REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
IHYA UL UM-ID-DIN
THE BOOK OF WORLDLY USAGES
CHAPTER VI Duties to relatives, neighbours, Muslims 117
Duties towards Muslims 117
Duties towards Neighbours 131
Duties towards Relatives 134
Duties towards servants and Slaves 137
CHAPTER VII Benefits and harms of seclusion and society 139
CHAPTER VIII Rules of journey 151
CHAPTER IX Music and Exctacy 162
CHAPTER X Enjoining good & Forbidding Evil 180
CHAPTER XI Conduct and Character of Holy Prophet 207
DUTIES TO RELATIVES, NEIGHBOURS,
SLAVES AND MUSLIMS
Man is social being and he is to observe certain rules and regulations if he lives in society. I am going to discuss these rules and regulations to be observed by a Muslim while dealing with persons of various types.
DUTIES TOWARDS A MUSLIM
(1) The following instructions have come in the Quran and Hadis. When you meet a Muslim, give him Salam. when he invites you, accept his invitation. When he sneezes, respond to him. When he falls ill, call on him. When he dies, join his funeral prayer. If he seeks your advice, give him advice. If he is absent, guard his proprieties. Love for him what you love for yourself. Don't love for him what you do not love for yourself . The Prophet said: There are four duties on you to help the pious, to seek forgiveness for the sinners, to invoke good for the unfortunate and to love those who make repentance. God says They are sympathetic towards one another. Hazrat Ibn Abbas explained it by saying : The pious among them seek forgiveness for the sinners. When a sinner among the Muslim looks to a pious man, the latter should say : 0 God, give him the blessing of good of which you have decreed for him and keep him firm over it and give him benefit therewith. When a pious man looks to a sinner among them, he should pray for him thus : 0 God, give him guidance, accept his repentance and forgive his sins.
(2) Love for the believers what you love for yourself and dislike for the believers what you dislike for yourself . The Prophet said: The Muslim society is like a body in respect of mutual love and sympathy. If a limb of the body suffers pain, the whole body responds to it by sleepessness and fever. The Prophet said : One believer is like a building to another believer a portion of which strengthens another portion.
(3) Don't give trouble to a Muslim by your words and actions. The Prophet said : A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim remain safe. The Prophet advised the people to do good deeds in a long sermon. He said in the midst of his sermon.
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If you are unable to do it, advise the people to give up evils, because it is a charity. It will be considered for you as an act of charity. The Prophet said : The best Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim, remains safe. The Prophet once was asked : Do you know who is a Muslim ? The companions replied. God and His Apostle know best. He said : A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim are safe and a believer is he in whose hand the lives and properties of the believers remain safe. The companions asked : Who is a refuges ? He said : One who gives up sin. A man asked : What is Islam ? he said : Your sacrifice of heart for the sake of God and the Muslim remaining safe from your tongue and hands. The Prophet