no life. Understanding has been created to make will firm and not for creation of will.
Will does not come without life and understanding.
When nature is subject to some condition, the condition is created to accept that nature. Then that
nature can be acquired from the strength of fate and God-given gift. When nature has not uniformity
owing to the cause of condition, so also there is uniformity for occurrence of an event owing to the
action of God. Man should necessarily be fit for occurrence of this uniformity. God says : I have
created everything according to a measure. With regard to the original fate, there is this verse: 'My
order is not but in a twinkling of an eye.' Man is subject to his fate. Owing to the fate or
pre-measurement. He created the strength of movement in the hand a writer after creation firstly of an
attribute named strength, secondly after creation in his mind a firm determination and thirdly after
creation owing to this determination in mind understanding and fourthly knowledge of cognition. When
these four matters subservient to fate from the unseen world appear in the body of a man, the
inhabitants of the world know it. But before it remains hidden in the unseen world. Then the
inhabitants of this world say : 0 man, you have moved, you have thrown arrows, you have written, but
proclamation comes from behind the screen : When you have thrown arrows, you have not thrown them. It
is God who has thrown them. When you fought, you have not fought. It is God who have fought with them.
God will punish them through your hands.
GOD IS AGENT OF ACTIONS
Then sperficial learned man becomes blind and understands it. From his standpoint, he says that man has
got freedom of will.
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 13
Some say that man has got freedom of will but he has got no
connection with pre-measurement or destiny. Some adopt the
middle course and say that man's action is subject to efforts. If the
doors of heaven would have been opened to them and they
looked to the spiritual and unseen world, it would have surely
been disclosed to them that every opinion is true from one standpoint or the other, but there is defect
in it. God knows the open and secret words. He does not disclose it except to those prophets with whom
He is pleased. He who has entered the limit of His pleasure knows only the things of this world and not
of the spiritual world. But a man of spiritual world knows that God is the Creator of everything and
there is no master of action except He.
Question : You have said that every opinion is true. Cite an example for clear understanding.
Answer: Know, 0 dear readers, that a party of blind men went to see an elephant which they never see it
before. When they reached the elephant, they touched it. One blind man touched its feet, another, its
ear, another its trunk. They at once exclaimed We have known an elephant. When they went away, other
blind men asked : How is an elephant ? They all described its different forms. The blind man who
touched its feet said that the elephant is like a post. The blind man who touched it trunk said : the
elephant is not as the other blind man has described.
The elephant is a hard subestance and not a post and it is long. One who touched its ear said : By God.
the elephant is smooth like a seeve. The saying of each is true in some respect or the other, but none
could give a full description of an elephant. The difference of many men over a single matter is like
this. This gives clue to spiritual knowledge.
Tauba is compulsory with its three ingredients, knowledge of sin, repentance for sin and giving up of
sin in future. Tauba is compulsory after commission of sin, as a believer can understand that sin is
harmful. He who does not give up sin gives up a portion of faith. The following Hadis proves it. When a
man commits fornication he commits when he is not a believer. That fornication is injurious like poison
is not known to him. This is said with regard to the faith which returns to spiritual knowledge. At the
time of committing of fornication, he loses
faith that fornication is injurious and that it keeps him far away from God, just as when a physician
says : It is poison and don't take it. If inspite of this warning, a person take:, it, it can be said
that he has taken it as he disbelieved it. This does not mean that he does not believe in the existence
of the physician or that he has got no knowledge of medicine, but it means that he does not believe
that poison is harmful, as he who knows the effect of poison, cannot accept it.
BRANCHES OF FAITH: There are more than seventy. branches of faith. The highest branch is "There is no
deity but God" and the lowest branch is to remove injurious things from path ways. This truth is found
from the following instance. A. man is not composed with one thing only but with more than seventy
elements. The highest element is soul and life and the lowest element is removal of undesirable things
from the body, such as trimmning moustache nails etc. Faith is also like a man. The highest element of
faith is Tauhid. Faith does not remain if Tauhid goes just as a body does not live if life goes out of
it. He who has got only Tauhid is like a man chopped of hands and feet and he is near death. Similarly,
if a person has got nothing except basic faith, his tree of faith is about to crumble down. If a great
tempest attacks it, it faces the angel of death. The faith of one, if not established upon firm
foundation and not expressed in actions does not stand firm at the great tempest or the attack of the
angel of death. The condition of his end becomes fearfuk The faith which is watered constantly by
divine services remains intact at the time of death.
EXAMPLES OF A SINNER AND A VIRTUOUS MAN
If a sinner says to a virtuous man : I am a believer as you are a believer, his saying is just like the
saying of a creeping plant to a big tree : I am a tree just as you are a tree. The big tree says to the
creeping plant : You will know soon how false is your claim. At the time of tempest, your root will be
uprooted. The tree of a Refin or gnostics has got the fear to be cut off even at their advent of death.
He who is a sinner does not fear to live forever in hell. His condition is like that of a sound man who
remains immerged in harmful passions and low desires, as he does not fear death owing to his robust
health. He should be said this : A sound man should fear illness and death may come to him if diseases
14 TAUBA Vol-IV
him. Similar is the condition of a sinner. He should fear his end and the consequent punishment in
So he who commits sin having faith is like the eater who eats food injurious to health. Thus it
continues till he meets with sudden death. Similar is the condition of the sinner. When you give up the
food in this world mixed with poison as injurious, how much necessary is it for you to give up sins
which are injurious in the next world. He who eats poison and becomes repentant, disgraces it from his
stomach by vomiting it at once: When this is necessary in this temporary world, how much necessary is
it to give up sins which are detrimental to the immortal soul ? To repent for sins during life time is
necessary because sin like poison will destroy the ever-lasting happiness of the next world. If the
next world. is destroyed, one shall have to enter burning fire and receive other punishments. Worldly
happiness in comparison with that of the next world is very trifling. There is no end of time in the
next world. Once poison begins to work, the physician cannot cure it. The sinner falls within the
meaning of this verse (36: 8): I have put a bar in front of them and a bar behind them and covered them
up so that they cannot see-36: 91. Spiritual knowledge is the root and worldly knowledge is its branch.
It is now clear to you that faith has got many branches and when a man commits fornication, he does not
remain a believer. The screen which falls on faith is also a branch. At the time of death, it will fall
from the basic faith as a man advances towards death if he loses one limb but still has got life. There
is no existence of faith, without its branches if there are branches, they indicate that there is the
existence of the root, but the existence of the root only does not indicate the existence of the
branches. So spiritual knowledge is the root and worldly knowledge is its branch. Both are linked
together. One cannot go without the
Repentance is compulsory on the part of every Muslim in every condition, as God says : 0 believers, be
'repentant to God all together so that you may get salvation-24 :31. By this verse, all are called to
be repentant. Tauba means to come near God from a distant path and to return from the path near the
devil. Wisdom does not become perfect unless passions, angers and all other vile vices which are the
instruments of the devil and which misguide
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 15
men are brought under full control. Wisdom becomes perfect at the advent of 40 years of age and it
begins after the age of maturity and takes its root at the age of seven year's.
Passion, anger etc. are the soldiers of the devil and wisdom is the soldier of angels. When there is
union of passion and wisdom, clash begins as one does not look at another with pleasure. They are
opposed to each other and the difference between them is that of day and night or light and darkness.
Sexual passion remains strong in youth before perfection of intellect. The soldiers of the devil come
forward at that time. He who is a solider of God has got his intellect shining. God says .The devil
said : I will destroy the children of Adam except a few. If the intellect is firm, strong and perfect,
its first duty is to control the sexual passion and greed and take the self towards divine service.
This is the meaning of Tauba. There is not other meaning of Tauba except this. In other words, to
control the passions and low 'desires of the self, to return from the paths of the devil and to walk in
the path of God. There is no such man whose sexual passion does not appear before his intellect. The
evils of the devil appear before the natures of the angels and the former sits tight in heart before
the latter. So it is the duty of every man to return from the evil tendencies. A poet says :
Think not that Hinda alone is guilty of treachery. Every chaste woman has got sin owing to her beauty.
COMPULSORY TAUBA'S SYSTEMATIC
Greed is engrained in human nature from birth. It is the natural passion of man and it is not possible
to go against it. So whoever remains an infidel at the time of maturity, he should turn away from his
infidelity. If he is a Muslim at the time of age and follows the Islam of his parents, he should
understand the meaning of Islam and turn towards real Islam as the Islam of his parents without
understanding brings him no good. This is very hard and difficult. Tauba is directly compulsory on
every man in every condition as he is not free from sins of his bodily limbs. There are traditions to
show repentances and the wailings of the Prophets owing to their sins. If any man is free from sin,
still he is not free from thoughts of sins. If he is free from thoughts of sins, he is not free from
the machinations of the devil as many impure
16 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 17
toughts keep him forgetful of God. The object of Tauba is to return from sin. The Prophet said : The
devil circles round my thoughts, for which I seek forgiveness to God seventy times. When such is the
condition of the Prophet, how is the condition of others?
Question: There is no doubt that the evil thoughts that cross in mind are harmful and to be free from
them is the sign of perfection. Perfection is not compulsory according to Shariat and to return to
perfection, Tauba is necessary. So what is the meaning that Tauba is compulsory under all
Answer. Man is not free from greed from the beginning of his birth. So Tauba is not to give it up, but
it is complete when past sins are enquired into, and one in repentant therefore. If a man follows his
passion, a smoke rises in his heart as a result. When there is layer of smokes in heart, rust fall on
it as a mirror is filled up with smokes out of the breath of men. God says : Never. Rather rust has
fallen on their hearts for what they acquired. When rust is gathered on it, there falls therein seal,
as a mirror becomes ugly if dust after dust falls on it. If it lasts long, it enters into the iron of
the mirror and destroys it. It is therefore not sufficient to give up only dust of passion in future
but it is necessary-also to remove the dusts already gathered. In order to see face in mirror it is not
only necessary that there should be no smoke on it, but all smokes and dusts gathered in the past on it
must be removed. The smoke of sins and passions on heart should be removed by the light of divine
worship. The following Hadis hints at that "Do a good deed after an evil deed. It _will wipe out the
latter." It is only a good deed that can remove a bad deed according to the law of opposites. It is
only cold that can remove heat. At first, heart remains pure. It assumes black colour for its opposite
MEANING OF WAJEB: There are two meanings of Wajeb. (1) One meaning is compulsory action which Shariat
fixed as compulsory for all the people and the omission of which is great sin, such as prayer, fast
etc. (2) The second meaning of Wajeb is doing that duty which is outside the control of the ordinary
men and with which search is made to be near the Almighty had to acquire the rank of the highest
religious personalities. To make Tauba from the faults mentioned above is necessary to acquire that
rank, as to make ablution is compulsory for an optional prayer. Ablution is compulsory for a person who
wishes to pray
optional prayer to attain rank. He who remains satisfied being deprived of the rewards of optional
prayer does not require an ablution, as eyes, hands and feet are not compulsory for a man to remain
alive. He who desires to be a full and perfect man, compulsorily requires these bodily organs.
So the basic compulsory subjects are for the ordinary people as they take a man to basic salvation
which is like living with a life. The additional things which lie behind this basic salvation bring
fortune and perfection for which the prophets, saints and the friends of God strived hard and for which
they gave up the pleasures of this worldly life. Even when Jesus Christ took a stone to be used as a
pillow for sleep, the devil came him and said: You have not given up the world for the next world. He
said: Yes, how have you understood it? The devil said: You are using this stone as a pillow is included
within the pleasure of the worgd.Why did you not place your head on the earth? Jesus Christ then threw
away the stone and placed his head upon the ground.
His throwing off the stone is his Tauba or return from that pleasure. To place the head upon the ground
is not compulsory on the general public, but Jesus Christ did so to acquire the highest merit. Do you
not notice that our Prophet threw off a cloth which he put on as it turned away his attention from
prayer owing to its varied colours. It is not compulsory on his followers. He did it to acquire the
highest rank. This is Tauba or return from a slip of mind. Do you not notice that Hazart Abu Bakr
vomited out the milk which he had drunk as he came to know afterwards that it was not earned lawfully?
But it is no sins to eat an unlawful thing unknowingly and Shariat does not make compulsory to take it
out from stomach. Think of these people who were the most informed of men regarding God, God's path and
God's Marfat. You take great care that you may not be deceived by anybody in this world. What a great
care you should take not to be deceived regarding the affairs of God and the next world.',
Abu Solaiman Darani said: If a wise man does not weep during the rest of his life for defect in his
divine service, he shall feel sorrow up to his death. Every moment of life or every breath is a
treasure. There is no exchange of it as it is the basic thing. It will take you to everlasting fortune
and rescue you from everlasting misfortune. If you lose it uselessly and negligently,. you will be a
great loser. If you spend it in sin, you will spoil yotir
18 TAUBA Vor IV
best treasure. If you do not weep for this loss, it will be for your mere ignorance. The danger of
ignorance is more than that of all other things. All men are asleep. When they die, they are awake.
Then their poverty will be disclosed to them.
A certain Aref said: If the angel of death informs a man that a
moment only is left for his life his grief rises to such a degree that in exchange of everything in the
world he hopes to get some leisure to get an opportunity to make Tauba for his past misdeeds, but that
is not to be. God says: Spend out of what I have given before death comes to one of you, lest one of
you say: 0 Lord, if you give me a little time, I will make charity and be one of the pious. God does
not tarry a little for anybody when his time comes-63: 10. At the time of that catastrophe, his basic
faith will totter and in this condition his life will end. If he has sent good deeds in advance, his
life will go out with Tauhid. This is his Khatema-bil Khair or end with good condition. If he is
unfortunate, his life will go out in sorrows and anxieties. This is his bad end. For this reason, God
says : Tauba is for those who commit sins out of ignorance and then soon repent, God will accept their
repentance and He is all Knowing, the Wise. Tauba is not for those who commit sins till when death
comes to one of them he says : I now repent-1:16. The Prophet says : Wipe out an evil by doing
thereafter a good act.
LoqMan said to his son: 0 darling, make no delay in making Tuba as death comes suddenly. He who does
not repent without delay lives in two dangers. One of the dangers is that the darkness of sins is
congested in his heart to such an extent that in the end it is transformed in to rust and seal is
created and it can hardly be effaced. The second danger is that unless treatment is made of the
disease, death is sure-and no delay can be made towipe it out. There is therefore In Hadis : Most of
the cries of the dwellers of Hell will be for salvation without delay. He who will be ruined will not
be ruined without sorrow. So his heart becomes black for the present and to secure it by divine service
remains for the future. He remains in such condition up to his death and will return to God with
unsound soul. There is no salvation except for a sound soul. Soul is a trust to man and life
also is a trust to him. Whose ruins these trusts his matter is a
subject of thoughts and anxieties.
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 19
A certain Aref said: God communicates by way of I1ham or inspiration two secret things. One of them is
that when a man is .born from his mother, He says to him : 0 My servant, I have taken you out to the
world pure and clean and I have kept your life to Me as a trust and for that made you secure. I will
look how you observe that trust and I will see how you meet Me. The second subject is that when his
life goes out, God says : 0 My servant, what have you-done with the trust I have kept with you? Have'
you preserved it till you have met Me. I f you have preserved it, I will reward you in full. If you
have ruined it, I will give you punishment as God says: Fulfill My command and I will fulfill Mine. God
says : Those who fulfill their trust and promise-8: 23
CONDITION OF ACCEPTANCE OF TAUBA
Every sincere Tauba is accepted. Those who observe with the 'inner light and whose souls are bright
know that every soul has Been-created pure and clean and every child has been created on natural
attribute. But men have been polluting its purity and cleanliness with dirt and making it black with
sins. They also know that these impurities on soul can be burnt by the fire of repentance,and the light
of good deeds can remove the darkness of dirts gathered on soul. The darkness of sins has got no power
to live with the light of good deeds as the darkness of night can not live with the light gf day or as
the dirts can not remain, if a cloth is cleaned with soap. So God does not accept a soul polluted with
sins. As a cloth being polluted by foul act can be cleansed with soap and warm water, so a soul being
polluted with passion and greed can be purified of tears of eyes and fire of repentance. As a clean
cloth is acceptable, so a pure and clean soul is acceptable to God. So your soul should be cleansed and
made pure. God says : The soul of one- gets success-which he has made pure.' One soul can recognise
nother soul. He who does not know his soul, how can he know anothe,W soul? He who thinks that Tauba
although sincere will not be accepted, is like a man who thinks that darkness will not go even if the
sunrises or dirt will not go even if a cloth is washed by soap. But soap is not alone sufficient to
remove dirt if it is gathered, layer over layer; on a thing. Similar is fhe condition of sin if
congested in soul. If one says by word of mouth "I repented", his word is like the word o f a washer
man who says by his tongue; I have washed this cloth.'' Such is the condition of a soul if no, sincere
repentance is made.
This is sufficient for acceptance of Tauba for a man with deep insight. There are proofs of the Quran
and Hadis to this effect.
God says: He it is who accepts Tauba from His servants and pardons sins. God says : I am Forgiving,
Accepter of repentance. The Prophet said : God is more satisfied with the repentance of some of you.
This satisfaction means acceptance of repentance and this is the proof of acceptance of repentance. The
Prophet said : God says : God extends also His hand of forgivenesses towards one who is busy in
commission of sins from night till day break and from day break till night. There are many repentance
fit for acceptance which are not enquired into and there are many enquirers whose repentance is not
accepted. The Prophet said : If you are engaged in the commission of sins which reach even heaven and
then repent, God will accept it. He said : A man will enter paradise even after commission of sins. The
companions asked : 0 Messenger of God, how can it be. He said : After commission of sins, he thinks how
lie can return from them. Thus he will enter Paradise. Our Prophet said : Tauba expiates sins. The
Prophet said:. He who repents after commission of a sin is like one who has not committed its A Negro
slave once said to the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God, I am engaged in obscene deeds. Have I got any
repentance. He said. Yes, you have, Then he returned from the sins and said : 0 Messenger of God, when
I commit sin, does God see me. He said : Yes, Then the slave gave such a loud shriek that cost his
It is related that when God cursed the devil, he prayed to God for time and He granted him time till
the Resurrection Day. The devil then said : By the honour of your oath, I will not come out of the
heart of a man till there is breath in him. God said : By My honour and glory, I will accept his
repentance till there is life in his body. The Prophet said: A good deed removes an evil deed as water
Sayings of sages, Sayeed-bin-Mosayyeb said regarding the event of reviation of this verse "He is
forgiving to those who repent, that a man repented after commission of a sin. Then he again committed
that sin and again repented. Then God sent down the above verse. Fazil said: God said : Give good news
to the sinners that if they repent, I will accept it. Give warning to the truthful that if I do justice
in their case, I will punish them. Talge-bin-Habib said : Whatever duties man may do, God is
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 21
much above that, but he should repent morning and evening. Abdullah- bin-Omar said : If a man after,
commission of sin get afrajd in mind, it is effaced from his record of deeds
It is related that when a Prophet of Banue Israil committed a sin, God revealed to him: By My honour,
if you commit sin another time, I will give you punishment. The Prophet said : 0 my Lord, you are you
and I am I. By your honour, if you do not save me, I may commit another sin. God then saved him. A
certain sage said : If a man commits sins and then repents for his whole life, he shall enter Paradise.
The devil will then say: Alas, why have I thrown him into a sinful act? Ibn Masud one day saw a man
committing a sinful act. He asked him: Is there any repentance for this sin? Ibn Masud first turned
away from him ;and then looking towards him saw that he was shedding tears. He said to him: Paradise
has got eight doors all of which will not be closed or opened. An angel will be entrusted with its not
closing. So act and act and don't be despaired. Abdur Rahman-bin- Abul Qasem said. We were discussing
with Abdul-Rahman about repentance of the unbelievers arld also about the verse of God : If they
desist, He will forgive th9 r past sins. He said : Hope that the condition of the Muslims Will be good
near God. I heard that the repentance of the Muslims after Islam will be like their acceptance of
Islam. Abdullah-b-Salam said: You are narrating the following Hadis after hearing it from the Prophet
or knowing it from the Book of God-When a man commits a sin and then repents for it soon, his sins drop
down sooner than the twinkling of an eye. Hazart Omar said : Sit with those who repents as their hearts
are very soft.
If is related that a man of Banu Israil were engaged- in commission of sins for twenty years after his
divine service for twenty years. Thereafter when has look was drawn towards a beautiful woman, he said
that his beard had grown grey. He felt grieved for this and he prayed to God : 0 God, I did your
service for 20 years and then committed sins for the last 20 years. If I turn to You now with
repentance, will You accept me? Someone from the unseen said : When you had loved Me, I had loved you.
When you gave me up, I gave you up. When you committed sins again, I gave you a time. If you now return
to Me, I will accept you. Jun-Nun said : There are such servants of God who saturate with the water of
repentance the tree of sins when it grows. The fruits
of sorrow and penance then come out of it. They go mad without madness and fool without foolishness.
They are the givers of lessons, speakers and well-informed of God and His Apostle. They drink water
from the cups of purity and remain patient for long in sorrows and difficulties. Then their minds
become eager to sojourn in heavens, their thoughts enter into the mysteries of the spiritual world,
they take shelter in the canopy of repentance and read then the records of sins. As a result fear
enters their hearts and reaches the utmost limit of renunciation embarking in the steps of God fear.
They regard the bitterness of renunciation of the world as sweet and the roughness of bed as smooth.
Even their glands of salvation and the staffs of security grow strong and their souls rise upwards and
enter the garden of fortune. They make enjoyments in the sea of life and sing in the well of
despondency. They cross the bridge of passions and descend into the field of education, drink water in
the tanks of wisdom, embark on the boat of peace and sail in the sea of security with the wind of
TAUBA FROM MINOR AND MAJOR SINS
Tuba means to give up sins. If a thing is not known, it is not possible to give it up. When Tauba is
compulsory, the thing by which the condition of Tauba is reached is also compulsory.
CLASSES OF SINS ACCORDING TO
THE NATURE OF MEN
Man has got four natures. It is narrated regarding the wonderful qualities of soul that the nature and
conduct of man are many, but they can be limited within four natures-Godly nature,. devilish nature,
beastly propensity and propensity of ferocious beasts. The reason is that man has been created of
different elements and every element has got its influence.
1. Firstly-Godly nature. To boast, to take pride, to create, to love praise, to love honour and power,
to wish to live forever, to wish to lord over all etc. are the Godly qualities in the man (2) Secondly,
the devilish natures of hatred, rebellion. fraud, cheating, disturbance and all kinds of evils. (3)
Thirdly, beastly propensities like greed for satisfaction of stomach, fornication, theft, eating of the
property of orphans etc. (4) Fourthly, propensities of ferocious beasts, out of which grow the evils of
anger, attack, rebuke, killing, etc. They come in order. Firstly,
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 23
beastly propensities remain strong and then propensities of ferocious beasts come. When these two
propensitiesunite, they make intellect subservient to practise cheating, fraud. This is also the nature
of the devil. At last, the Godly qualities become strong-greed for name and fame, greed for honour,
desire for lordship over people etc. These are the roots of sins and fountains. Sins flow from these
fountains into the bodily limbs. Some sins fall in mind, such as infidelity. hypocrisy, will for doing
harm to men. Some sins fall in eyes and ears, some in tongue, some in stomach and organs of passion,
some in hands and feet and some in the whole body.
Second class of sins-Sin comes from breach of duties towards God and men. The sins arising out of the
breach of duties towards God are to give up prayer, fasting and other compulsory duties. The major sins
arising from breach of duties towards men are to give up Zakat, to kill a man unjustly, to
misappropriate the properties of others, to destroy the rights of others. It occurs in connection with
life, properties, religion, name and fame. The punishment of sins for breach of duty towards men is
sure and the sins of breach of duties towards, God are expected to be pardoned. There is in the
tradition: There are three matters-one matter is fit to bg pardoned, one matter is not fit to be
pardoned and one matter fit to be given up. The matter which is to be pardoned is the breach of duty
towards God. The matter which is not fit to be pardoned is to set up partnership with God. The matter
which is fit to be given up is the breach of rights of men. There is no pardon of that sin unless,the
owner of right forgives him.
Third class of sins-There is difference of opinion with regard to major sins. Sins are divided into two
major and minor. Some say there is no such distinction as major and minor sins, rather whatever is done
against the order of God is a'major sin. This argument is weak as God says : If you give up the major
sins of which you have been prohibited, I shall compensate your minor sins for you and cause you to
enter to an honourable place-4 : 31. God says : Those who give up major sins and indecent acts except
those evil thoughts which arise suddenly in mind. The Prophet said : Five times of prayer and prayers
from one Jumma to another compensate the sins in between them if the major sins are given up. The
Prophet said : To set up partnership
_. TAUBA . Vol-IV
24 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 25
with God, to be disobedient towards parents, to kill and to break promise are major sins. The
companions differed and fixed the major sins as four, seven, nine or eleven. Ibn Masud said that their
number is four, Hazrat Ibn Omar said that they are seven. Abdullah-bin-Amr said that they are nine.
Hazrat Ibn Abbas said that they are seventy and the nearest of them is seven. A certain sage said : The
sin for which there is the fire of Hell as a punishment is major sin. Some say that the number of major
sins is not known as the blessed night or the auspicious moment of Jumma is not known. Abu Taleb Makki
said that they are seventeen. He said : I have gathered them from Hadis and from Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud,
Ibn Omar and other companions. Out of them, four have connection with mind-(l) to set up partnership
with God, (2) to do a sin repeatedly, (3) to be despaired of the mercy of God, (4) and not to fear the
punishment of God. Four have got connection with tongue-(1) to depose falsely, (2) to slander a chaste
woman, (3) to break promise and (4) to make sorcery. Three have got connection with stomach (1) to
drink intoxicant, (2) to eat the property of an orphan, (3) and to enjoy interest with knowledge. Two
have got connection with the sexual organ-(1) to commit fornication and (2) to cohabit with boys. Two
have got connection with hands-(1) to kill (2) and to steal. One has got connection with leg-to flee
away from fighting with the infidels. One has got connection with the whole body-to be disobedient to
Comparison makes a sin major or minor. A thing becomes bigger in comparison with a small thing. Again a
thing is called small when compared to a bigger thing than it. If a man lies with a strong woman in the
same bed, his lying is greater than looking at her and smaller than fornication with her. Sins are
divided into three-(1) sins which are known to be major, (2) sins known to be minor and (3) sins which
Shariat has not fixed to be major or minor, Imam Gazzali said : the thing who stands as an impediment
to God's knowledge is a major sin and the thing which ruins life and ruins the means of livelihood is a
Major sin.has get three stages-(1) the thing which stands as an impediment in heart for preservation of
Marfat, (2) the thing which stands as an impediment to the acquisition of God's knowledge or knowledge
of the Prophet is infidelity or disbelief which is the greatest of all major sins. Ignorance is the
between God and His servants and knowledge is the means of doing good deeds. In accordance with the
measure of knowledge about Him, nearness is gained and in accordance with ignorance about Him, there is
distance from Him. Ignorance has got another name named infidelity. He who has got knowledge of Him
cannot remain safe and cannot be also despaired. He travels in these new stages which have got
connection with God's attributes and actions. According to the Quran, there are three classes of
sins-(1) what is known as major sins in the Quran, (2) what is known as not major sins in the Quran and
(3) the sins which have got doubt of being called major sins.
(2) With regard to the second stage of major sins, it is the impediment to save life, as knowledge of
God can be acquired if there is life. So to commit suicide is a major sin, but lower than infidelity.
To cut of hands and feet and the thing which leads to sudden death are majors sins. So also fornication
and unnatural cohabitation are major sins as in a case of this nature there is no fixation of lineage,
and cutting off the existence of man.
(3) The third stage has got connection with properties, as properties are the means of livelihood. It
is not permissible for men to earn them arbitrarily, such as theft, docoity, misappropriation of money.
In four ways, properties may be misappropriated. The first way is to take property secretly or by
stealing. The second way is to eat the properties of an orphan which is also done secretly. The third
way is to misappropriate property by false deposition. The fourth way is to get deposited property by
PUNISHMENT AND REWARD IN
THE NEXT WORLD
Know 0 readers, that this world is visible material world and the next world is invisible spiritual
world. The meaning of this world is your condition before your death and the next world is your
condition after your death. The name of near condition is this world and of distant condition is the
next world. Examples are the only means of describing the next world as we are now living in this
world. God says : I have given these examples for men and none but the wise appreciate them: The reason
is that this material world is like a dream in comparison with the next world. The Prophet said : 'Men
are in sleep. They will wake up
after their death.' What occurs in wakeful state is not expressed in dream except in examples which are
subject to interpretation. Similarly what will occur in the next world in wakeful state is not clear
without examples of sleep of this world.
Once a man came to Ibn Sir in and said : (1) I saw in dream as if there is a seal in my hand with which
I am giving impression in the faces and places of shame. He said : It seems you are a Muzzen and will
proclaim before dawn in the month of Ramzan. He said : You have spoken the truth. (2) Another man came
and said : I saw in dream that I am puring olive oil on my head. He said: Enquire into the condition of
your slave if you have got any. It seems that she is your mother and was a prisoner in your childhood,
as the root of oil is olive tree and it returned to its root. After examination, it was found that she
was his mother and that she was taken a prisoner in his childhood, (3) Another man said to him : I saw
in dream that I am dressing the neck of a swine with a necklace of emeralds. He said : It means that
you are teaching wisdom to underserving persons.
The interpretation of dream occurs in such a way from the beginning to the end. The Prophets used to
speak to men by way of illustrations and examples as they were ordered to speak to men according to the
degree of the intelligence of men. The intelligence of men is as it were confined to the mist of dream.
Nothing is expressed to men who see anything in dream without examples. When they die, they wake up and
understand that the illustrations are true. For this reason, the Prophet said : The heart of man is
situated within two fingers of the Merciful. Nobody except the wise can understand it. The fools take
it literally and understand this that God has got hands and fingers, from which He is pure. Similarly
the Prophet said : God created Adam according to His imdge. They understand it as material figure and
colour. So they construct the images of God, while He is pure of all forms. Similarly the affairs of
the next world are explained by illustrations: Many take it literaly true. The Prophet said : On the
Resurrection Day, death will be presented in the form of a goat without hairs and it will be
slaughtered. Some say it is a flase Hadis as death has got nobody and goat has got a body. It is just
like the saying of a man: I dreamt that a goat was taken to me and it was slaughtered. It means that
the epidemic disease of the town slaughtered.
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 27
The nutshell of this talk is that the angel who is entrusted with dream presents to human soul in sleep
what is written in the Guarded Tablet. He informs by illustration as a sleeping man cannot understand
it except by illustration. It comes true and its meaning is correct. The illustration that death will
be presented in the next world in the form of a goat without hair is that after the first death of man,
there will be no other death as a slaughtered animal is not expected to come again. There is in the
Quran "Be and it comes into being." This is explained as unlimited power. It is not possible to explain
the punishments of sins and the rewards of virtues without illustrations. We say that on the
Ressurrection Day, men will be of different classes and their ranks will be also different as in the
world there is difference of fortunes and misfortunes. The next world does not keep this world separate
as the Conductor of the next world and this world is one without having any partner.
MEN WILL BE DIVIDED INTO FOUR CLASSES
IN THE NEXT WORLD
One class are for destruction, one class for punishment, one class for salvation, and one class for
success. The following is the illustration in this world A certain powerful king in order to establish
his kingdom on a firm basis kills some people and they are the destroyed people. He punishes some
persons who are for a certain time but he doesnotkill them. They are those who receive punishment. He
releases some persons who are recepients of salvation. He gives rewards to some persons who are
successful. If the king is just, he classes his subjects on the basis of justice only. He does not kill
ex ept those who deny his sovereigny. He does not punish except those who have got defects in their
service to him. He does not release except those who admit the king's rank and position. He does not
give rewards except to those who spend their lives in his service.
There is also difference in the rewards of' those whe get rewards according to the extent of their
services and helps to the king similarly those who are destroyed get punishment according to the extent
of their mischief and worngdoing. Some are killed outright, the hands and feet of some are cut off and
then killed. Then understand that in the next world also the people will be divided into different
classes. Some will be destroyed, some will get salvation and enter the abode of peace and some
28 TAUBA Vol-IV
will receive rewards. The nearest persons will recieve rewards. The rewarded persons will be of
different classes, some will enter the paradine of Eden; some will enter the paradise of Maoa, some
Ferdous. Similarly those who will receive punishment will be also of different classes. Some will be
given slight punishment, some will be given punishment from one thousand years to seven thousand years.
Similarly those who will be destroyed will be deprived of God's mercy.
STAGES OF THOSE WHO WILL MEET
The perons who will meet with destruction are those who will be deprived of God's mercy. They are like
those persons whom a king kills on account of their opposition and who have been deprived of king's
mercy. Those who deny the existence of God, those who are engaged in worldly persuits and those who
disbelieve God, His Prophets and His books are included within this class. Fortune in the next world
means gaining nearness of God and meeting with Him. This nearness cannot be gained without knowledge of
God. This knowledge arises out of faith and there is its corroboration. Those who deny the existence of
God are the disbelievers deprived of God's mercy. The lovers of God said: We don't fear the fired f
Hell, nor do we hope for the black-eyed Hurs. Our only hope is meeting with our Lord and the lifting of
screen from us. They say: He who serves God in exchange of getting something is dishonourable,
despaired and subject of hatred, He serves God only to get Paradise or to ward off punishment of Hell,
but a lover of God serves Him only to meet with Him. Fire burns only the body but the fire of
separation burns both the body and soul. The fire of separation is enkindled by God which rises up to
the heart. A poet said:
Fire of separation in a lover's heart is high and severe. Fire of Hell in comparison is trifling and
He on whom the fire of love is enkindled walks upon fire and runs over the bamboo points and cannot
feel pangs owing to the urge of love. You will see an angry man fighting even after receiving wounds
but not feeling any pain.
Second Stage: Those who will get punishment. They are the people who have got faith but have got
short-comings for neglect to act according to it. The root of faith is Tauhid or faith in the
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 29
unity of God, He who follows his passion accepts it as his deity and not God. He is not a true
unitarian. God says: Say God and then leave them in their useless talks. The real meaning of this is
Give up everything except God. God says in its support: Those who say 'God is our Lord' and then they
firmly stand on it- -60 30. This means that this is the straight path without which Tauhid is not
perfect. This path is more slender than hair and more sharp than sword. This is like the bridge of the
next world. Man strays away little or more from this straight path as he is not free from the
propensities of nature. He goes away from Tauhid in proportion to his going away from this path. This
occurs for two reasons-strength of faith and its weakness and following low desires, more or little.
God said : There is nobody among you who will not come to it (Hell). It is a decree of God. God said
Then I will give those who are God-fearing salvation and I will make the sinners turned down--19 : 71.
The Prophet said: Some persons will be taken out of Hell after one thousand years and they will cry 0
Merciful.' Hearing this Hadis, Hasan Basari said : Alas ! Had. I been one of those persons ! It is in
the tradition that the man who will come out last of all from Hell will come out of it after seven
thousand years. Some will come out of it like lightning. Some will remain in Hell for seven thousand
years. So there are days, weeks, months and years within this period. Punishment will be meted out
different times for different persons. There will be also different kinds of punishment as a king metes
it out to his subjects. He fines some persons, 'whips some, confiscates, the properties of some,
deports some, beats some, kills the children of some, takes the wives of some as slaves, chopps off the
nose, hands and feet of some. Similary there will be different kinds of punishment in the next world.
The greater the sins, the greater the punishments. There are several kinds of punishement for several
kinds of sins. Those who are adapt in soul give proof of the above by the Quranic verses : God says :
Your Lord is not an oppressor of His servants. He says : Every soul will be given today what it
earned-12: 286. He says :Man shall have nothing but what he strives for. He syas : He shall see even an
atom of good he does and he-shall see an atom of evil hedoes 99:71..
There will be justice and no injustice, but the scale of pardon and forgiveness will be heavy, as the
Prophet said that God had said : My compassion overcame My wrath. God says : If you do a
30 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 31
good deed, God will increase it and give you abundant rewards from Him. It seems that whose establishes
his faith firm, keeps away from all major sins, does all the compulsory duties and does not do except
minor sins and even these also not repeatedly, his punishment will be confined only within accountings,
because when his accounts will be taken, his virtues will be heavier than his sins. There is in Hadis
that the prayer for five times, Jumma prayer and the fast of Ramazan expiate the sins committed during
the period. Similarly if the major sins are given up, the minor sins are expiated therefore.
DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE FORTUNATE
To enter the highest Paradise or to live near the fortunate one depends upon faith of different kinds.
Faith is of two kinds-blind faith of the ordinary people and faith born out of direct inner sight which
is gained with the expansion of breast by the help of God's light. By virtue of this faith. The
knowledge of everything appears to him and it becomes clear to him that everything will return to God
as there is no existence of any thing except that of God. His attributes and His actions. These are
they who will live near God and reside in the highest Ferdous.
There are different classes of these fortunate persons. Some will be advancing and some retracing.
Their rank will very according to the variance of their degree of knowledge of God. There are many
stages of God's lovers as there are many steps of knowledge of God. There is no end of the depth of the
ocean of Marfat and there is no such person who can cross that ocean. The divers according to their
strength and the strength given to them by divine order can dive therein. There is no end of the path
towards God. So there is no limit to the stages of those persons who walk in the path of God. He who
has got better faith is also one of the fortunate people. His rank is lower than that of the fortunate
Prophets. The highest rank of the fortunate men of blind faith is near the rank of the near ones. The
man who gives up major sins, does the compulsory duties, stands upon the five pilars of Islam, utters
Kalema Shahadat by tongue and heart, performs pilgrimage, gets this rank. He who comitted major sins,
and neglected to do other compulsry duties but made sincere repentance before his death, will live with
that peson who has not commited these sins. A washed cloth is like the cloth which' has got no dirt
from the beginning. If he dies before repentance,
his time of death will be fraught with dangers. Blind faith at the first tempest of slight doubt is
shaken at the root. He who is wise with deep inisght keeps himself away from this danager at the time
He who continues to commit sins for as many days as he likes will get punishment therefore for
proportionate days. He who does heinous sins will get severe punishment. He who does different kinds of
sins will get different kinds of punishment, he will not come near the rank of the fortunate ones.
Those who are gnostics with deep insight will live in the highest Paradise. There is in Hadis-He who
will be taken last out of Hell will be given space ten times of this world. If the area of this world
is one thousand miles, don't think he will be given space ten times of one thousand miles. This is like
the saying of the man : I have given one who has taken my one camel ten camels. This means that if the
price of a camel is ten dinars, he was given hundred dinars. The Prophet said : Paradise is situated in
heaven. It appears that heaven is in this world. So how can Paradise situated in the world be ten times
of this world? It should not be taken literally.
CAUSES OF DISASTERS ON RELIGIONS PEOPLE
The Prophet said: Be kind on three persons- (1) a learned man among the illiterate (2) a rich man among
the poor and (3) an honourable man among the dishonourable persons. For this reason the Prophets are
the recipients of kindness among his followers as they suffered owing to the short intelligence of
their followers. Those are tests from God for their examination and come from God according to destiny.
For this reason, the Prophet said : Disasters fell upon the Prophets, then on the friends of God and
then on the religious persons like them. Disaster came upon the Prophet Ayub so also on Noah as he was
tested for a group of people. Whenever the harsh word of a person gave the Prophet sorrow, he used to
say : God showed mercy on my brother Moses who had to suffer much more hardship than this, but he
remained patient. When the Prophets were not secure from the enmity of the oppositionsts and when the
friends of God and the learned were not save from the fools, the friends of God are not free from
dangers and difficulties. They are also tested by trials. They are driven out of towns and cities. They
are blamed before
32 TAUBA Vol-IV
the ruling powers and some men attribute to them infidetlity. The followers of Ma'aifat are known to
the illiterate as fools.
When you have become aware, of the truth of this subtle matter, believe then in the following words of
the Prophet : The man who will come out last of all from Hell will get space ten times of the world. Be
careful of believing only what your external sense organs can catch. If you only believe that, you will
be an ass with two legs as you have got five senses and an ass also has got five senses. The Latifa or
the subtle matter for which you are distinguished from an ass was presented to the heavens, earth and
mountains but they refused to accept in and they were afraid of it. It is not of the material world and
is outside the world governed by five senses. It is included within the spiritual world in which no
lower animal can enter. He who neglects this valuable thing and keeps it as useless, ruins himself. So
don't include yourself within those who forget God. He who does not know except the knowledge gained by
five senses, forgets God as God is not to be known only by the five senses and God makes one forgetful
of his soul who forgets God. He misuses the trust placed in him by God. He is worst than a beast, as a
heart gets salvation after its death but the trust in him after his death will be returned to him.
Nobody except a believer in the unity of God, will come out of Hell. By unity of God, I don't mean only
utterance of "There is no deity but God" as tongue is of this material world and it will not get
benefit except in this material world. The essence of Tauhid is within mind. What is known to be true
will do benefit. Tauhid becomes perfect when it is known that nothing happens except by the command of
God. Its sign is not to get angry with any person, as the cause of an actions is nobody but God.'So
Tauhid is divided into different classes. There are persons whose Tauhid is firm like a rock. There are
persons whose Tauhid is like the weight of a seed. They will nevertheless be taken out of Hell. The
Prophet said : He who has got faith to the weight of a seed will be taken out of Hell.
Most persons believing in Tauhid will go to Hell on account of their oppression on the people. A man
may have mountain
--like virtues but the oppressed people will stand before him. He destroyed the honour of some persons,
misappropriated money of others, beat and assaulted others and backbited others. They
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 33
will be given compensation from his virtues. When his virtues will end the angels will say : 0 Lord,
this man has finished his virtues but there are other claimants. God will say : Add their sins with his
sins and throw him into Hell. So he will enter Hell for the sins of others and the oppressed persons
will get the virtues of the oppressors and will go to Paradise. It is related that one of the friends
of Ibn Jala backbited him. When his friends sought his pardon, he said : I will not forgive him. There
is no virtue in my record of deeds like his virtues. How can I efface it. He also said : Backbiting is
a sin for my friend, but a virtue for me. I wish to embellish my record of deeds therewith.
A physician thinks that a certain patient will die and no medicine will bring his cure. He thinks of
another patient who will be cured. But it is seen that the former patient has recovered and the latter
has died. This is the mystery of God and outside the scope of the knowledge of man. The salvation and
success in the next world is just like that. They have got secret causes outside human knowledge. For
this reason, we should forgive the guilty and not express anger on the virtuous. God says : God does
dot opress anybody-21 Q. 47. He says: God does not oppress anybody to the extent even of an atom. He
says : Man does not earq anything except by his efforts. His efforts will be considered-5S: 38. He says
: Everybody is responsible for his action-6: 115. He says : when they were misguided, He closed their
minds. He says : When they changed their conditions, God changed their condition. God says : God does
not change the condition of a people till they change their own condition. These verses are clear to
those who are adapt in the knowledge of soul just as a person sees anything with his eyes. Eyes in some
cases commit mistakes, as they see near what lies distant and see little what is big. But the eye of
heart or soul cannot commit mistake. To this effect, the Quran says : The heart has not taken as false
what it has seen-53: 11.
Person who get salvation-Salvation means security without fourtune or success. Those who got salvation
did not do divine service and they did not get reward although they were secure of punishment. They are
like boys among the infidels or deranged of brain. They are like those persons who did not receive
invitation to accept Islam and lived in unknown places. They have no knowledge of God and no actions of
religion. They have
got such sin as can keep them away from God. They are neither the inmates or Paradise nor of Hell. They
will remain in a place between Paradise and Hell called A'raf or elevated place.
Rewarded persons-They are not blind believers but are cognisant of God with deep insight. They are the
near ones and will get rewards beyond description. God says : Nobody knows what consoling rewards to
the eyes are reserved for them. The Prophet said that God says : I have prepared for My righteous
servants such reward as no eyes has seen, no ear has heard and no heart of a man has conceived.' The
matter of enquiry of the Arefs or gnostics is to get that condition which no other man in the world can
appreciate. They don't want palaces, beauriful dansels, milk, honey, wine, ornaments of paradise but
they desire for Divine sight the less of which they will not be satisfied. This is the end of fortune
and taste. Hazrat Rabia was asked : What is desirable in Paradise ? She said : To get Neighbour and
then a house. These persons are engrossed in the love of the Master of the house and not of its
embellishments. This condition is called Fana fillah.
WHEN A MINOR SIN TURNED INTO A MAJOR SIN?
(1) The first cause is that any minor sin if done repeatedly turns into a major sin. It is therefore
said : If a minor sin is committed repeatedly, it does not remain a minor sin. If a major sin is
committed and then there is repentance for it, it does not remain a major sin. In short, if a person
commits a major sin and then refrains from it and does not do it again, it is expected to be forgiven
more than a minor sin which he commits repeatedly. For instance, if water falls repeatedly on a stone,
there falls a sign therein but if once only water is flown on it there will be no sign thereon. For
this reason the Prophet, said : A good deed though trifling is good if done always. Anything small, if
done repeatedly, brings good, and anything great, if not done always, is less beneficial to the
progress of soul and its purity. Similarly a minor sin done repetadely turns into a major sin and its
influence to blacken a soul is great. A great -sinner first of all commits minor sins apd then jumps
into a major
sin. A fornicator rarely commits fornication without doing some
deeds of love. A person rarely kills a man without first cherishing
hatred and enmity for him. So before every major sin, minor sins are
committed. If minor sins are , committed throughout life, they
c?nnot be expected to be forgiven, but if a major sin is committed
suddenly, itis expected to be forgiven.
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 35
(2) The second cause is to belittle sin. When a person thinks a sin great, he humbles himself before
the Merciful. When he humbles himself, he becomes great. The influence of sin then does not fall in his
heart to a great extent. If a sin is thought as insignificant, it is understood that the sin has
cemented love with the heart and for this reason its influence on heart is great. Hadis : A beliver
considers a sin hanging like a rock on his head, while a hypocrite considers a sin trifling like a bee
which passes over his nose.' A beliver takes sin as great and think also a minor sin as great. God sent
revelation to a certain Prophet : Don't see the trifling nature of a present but look to the nobility
of the giver of the present. Don't think sin as small but look whom you are opposing by this sin. An
Aref said from this angle of vision : There is no minor sin. Every opposition to God is a great sin. ;A
certain companion said to his successors : You commit such sins which are thinner than your eye-lash
but we regarded them as causes of ruin at the time of the Prophet. The companions regarded the minor
sins as great. For this reason, the ignorant people do not think a minor fault as sin, while the
learned consider it as a major sin. This matter bypasses a blind man but not one having eyes.
(3) Third cause to get pleasure in sin. If pleasure is, found by committing a minor sin, it turns into
a major sin. Whenever the pleasure of a minor sin is great, it turns into a major sin. Even there are
persons who take pride after commission of such minor sins. For instance, one may say : Have you seen
how I have injured his honour and howl have madehimafool?
(4) The fourth cause is to think a minor sin as trifling as it met with no punishment. God has kept his
sin secret and as such IMP keeps patience at it and gives him time to repent and to seek forgiveness,
if the sinner neglects it, the minor sin turns into a major sin. The sinner is unaware that God gives
him time disliking it. He thinks that as the sin does not meet with punishment, God was kind to him.
This is not kindness of God, but it is His plan and trick and nobody can be secure of his sin. God says
: They think that God may give punishment for what they say. Hell is sufficient for them. They will
enter therein. How bad in this place of entry!
(5) The fifth cause is that if a sin is disclosed, it turns into a major sin. If a man commits a sin
and then discloses it or if he commits it in presence of others, he lifts the screen which God has
thrown upon his sin and gives encouragement to others by his
36 TAUBA Vol-IV
sin. If others hear of his sins or see his actions of sins, these are also acts of sin. It appears from
this that one sin creaters another sin and hence his guilt increases. There is in Hadis that the sins
of all, except those who disclose their sins, deserve to be forgiven. A certain sage said : Don't
commit sin. If by chance a sin is committed, don't commit another sin by giving encouragement to
others. For this reason, God says : The hypocrite male and hypocrite female are friends to each other.
They enjoin evil deeds and prohibit good deeds.
(6) Sixth cause. The minor sin of a learned man turns in to a major sin. The reason is that the people
follow the learned men. If any one of them commits a minor sin, the people also commit it as they
follow him. If a learned man puts on silk dress or a gold ring, enjoys the doubtful properties of
others, frequently g es to the darbar of a ruling authority, learns such a learning with which he
wishes to arpe with others and seeks name and fame, these will turn into major sins if the people
follow his actions. Even after his death, these evils continue in the world. Thanks to the learned man
with whose death there is the end of his sin. There is in Hadis that whose introduces a bad custom, his
sin ahd the sins of those who follow him devolve on him and his sins will never be reduced a little.
God says : We shall record what they sent in advance and their signs. The meaning of, these signs is
what remains of their actions after they are done and what -remains with its doer. Hazrat Ibn Abbas
said : Woe to the learned man wno follows in his bad actions. I f he slips he repents but the people
hear it and travel therewith in the country. A certain sage said : The slip of a learned man is like
the break of a boat which capsizes with those who are on board of it.
There is in a book of Banu Israil that a learned man misguided the people by his innovation. Then he
repented and began to do goods deeds for a pretty long time. God revealed to His Prophet to tell him :
If his sin would have been confined between him and Me, I would have forgiven him. How can I forgive
one who misguides My servants ? I will throw him into Hell along with them. It appears from this that
the affairs of the learned men are very serious.. They have got the duty of giving up sin and the duty
of concealing It. As their sins are increased, their virtues also.are increased, as the people follow
them in both their actions. If a learned man gives up the enjoyments of the world
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 37
and attachment of the world and remains satisfied with little food and drink and old clothes, gets
virtues like the virtues of those who followed him in these affairs. If he does the contrary and
remains attached to the enjoyments of the world only, he becomes the cause of these evils.
CONDITION OF TAUBA
Tauba means repentance and determination for not doing the same again. Knowledge, repentance and
determination are the conditions of Tauba. Repentance is the name of grief that comes as a result of
loss of a dear thing. It has got many signs-pangs of mind and sorrow, shedding tears, weeping for a
long time, living in cares and anxieties. What thing other than sins shows path to punishment ? Whoelse
except God and His Apostle is the giver of true news ? There is in Hadis: Live with those who repent,
as their minds are very soft.' There is a story of Banu Israil that a man committed a sin and then
repented and remained engaged for many years in divine service but still his repentance was not
accepted. The Prophet of the time was asked about the acceptance of his Tauba and God revealed to him :
By My honour and glory, if the inmates of heaven and earth make intercession for him, I will not except
his repentance, as the pleasure of sin still lies within his mind.
Question: Mind naturally turns towards sinful acts. Why should there be taste of bitterness ?
Answer: Some one drinks honey mixed with poison and gets these at the time of drinking, but thereafter
he suffers for long after he falls ill, his hairs fall down and his limbs get swollen. if thereafter
honey mixed with poison is given to him although he is then hungry and has got a great desire to enjoy
sweet things, he will hesitate in drinking that honey. The bitterness of sin is like that to a
repentant. So the pleasure of every sin is like the taste of honey but there is poison in it. Without
this belief, Tauba can not be sincere. When this belief becomes difficult his repentance can not be
sincere. Believe that there is a ruinous poison in every sin as you believe firmly that poison is
DETERMINATION OR FIRM WILL: The firm will which comes out of repentance is the will of inquiry. It has
got connection with the present, future and past, Regarding its connection with the present, it gives
advice to one to give up
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 39
every sin, every prohibited thing and to do all compulsory duties. With regard to its connection with
the past, it enquires into omission of duties. With regard to its connection with future, it advices
him to take care, so that there should be no further ommission of compulsory duties and doing divine
service always and giving up sins upto death.
The condition of sincere Tauba is that one should prepare for
correction of past misdeeds. From the day of omission of semen
upto the present time, take account of all ommissions an
commissions and rectify these, observe the omitted prayers, pay
the dues of Zakat and do other duties like fasting and pilgrimage. If you could not have fasted in
Ramzan, you should keep them. If you had means of going to pilgrimage and you now had not done ii, do
it and if you can not do it now owing to poverty, you should try to do it, or else you will be a
sinner. If you die before making pilgrimage, you will die as a sinner as the Proph et said : He who
dies without making pilgrimage may die if he wishes as a Christian, or if he wishes as a Jew. Regarding
other sins, enquire about those committed upto date by your ears, eyes, tongue, stomach, hands, feet
and sexual organ and try to repent for them and remove the wrong's you have done to others by the
commission of sins. Repent sincerely for the sins for breach of duties towards God. Take account of all
the sins from maturity upto date and do one good dead in place of one sin. The Prophet said : "Fear God
wherever you remain and do a good deed after an evil deed and it will effect it. God says : Good deeds
remove the bad ones-11:114 Your object will be to give up every sin as harmful like poison.
Sin is darkness and virtue is light. As darkness can be removed by light, so also sin can be removed by
virtue. This is the easy way for effacing sins, as a thing can be destroyed by its opposite thing. Love
for the world is the root of all sins. The Prophet said : There are some kinds of sins which are
expiated only by cares and anxieties. The Prophet also said : When the sins of a man become' too much
and there remains no such good deed which can expiate his sins, God admits in his mind cares and
anxiteties which expiate his sins.
Question: Man's cares and anxieties generally arise in connection with his properties, children, name
and fame. Can they be expiation of sins ?
Answer: To love the above things are sins but if he is deprived of those things, his sins are expiated.
It is narrated that Gabriel once came to Joseph in his prison. The latter asked him : How far have you
burdened my old father with sorrows and anxieties ? Gabriel said : He has been given sorrows to the
extent of grief of a mother who lost one hundred sons. Joseph said What rank will he get near God
therefore ? Gabriel said : "The rank of one hundred martyrs".
BREACH OF DUTIES TOWARDS THE PEOPLE : In this matter also you have some duty towards God as He
prohibited the people from oppression. So for this breach of duty he should be penitently sincere to
Him and promise not to do it again in future. Be kind to a man whom you have oppressed. Return to him
his properties, if you have taken them unjusty. Praise one whose honours you have destroyed. Speak good
of your neighbour whom you have backbited. These will not save you, unless you refrain from doing wrong
to others. If you have done harm to the life or honour of a man or given trouble to his heart, you have
oppressed him. If you have killed a person out of mistake, give blood money to his heirs.
It is reported that Maez-bin-Malek came to the Prophet and said "0 Messenger of God, I have committed
fromiction and I have oppressed my soul. So purify me. This is my wish." The Prophet turned him back.
On the following day, he came again to the Prophet and said as above. He turned him back for the second
time. When he said this for the third and fourth time, he passed orders for his punishment. A pit was
dug for him and he was put therein and stoned to death. There were two parties over this affairs. Some
said "He has been ruined". Some said "This is no other 'sincere Tauba like his." The Prophet said " He
has repented in such a way that if it would have been divided among the people, it would have been
sufficient for them."
On another day, one Gamedi woman came to the Prophet and said "I have committed fornication, purify
me." The Prophet turned her away. On the following day she came again to the Prophet and said "0
messenger of God, why, did you turn me away ? You have thought that as you have turned away Maez, you
will also turn me away. By God, I have conceived." The Prophet said "Go away till you give birth to a
child." Immediately after the child was born, she came to the Prophet
40 TAUBA Vol-IV
with the child putting on a torn cloth and said "My child is born." The Prophet said "Go and suckle it,
till it comes to an end.' When
the suckling ended, she came to the Prophet with the boy in
whose hand there was a piece of bread. She said "0 Prophet of
God, I have finished suckling and now he has been taking food." The Prophet then handed over the boy to
a Muslim. A pit was dug upto her breast and the Prophet then passed order to stone her to death. Hazrat
Khalid-bin-Walid threw a piece of stone on her head which gave out a streak of blood which fell on his
face and he was rebuking her. The Prophet heard it, rebuked him for it and said "Stop 0 Khalid, One in
whose hand there lies my life, she has made such a Tauba that if a collector of Zakat in excess of
limit makes such Tauba, his Tauba will be accepted. She was then buried after funeral prayer. If the
money of somebody was taken by force or there was a breach of trust or the wages of a labourer were not
paid or paid less, it is incumbent to gather information of these things from the time of maturity upto
date and to pay their just dues.
REGARDING PROPERTY: If the owner is known. It is incumbent on him to return it to him. If the owner is
not known it should be given in charity. If you have given trouble to the mind of anybody. Seek pardon
from him. The Prophet said "One of your predecessors killed 99 persons and asked: Who is the wisest man
in the world? When a saint was mentioned to him, he came to the saint and said "0 saint, I have killed
99 persons. Will my Tauba be accepted?" The saint said "Your Tauba will not be accepted." Hearing this,
he killed the saint and filled up his number of murders to one hundred. Then he enquired of the
greatest learned man in the world. When his name was mentioned, he came to him and asked him: I have
killed one hundred persons. Will my Tauba be accepted? He said "Yes, your Tauba will be accepted. What
is the reason of its not being accepted? There you will find some persons engaged in divine service. Do
divine service along with them and don't come to your native place as the land is not good." When the
man was half way to that land he breathed his last.
The angel of mercy and the angel of punishment quarreled with each other regarding his case. The angel
of mercy said "He has repented and turned his face towards God". The angel of punishment said "He did
never do any good deed." When
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 41
another angel in the form of a man came there, they took him as an umpire to settle the matter. He said
"Fix the distance between the two paths and he will get the path which is nearest to him." They
measured the two paths and found that he crossed the path of repentance more than the other path. Then
the angel of mercy took him with him and he was forgiven.
DETERMINATION IN FUTURE
Firm determination shall have to be taken, so that sins are not committed in future. Hold firm
connection with God, take such firm determination; that no such sin is committed in future. Be like
such a patient who knows in his illness that the eating of fruits will do his harm 3Ind for that he
takes such firm resolve that till he is cured he will not take fruits again. Till such firm resolve is
made, there will be no Tauba. Your Tauba will not be perfect till you keep separate from your greed,
keep silence, eat less and sleep less and take firm precautions in eating lawful things, as eating of
unlawful things is the root of all sins. He who can not give up greed in foods and drinks, his eating
of lawful things and giving up of doubtful things are not sufficient. A certain sage said "If a man
repents for his sins and keeps patience for seven years, he will not again come to that sin."
Question: What is your opinion regarding (1) a person who forgets his sins and does not think of it and
(2) a person who remembers his sin and does not forget it?
Answer : One section of the learned men say that Tauba means keeping sins in front. Another section say
that it means to forget sins. To us, these two opinions are both true according to circumstances. There
are many ways to go to God, some near and some distant. To keep sins in front and to remember them is
good for a beginner in the path of religion, as in case he forgets them, his repentance will not
increase and for that his will to walk in they way to God will not be so strong. If he remembers his
sins, his sorrows will increase and he will fear to commit them again. The above person is better than
a careless person, but it is more injurious to a sojourner for religion as in the case of journey
remembrance of sin is an impediment, Rather he should not deviate from the straight path of religion.
In case sexual passion becomes strong, if the sin of fornication is remembered, it is injurious and to
forget it is better. The Prophet said "Be careful, I
42 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 43
commit no mistake, but I am thrown to a mistake, so that I may understand it". In another narration, I
am made to forget in order'; to establish a way of life. The Prophet talked to men according to' their
intelligence. When Hazrat Hasan took some dates in his mouth to eat, the Prophet said "Kakh, Kakh"
meaning vomit it. He did not then understand the word "Vomit the dates" as he was then too young. So he
made him to understand with the words of a child that it is unlawful. Similarly, if a person calls a
bird or a beast with particular words, it responds to him and it does not respond to any other words.
So be not indifferent to these words.
1. Class of repentant : The repentants are of four classes. The first class are those who repent for
sins that may be committed upto the end of their lives and those who repent for past sins and take care
not to commit sins in future. As a result of habits, some evil thoughts may arise in his mind. For this
one should stay on repentance, advance towards good deeds and give up evil ones. The name of this Tauba
is Tauba Nasuha or sincere repentance. The mind of such a repentant is called Nafse Mutmainna or quiet
mind. It returns to its Lord well pleased with Him and well pleasing Him-89: 26. The Prophet said with
regard to these persons Mufarredun went in advance." They are desirous of God's remembrances. Zikr has
pulled down from them their burdens. So they will come with light burdens on the Resurrection Day. It
is seen that there is the burden of Zikr on them, but actually it is Zikr which has taken away their
burden. They have different ranks. There are some repentants whose desires fall under the flow of
divine knowledge and become quite. Another class of repentants can not save themselves from clash with
their low desires and they take delay to turn them back with efforts. There are some persons who meet
with death after repentance. Some person make Jihad with their passion after Tauba keep patience and
remain upon Tauba. Their rank is highest as their good deeds destroy their evil deeds. A certain sage
said : If a sinner commits a sin and restrains himself from it after getting opportunity of committing
it again out of fear of God and keeps patience and controls his sexual desire, it expiates his sins.
This condition is very difficult but its result is very good.
2. The second class of repentants : Such a person after repentance keeps himself firm for some days,
gives up major sins and does divine service, but he is not free from such sins owing to
pressure of circumstances although he has got no such object. He does not have a firm will to do that
sin but if he commits it, he becomes repentant and sorrowful. Then he resolves that he will not to do
that sin but if he becomes repentant and sorrowful. Then he resolves that he will not do it again. The
mind which has got such a state is called Nafse Lawwamah or self- accusing soul. This Tauba is less
than that of the first class. Evil is mixed with the blood of man and he can hardly release himself
from it. God says : God is openhanded in pardoning those who give up major sins and indecencies except
passing thoughts of sins. An evil thought suddenly crops up in mind along with the minor sins. He had
no previous thought about it. So this kind of evil thought is pardonable. God says : When they do
indecent acts or oppress themselves and then remember God and seek forgiveness for their sins. So it
seen that God praised them for their repentance inspite of oppression on their soul. For this rank, the
Those who repent after commission of a sin are the best among you. In another narration, a believer is
like a stalk of corn. Sometime its head rises up straight and sometimes bends down The Prophet said: A
believer is not free from sin.
This shown that Tauba is not called for these sins. Such a guilty person does not reach the stage of a
sinner. The Prophet said : Every son of Adam is a sinner. Among the sinners, those persons are good who
repent and seek forgiveness. He said also "A believer may commit many sins but is busy in repentance.
God says "They will be given double rewards on account of their patience, and thereby remove the evils
by good deeds." God says in this verse that they do good deeds after commission of a sin. He did not
say that they do not commit sins.
3. The third class of repentants : Such a repentants keeps himself alright for some time and then his
passion becomes strong for commission of sins. As a result, he advances towards sin, being unable to
control his passion. Inspite of this he does divine service always, but can not give up one or two
sinful actions. He loves that it would have been better if God gave him power to control them. After
the sin, he becomes repentant and says "Alas, had I not done it" This soul as called Nafse Mosawaalah
or questioning soul. God says regarding these persons "And about others, they recognize their sins and
they mix good works with them and others mix evil deeds." These
persons continue to do good deeds and expect forgiveness for
their sins and faults. Many a time such a man dies before
repentance. The region of the next world and its enjoyment falls
on that person whose soul is saved and who purifies his soul for a
long time as decreed by God in his destiny. For this reason, God
says : By the oath of soul and what it purifies, He informs it of its
evil deeds and its God-fear. He gets salvation, who purifies it
and he is ruined who pollutes it-91: 7. The Prophet said : A man
may continue to do good deeds upto seventy years. Even the people then say that he is one of the
inmates of Paradise. There is then the distance of half a cubit between him and Paradise. Then suddenly
his fate comes forward and he begins to work the deeds of the inmates of Hell and then he enters Hell.
So there is the fear of death before his Tauba. Man's every breath may be his last breath and death may
be linked up with that breath.
4. Fourth class of repentants : These persons repent and remain in that condition for some days and
then again return to sin. They feel no sorrow for their sins and do not mind to repent. These persons
are included within the habitual sinners. Such a soul is called Nafse Ammarah or a soul prone the
evils. Such a soul runs towards evils after returning from good deeds. There is fear for such a man in
the end. If he dies upon good and upon Tauba, he will await his release from hell although it will
occur after some time. So to seek forgiveness by divine service is like acquiring education by efforts
arid like seeking wealth by trade by crossing the big seas. All the people, except the learned are
deprived of fortune. All the learned men except those who do good deeds are deprive of fortune. All the
doers of goods deeds are deprived of fortune except those who sincerely do good for the sake of God.
They also remain in anxieties. Those who hope for God's forgiveness without any good deed at their
credit are fools, as God says "There is nothing for man except what he strives for." The wealth of the
world is short lived, still it is subject to hard labour. How can you expect rewards without hard
labour and sincere efforts in the next world ?
EXPLANATION OF VOLUNTARY AND
If a man commits a sin, he has got two compulsory dutiesTauba or repentance, and then doing a good
deed. A thing can be destroyed by its opposite, such as cold by heat. So a bad deed can
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 45
be removed by a good deed done immediately after it. ;If the evil deed rises from mind, its expiation
is to seek forgiveness with all the humility of a slave. Expiation by tongue is admission of evil and
seeking forgiveness from God saying. '0 Lord I have done oppression to my soul and committed sin. So
forgive my sins". Expiation by bodily limb is to pray, to give charity and to do divine services.
It appears from the sayings of the sages that after the commission of sin, if eight good deeds are
done, it may be forgiven. The actions of heart regarding expiation of sins are four-Tauba, to think of
a good thing, to take precautions of sins and to fear punishment for sins and for that to expect
forgiveness. The actions of limbs are four regarding expiation of sins - (1) To pray two rak'ats
immediately after commission of a sin. (2) then to pray for forgiveness to God seventy times and to
recite ( God is great with His praise ) one hundred times, (3) to give charity, and then (4) to keep
fast. Some wise man said "After sin, make ablution well and pray two rak'ats in a mosque." There is in
a Hadis :'When you commit a sin, do a good deed immediately, pray secretly, if you do a sinful act
secretly and pray openly if you do a sinful act openly. A certain sage said "Sin committed at night is
expiated by secret charity and sin committed at day time is expiated by open charity. There is in a
Hadis : A man came to the Prophet and said I have committed every sort of sin with a woman except
fornication. Give judgment against me according to the laws of God. The Prophet said : Have you not
said the morning prayer with us ? He said "Yes, I have prayed." The Prophet said "Certainly good deeds
remove evil ones." It appears from this that except fornication, any other act with a strange woman is
a minor sin. The minor sins committed during five prayers are expiated by these prayers.
Different stages of seeking forgiveness: Hazrat Sahal Tastari said "It is necessary for a slave to
approach his master in every condition. So it is better to return to the master in every matter. If he
commits a sin he says : 0, Lord keep it a secret. When he finishes his sinful act, he says: 0, Lord.
accept my repentance. When he repents, he says "0 Lord, make me sinless". When he does an act, he says,
0 Lord, accept this from me. Once a man asked him about such seeking of forgiveness as expiation of
sins. He said "The beginning of seeking forgiveness is Izlijabat,
46 TAUBA Vol-IV
then Enabat and then Tauba. Izlijabat means seeking forgiveness
by moving bodily limbs. Enabat means mental act of seeking forgiveness by sincere motive and good
wishes. Tauba means to give up the people and to return to the Creator. After Tauba, he shall take
recourse to silence and remain upon Tauba. The object of Tauba is to get two benefits-firstly, to
expiate for sins in such a way that he can be classed with the man who did not commit sin; secondly, to
gain such a rank as he can be addressed as a friend.
There are several steps for expiation of sins. Some steps efface the root of evils from its root. Some
steps make the sin light. Expiation differs according to the rank of repentants. Don't thing a good
think as insignificant even if it is every small. A certain foolish woman in order to ward off the
troubles of weaving thread says "I can prepare only one piece of thread in an hour. What will you do
with one piece of thread ? Can a piece of cloth be made with one piece of thread only ?" The foolish
woman does not know that all the cloths in the world are woven with so many threads and the world
inspite of its spaciousness, was created by so many atoms. In short, to seek forgiveness and
to express humility before God is such a virtuous act which will never be destroyed.
A certain disciple asked his Pir Abu Osman Magribi "Sometimes my tongue utters Zikr and Quran reading,
but my mind remains then absent. He said : Be grateful to God that He kept one of your organs in a
virtuous act, habituates you in Zikr, and has not engaged you in evil deeds." The saying of the sage is
indeed true. If you can habituate your bodily limbs in good works till it turns into habit, you will
removing great many sins. If a man has got the habit of uttering "Astagferullah" I seek forgiveness of
God he will at once say "Astagferullah." if he hears a false talk from anybody. For this reason, God
says "God does not spoil the records of the doers of good." God says "If you do a good deed. He will
increase it and give you profuse rewards from Him." Hazrat Jafar Sadeq said "God kept three things
secret in three things-(I) His pleasure in divine service, so don't neglect anything of divine service,
perhaps there lies His pleasure therein. (2) His wrath in sins. So don't neglect a trifling thing, as
there may be His wrath there in. (3) Hissecret friendship amongst His servants, so don't disregard any
of them, as he may be a friend of God. He added another thing -His hidden answer in his
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 47 invocation. So don't give up invocation, often a reply may
MEDICINE FOR UNWILLINGNESS TO REPENT
There are two classes of men : On class of young men have got no attraction towards evils. They grow on
good things and give up evils. The Prophet said : Your Lord is pleased with that young man who has got
no attraction towards evils, such a man is rare, but most honoured. The second class of men are not
free from attraction towards evils. They are subdivided into two-those who repent after commission of
sins and those who are engaged in sins all the time. Tauba cannot be earned without curable medicine.
He who cannot diagnose a disease cannot know its medicine. Every disease has got its primary or root
cause and to remove that case is its medicine. Without an opposite thing, it cannot be removed. Greed
and negligence are the causes of engagement in sins. Carefulness is opposite to negligence and patience
is opposite to greed. Negligence is the root of all evils. God says : They are negligent, there is no
doubt that they will be losers in the next world: The medicine of Tauba is the mixture of some
ingredients-sweetness of knowledge and bitterness of patience. A mind affected with the disease of
repeatedly committing sins should be treated with a mixture of knowledge and patience.
Question : Is every knowledge profitable for removal of repeated sins ?
Answer : There is expert knowledge about a special disease, just as the science of treatment is
necessary for treatment of general diseases. A man of this type of disease must have faith in several
(i) He must have faith that there are certain causes of disease and health. God has recorded their
causes and given us freedom to select those causes. Firm faith grows out of it in the rootscience of
medicine as he who has no faith in this science will not take to treatment and has got nothing but
ruiq. Similarly repeated commission of sins cannot be removed without faith in the fundamental matters
of religion. That is .this. There are causes of fortunes in the next world and those causes are
virtues, and there are causes of misfortunes in the next world and those causes are sins. This is the
faith in the basic principle of religion.
48 TAUBA Vol-IV
(ii) The second subject is that a patient must have faith in a certain physician that he has got expert
knowledge in a particular branch of medicine and special proficiency in the process of treatment.
Similarly the sinner must have faith in the fact that the prophet is a true Prophet and all that he
said are true without the slightest tinge of falsehood.
(iii) The third subject is that as a patient must obey with attention and care the instructions of the
physician regarding diet and other injurious things, so also one addicted to sin must hear the verses
of the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet with attention or follow these instructions with fear of
God. (iv) The fourth subject is that as a patient must have look to what the physician gives
instructions, so also every man should pay attention to what a spiritual guide says, though he has not
for everything and does not commit every kind of sin. Every
believer has got a special sin. The learned men of religion know about these and give instructions
accordingly. They must take the lessons of religion to the people according to their diseases. This
world is the abode of patients or hospital, as there are only dead men under the earth and patients
above the earth. The number of patients of heart diseases is more than that of the patients of bodily
diseases. The learned spiritual men are the physicians of heart diseases and the kings are the
care-takers of the hospitals. The patients which does not take the medicine of a learned man should be
handed over to the king, so that he may cure him of this evil as a physician hands over a patient who
does not observe the rules or who is mad.
DISEASE OF SOUL : It is more severe than that of body. There are three causes for which disease of soul
is more severe than the disease of body. The first cause is that the patient does not know that he is
sick. The second cause is that the result of the disease of soul is not seen in the world as the
disease of body is seen. That death is the result of bodily disease is seen and one does not like it.
Death of soul is the ultimate result of sin. That is not seen in the world and for this reason hatred
for sin is less. If however the sinner knows it even, you will see that he depends more upon God's
mercy for cure of the disease of soul. He works very hard by giving up idleness for cure of the bodily
disease but he does not work so much for cure of the disease of soul. The third cause is that no
physician can diagnose this incurable
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 49
disease. The learned men are the physicians and they are also attacked with the incurable diseases of
the age and so they are baffled in their treatment. This disease is not openly seen as it exists in
everybody. They teach such things to the people as increase their disease, as love of this world is
their serious disease. This disease is found in the physicians themselves. They are said : You are
talking about treatment but you yourselves have forgotten it. The people are going to destruction on
account of the death of physicians as the physicians themselves are engaged in eating evil and
Hope and fear are two medicines, but they are applicable to various diseases. He whose fear is strong
has given up this world wholly and burdened himself with additional burdens and confined himself within
narrow provision. To him the causes of hope are many while the causes of fear are few. He who
repeatedly commits sins and is despaired of repentance for many sins inspite of his will for repentance
should be treated with the cause of hope so that he may expect acceptance of his repentance. If he who
is misguided and engaged in sins and still hopes for God's mercy, is like that person who is treated
with honey inspite of his body being very heated. This is the way of the fools and the illiterate. ,
THERE ARE FOUR MODES OF GIVING UP SINS
(1) The first mode is to remind the verses of fear to the sinners and transgressors. The Prophet said :
The sun does not rise and no darkness comes down without the two angels communicating with each other
by four voices. One angel says How good it would have been if men were not created. Another says : How
good it would have been if after creation of men they knew the cause of their creation. Again the first
angel says : How good it would have been if after knowing the cause of creation of men they worked
according to their knowledge. In another narration, how good it would have been if they discussed with
one another about what they knew. Another angel says : How good it would have been if they repented for
not doing what they knew. An earlier sage said : When a man commits a sin, the angel of the right side
calls the angel of the left side : Don't write it for six hours with your pen. If he repents and seeks
forgiveness, he does not write it. If he does not seek forgiveness, he writes it. Another 'ancient sage
said. When a man commits a sin, the
ground underneath that place seeks permission to sink down with him under the abyss and the sky above
his head seeks permission to fall upon him. Then God says to that ground and the sky : Keep yourself
away from My servant and leave him, as you have not created him. If you had created him, you would have
shown him mercy. Perchance he will repent to Me and I may accept his repentance. Perchance he will do
good works in place of it and I will grant him reward. In the spirit of this, God says : God restrains
the heavens and the earth to fall down. If they fall down, who is there besides Him to hold them back?
There is tradition reported by Hazrat Omar: One who gives seal hangs down with the pillars of the
Throne. When somebody tears off this hidden screen and considers an unlawful thing as lawful, God sends
down a sealer to seal upon his soul. As a result what is with it becomes covered. There is a tradition
reported by Muzahed: Soul is like the front of an open hand. When a man commits a sin, a finger is
closed. This is the meaning of seal. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: There is a fixed limit between man and
his Creator. When he reaches that limit, God Himself puts a seal on his soul. Thereafter, he finds no
inclination to do good deeds.
There are many traditions and wise sayings about punishment of sin and praise of those who repent. If
one inherits the Prophet, he should make much admonition therewith. The Prophet left no legacy but left
only learning and wisdom. The more he gets learning therefrom the more legacy he gets from
(2) Second mode: To narrate the lives of the Prophets and of the saints and pious men and of the
dangers and difficulties that fell on them on account of their sins are profitable for the souls of men
and fruitful. It is also to be narrated how the Prophet Adam was punished for only one sin and how he
was driven out of Paradise. It is narrated that when he ate the fruits of the forbidden tree, his dress
flew away from his body and his private parts became exposed but his head-gear and cover of his face
felt shame to go away from him.
Then Gabiel came down and took his head gear and cover of his face. Then it was proclaimed from heaven:
Go down from Me, as he who disoboyed Me is not worthy to remain with Me. Hazrat
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 51
Adam looked towards Hawa and saw that she weeping. He said: This is the first sign of our disobedience
It was narrated that for forty days an idol was worshipped in the house of the Prophet Solaiman for
which he was punished. In another narration, a woman sought justice from Solaiman in respect of a
matter of her father. He promised to do justice but afterwards he did not do it. In another narration,
the woman thought that Hazrat Solaiman would deliver judgement in favour of her father as she had some
rank before Solaiman. For this sin, the reign of Solaiman was robbed of for forty days for which he
became afraid. He fell into such disaster that he did not even get food when he was hungry. When he
sought for food saying: Give me food, I am Solaiman, son of David, the people used to rebuke and beat
him and drive him out. It was narrated that during this time when he wanted food from his wife, she
spate on his face and drove him out. There is another narration that an old woman poured urine over his
head from a pot. Then God took out his ring from the stomach of a fish and he put it on for forty days
after his punishement. Thereafter birds came and sat upon his head and jinn, birds and beasts began to
gather around him. Solaiman said: I will not rebuke you for harsh treatment with me before and will not
praise you for your excuse become me at present. These affairs came from God and there was no other
There is a story of Banu Israil that a man married a foreign woman in her country. He sent his slave to
bring her home. On the way the slave felt sexual desire to cohabit with her but restrained himself with
great difficulties. For his patience, God rewarded him with the office of prophet-hood over the
children of Israil. It was narrated that Moses once asked Khizr. Why have God given you kno*ledge of
the unseen? He said: For giving up sins in order to incur the pleasure of God.
It is said that even wind traveled with Solaiman. He was once pleased with his dress and looked at it.
Suddenly the wind threw him down and he said: I obeyed you till you obeyed God. It is narrated that God
sent down revelation to Hazrat Eakub: Do you know why I have separated your son Eusuf from you? He
said: I don't know. God said: The reason is that you said to your sons: When you remain indifferent, I
fear lest tiger may devour him. Why did you fear for him an attack of tiger and did not
52 TAUBA Vol-IV
depend on Me? Why did you look at their heedlessness and did not hope My protection? Do you know why I
returned him to you? Hazrat Eakub said: I don't know. He said: You relied on Me and said: Perchance God
may return all of them to me. You said also: Go and search for Eusuf and his brother and be not
dispaired. When Hazrat Yousuf said to his prisoner: Remind me to your master, God said: The devil made
him forgetful of his Lord. For that he stayed prison for some years.
Thus there are many stories. The Quran and Hadis did not narrate them only for the sake of stories but
its object is"to admonish and to disclose the secret meaning, so that you may know that even prophets
were not free from these sins. So how can the other people get free from major sins? The prophets
received punishment in this world for minor sins and it was not kept in abeyance for the next world.
The unfortunate only are given time, so that their sins may increase, as the punishment of the
hereafter is very severe and most fearful. These stories should be narrated to the sinners, so that
they may adopt the modes of repentance.
(3) Third mode: The sinners should be told that the punishment of sins is expected to be meted out in
this world and that the basic cause of dangers and difficulties that befall on men is their sin. May
people think the next worldly punishment as easy and this worldly punishment as severe. The reason is
their ignorance about the next world. These people should be told repeatedly about the punishement of
this world. They should be told that their livelihood may be curtailed on account of their sins, their
honour may be marred and their enemies may increase. The Prophet said: When a man commits sins: he
deprived of his liveli hood. Hazrat-Ibn-Masud said: I think that a man forgets his learning owing to
his commission of sins. In this context, the Prophet said: Wisdom goes away from a man who commits sins
and it never comes to him. An ancient sage said: It is not misfortune that a man's face becomes black
and he meets with loss of property, but misfortune is that he gives up a sin but commits it again or a
more heinous sin.
There is a story of a certain Aref that he was walking in a muddy land raising up his wearing apparel
for fear of slipping down. Then he slipped and he fell down. He wept and said: My slip has been like
the slip of one who walks by the side of a sin for
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 53
saving himself from the sin and then slips into a sin or two and then falls deeply therein. For this
reason the saint Fazili said: Whatever turn of fortune and loss of friendship occur, it is only for
your sin. A certain sage said. I will consider the oppression of rats as punishment of my sin. A
certain Sufi of Syria said: I was looking at the beautiful face of a christian boy. At that time Ibn
Jala Dameski was passing by that way. He caught hold of my hand and I was ashamed I said: 0 Abu
Abdullah, glory to God. I was charmed with the uncommon beauty of this boy. I don't know the wisdom of
God that He created this beautiful boy for Hell. He pressed my hand and said: You will see its
punishment after a while. After 30 years, I saw its punishment.
Abu Solaiman Darani said: Emission of semen in dream is a punishment. He said: Nobody misses a
congregational prayer except for sins. There is in Hadis, God says: When a man puts his greed above his
divine service, the lowest punishment is that I deprive him of the pleasure of invocation.
Abu Amer Olman narrated a story to this effect: I stood up for prayer when I felt urge of sexual
passion which continued long. I felt a strong urge for cohabitation with a boy. I fell down on the
ground and my whole body became black. Then I concealed myself and did not come out for three days. I
went to the public bath room and washed my body but it increased blackness. After three days, the blood
of the body became clean. Then I went to Bagdad to meet Hazrat Junaid. I asked him about it. He said:
Are you not ashamed that you have made your sexual passion strong after standing before God? Then God
drove you out from His presence. Had I not prayed for you and repented on your behalf to God, you would
have met with God with that color. He said: l wondered how he came to know of it, when I was atRekka
and he was inBagdad.
Dear readers, know that the face of soul of man becomes black if he commits sins. If he is not a
virtuous man, his black color spreads over his face. If he is unfortunate, it remains on his soul which
becomes black and becomes fit to be burnt by fire. The disaster of sin in the world is poverty, illness
and other evils as seen in various traditions. If any disaster comes to any person, it is owing to his
sin. He is deprived of good provision and his misfortune is doubled. If any grace reaches him, it is
prolonged for him but he is deprived of expressing gratefulness, till he is
54 TAUBA Vol-IV
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 55
punished for ungratefulness. He who is virtuous, has blessing for divine service. He is then given
grace of expressing gratefulness and his disaster is panacea for his sins and increases his rank.
(4) Fourth mode: It is to state the prescribed sentences for the prescribed crimes, such as drinking
wine, fornication, murder, slander and other sins. Give such advice to a person for which he is
deserving of advice. If you give such advice to a person for which he is not deserving, you will be
giving medicine to a person who does not require it. The learned man should begin treatment just like
an experienced physician who sees first his patient's appearance. The Prophet was once asked: 0
Messenger of God, give me advice but not more. He said: Don't be angry. Another person said: 0
Messenger of God, give me advice. The Prophet said: Don't be disappointed at seeing what is in the
possession of man. This is called freedom from want. Be careful of greed, as the meaning of greed is
freedom from the worldly wants. Pray in such a manner that you are leaving the world for good. Be
careful of what you take as an excuse.
A. person said to Ibn Wase: Give me advice. He said, I advice you to be an angel in this world and the
world next. He said: How shall I be able to become such? He said: Adopt renunciation in the world. The
Prophet sensed anger in the mind of the first questioner. So he prohibited him to get angry. He saw in
the second than greed for wealth and long hope and advised him accordingly. Ibn Waes saw in the third
person attachment towards the world and so he advised him accordingly. A man asked Hazrat Ma'az: Give
advice. He said: be kind, I may then guarantee Paradise for you, He perceived in him by his foresight
harsh conduct and hard heart. Once a man said to Ibrahim Ibn Adham: Give me advice. He said: Be careful
of men and keep company of the virtuous people, as men are subjects of thoughts of men. Every man is
not a real man. Real men passed away and there remain only ghosts. I don't consider them as men.
Hazrat Muwayiah wrote a letter to Hazrat Ayesha: Give me advice, but not more. Hazrat Ayesha wrote:
From Ayesha to Muwayiah. I heard from the Prophet who said: 'God makes one free from want of men who
seeks pleasure of God by incurring the displeasure of men and He entrusts one to the people who incurs
displeasure of God by pleasing the people. Salam to you.' Now look to the wisdom of Hazrat.&yesha, how
she gave caution
of danger to the rulers. At another time she wrote to Muwayiah: Fear God, He will protect you from men
and when you will fear men, they will not be able to do you benefit in presence of God. Salam to you."
So every adviser should advice according to the necessity of a particular man.
There are foods and medicines in theological learnings food for all people and medicine for patients
only. An illustration is given below. A man said to Abu Sayeed Khodri: Give me advice. He said: Fear
God as it is the root of all good. Take recourse to Jihad, as there is no monkery in Islam. Take td the
Quran, as it is the light for you among the inhabitants of the world and as it is a reminder to the
inhabitants of heaven. Take to silence as you will drive away the devil therewith.
Once a man said to Hasan Basari: Give me advice. He said: Honour the commandments of God, God will
honour you. The wise Loqman advised his son: 0 my darling, attach your lance with the learned, but
dispute not with them, lest they may cherish harted for you. Take from the world what is absolutely
necessary for you and spend for your next world your excess wealth. Don't put your own burden to the
shoulder of others by giving up completely this world. Keep fast in such a way as can destroy your
greed and fast not in such a way as may spoil your prayer as prayer is better than fasting. Don't mix
with the fools and hypocrites. He said to his son another time: 0 my darling, don't do any work with
displeasure. Don's go out on a journey without necessity. Don't ask a thing which will not be
beneficial to you. Don't squander your wealth and don't consider the wealth of others as good. What you
send in advance is your wealth and what you leave behind is the wealth of others. 0 my darling, he who
is kind gets kindness. He who keeps silent remains secure. He who speaks good gets benefit and he who
speaks evil, commits sin. He who does not control his tongue becomes repentant. A man asked Hazrat Abu
Hazem: Give me advice. He said: Do what will benefit you at the time of death and give up what will go
against you at the time of death.
Hazrat Moses said to Khizr: Give me advice. He said: walk with a smiling face and don't walk with an
angry face. Be benefactor and not an injurious man. Give up disputation and walk not without necessity,
don't laugh out without being
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 57
satisfies and don't accuse the sinners without sharing in their sins. 0 son of Imran, weep for your
A man said to Mohammad bin Keran: Give me advice. He said: Make efforts to please your Creator as you
make efforts to satisfy yourself. A man asked Hamid Lefafa: Give me advice. He said: See that disasters
and dangers may not destroy your religion. Prepare for it a cover like that of the Quran. He asked:
What is the cover of religion? He said: To give up search of this world except for things absolutely
necessary, not to talk except what is absolutely necessary and to give up the company of men except for
I-Ia2fat Hasan Basari wrote to Caliph Abdul Aziz: After praise o C,od and blessings on the Prophet fear
what God said of be feared. Be careful of what God said to be careful. Take for your fortune from what
is in your possession. Sure news will come to you at the time of your death. Salam to you.
Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz wrote to Hazrat Hasan Basari: Write to me a letter advising me. He wrote in
reply: After praise of God and blessing on His Prophet, cares and disasters lie before you. Either you
must meet with salvation or with destruction. Know that one who takes account of himself gets benefit
and he who is unmindful is a loser. He who sees the ultimate end gets salvation. He who conducts
himself with greed is misguided. He who keeps patience rises above wants. He who fears God is secure.
He who is secure accepts advice. He who accepts advice is blessed with deep insight. He who is blessed
with deep insight gets understanding and wisdom. He who slips returns. He who repents uproots evils.
Ask when you know not and restrain anger.
The saint Matruf wrote to Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz: After praise of'God and blessings on His Prophet: 0
commander of the faithful, this world is an abode of punishment. He who has got not wisdom hoards
wealth for it. He who has got no wisdom is deceived thereby. Live in this world as one who treats his
wound and keeps patience at the bitterness of medicines fearing the result of disease. Caliph
Omar-b-Abdul Aziz wrote to Adi-b- Artata: After Hamd and Salat, this world is an enemy of God's friends
and a friend of the foes of God. It is an object of reception for the foes of God.
He wrote to one of his governors: After praise of God and blessings on His Prophet, your power has been
usurped from the oppression of the people. When you intend to do oppression on any one, remember God's
power on you. Know that what reaches from you to the people will pass away but it will remain with you.
Know that God will obtain for the oppressed people the rewards of the oppressors. Salam to you.
Such are the forms of admonition and advice to the people. Such sort of advice is like food from which
every one gets benefit. Such advisers are rare as the doors of advice have been closed and sin and
disturbance gained ground. This is the first mode of treatment and the first root.
SECOND ROOT IS PATIENCE: The basic medicine of repeated sins is patience. Why is patience necessary?
One reason is that the sinner is careless about the injurious effect of good. Another reason is that
his greed becomes strong. We have described the medicine for carelessness. Now we shall narrate the
medicine of greed. The gist of it is that when a patient's injuries increase, his mode of treatment is
that first of all he must have knowledge of the injury and then remove it so that it may not come to
him again. In every circumstance, the bitterness of patience shall have to be adopted. There should be
similar, treatment of sexual passion. He should first know the injurious effect of sin and think of the
verses of the Quran and Hadis about it. When fear increases, he shall have to remove the cause which in
crease the sexual passion. It grows out of outward things. To flee away from those things and to adopt
loneliness are the medicines. The medince of the greed of delicious foods is to remain hungry and to
fast consequitive days. Without patience these two modes cannot be adopted. Without knowledge fear does
not grow. Knowledge also cannot arise without insight, thoughts and strong blind faith. The first thing
is to be present in the assembly off. Zikr and sermons and then to hear religious sermons after giving
up all thoughts of the world. God makes the path of one easy who has been given the strength of good
attention, who fears God after knowing the objects of fear, who hopes for rewards and knows good words
as true; and He makes the path of one difficult who straightens his hands, thinks himself above wants
and knows the true things as false.
58 TAUBA Vol-IV
CAUSES OF COMMISSION OF SINS
1. First cause. The punishment of sin is not presently seen and lies in the womb of future.
2. Second cause: It is the.present taste of the greed which leads to the sinful act. His habit assumes
strong form owing to love for sin. Habit is the fifth nature. The present taste over nature
predominates over the future tastes. For this reason God says, Never rather you love the present and
discards the future. God says: Rather you love the pleasure of the world's life. The gravity of this
affair is rendered clear from this word of the Prophet: Paradise is surrounded by unpleasant things and
Hell by greed. The Prophet said: God said to Gabriel after creation of Hell: God and look at Hell. He
saw it and said: By Thy glory, nobody will enter it if he hears of it. Then God surrounded it with
things of greed and said to him: Go and look at it. Gabriel saw it and said: By Thy glory, I fear that
there will be nobody who will not enter it. He created Paradise and said to Gabriel: Go and look at it.
Gabriel saw it and said: By Thy glory, he who hears of it will want to enter it. Then he surrounded it
with unpleasant things and said: Go now and see it. He saw it and said: By Thy glory. I fear that
nobody will enter it. Greed is connected with the present and punishment with the future. There are two
reasons for the commission of a sin though the basic faith remains alright. He who becomes impatient of
thirst and drinks icy water during illness does not deny the basic science of medicine and also does
not deny that it is injurious to his health, but the greed of his thirst becomes then strong and he
becomes unable to face the difficulty of patience.
3. Third cause There is no such a sinner who does not wish to expiate his sins by repentance and good
works, but he makes delay to make repentance and expiation owing to the prevalence of long hope in him.
4. Fourth cause There is no such believer who does not cherish hope for forgiveness of his sins. He
awaits for pardon relying on the mercy of God after committing sins. For these four causes a believer
is engaged in committing sins over and again even though his basic faithremains alright. It is true
that for the fifth reason, defect enters into his basic faith.
5. Fifth cause To entertain doubt about the Prophet-hood of Mohammed (P. H). This is infidelity.
Medicines for these five
Vol-IV THE BOOK OF CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUES 59
reasons shall have to be looked into. Such a man is like the patient whom the physician prohibits to
eat injurious foods. If the patient entertains doubt about the expert physician, he does not pay
attention to his advice. This is disbelief or infidelity.
Question: What are the medicines for those five causes?
Answer: (1) The medicine for the first cause is to think of the delay of punishment in this way. What
will occur in future must happen. The future is near the thoughtful men, but death is nearer to a man
than the lace of his shoes. What will inform him that the Hour is near? Then the affairs of the future
happiness will become the matters of the present. Great efforts are und_-rtaken to ward off future
dangers in the world. For earning profits in business, merchants embarks on deep seas and oceans and
bear all sorts of hardship in journey. If one falls ill and if a physician informs him that if he
drinks cold water, it will injure him and may lead him to death, he shall give it up at once for fear
of death, even though cold water is agreeable to him and even. though the pangs of death is short
lived. He does not fear however what will occur after death. He shall have to leave the world and there
is no escape from it. This world's life is temporary, not everlasting. Now it is an object of thought
that he gives up an agreeable thing of this world relaying on the word of a Christian physician, while
he cannot give up the temporary pleasure of the world in expectation of future happiness relying on the
words of the Prophet supported by miracles. The punishment of Hell is very much greater than that of
(2) The medicine for the second cause is that he shall give up the taste which is strong with efforts
and say: If I cannot give up this temporary happiness of this world's life, how can I get the
everlasting happiness of the next world? When I can't bear the pangs of patience, how shall I bear the
punishment of fire in Hell?
(3) Disease of delay in repentance may be removed in this way. Most of the immates of Hell will shriek
for long sufferings in Hell. He who makes delay in repentances, wishes to live long while he may die
soon. If he lives long, he may not give up sin in future as he cannot give it up at present. It is not
known how he will give up greed in future when he cannot give it up at present. Rather it may increase
manifold owing to habits. The greed which man makes firm as a result of habits is not like that greed
60 TAUBA Vol-IV
which has not become firmly rooted. For this reason, those who make. delay in repentance are destroyed.
They don't know that the more time passes, the more it becomes difficult to be eradicated. The man of
procrastination is like a man who seeing a firmly rooted tree, leaves it to be uprooted in future. But
he knows that it will be more firmly rooted in future. The more you grow old, the more you will become
weak and there will be less chance of your uprooting the tree.
(4) Medicine of waiting for God's forgiveness. He is like a person who spends all his wealth and makes
himself and his family members poor in expectation of His mercy. He hopes that God will bring out a
hidden treasure for him out of uncultivated land. His waiting for seeking God's forgiveness for his
sins is likewise.
(5) Medicine for the fifth cause. To doubt the prophethood of the Prophet in infidelit. Its medicine is
the proofs of his being a true Prophet. He must' be said: Is the affair in the next world impossible as
the staying of a man in two different places at the same time is impossible? If he says: I have doubt
in the next worldly affairs, he must be told: Eat the food which you have just left and into which some
one has thrown poison. He shall not eat it believing a stranger's words. If he is a liar, you will
still not eat the food, saying: I shall not eat it as it is better for me to remain on the good side
and to have patience. But if he is true, I shall meet with death if I eat it. So to have patience is
better than the pangs of death. Hazrat Ali said to a man who had no faith in the next world: If what
you say is true, we will get salvation. If it does not come out true, we shall get salvation but you
will perish. In other words, the wise man adopts always the path of safety. Such a disbeliever should
be told: You give up food believing a stranger. How can you neglect the sayings of the prophets, saints
and wise men backed by miracles? There is no good in arguing with the illiterate. If there is
difference of opinion among the wise regarding the next world, the deniers will suffer endless
sufferings if it is true. If it is false, then only your temporary pleasures will suffer for some
time'. If anybody is wise, he must not doubt in this argument as there can be no comparison of these
few days in this world with the everlasting nature of the next world. How can a wise man be able to
earn everlasting happiness of the next world as he is engaged in the pleasures of the world?
END OF Chapter 1 of Volume 4
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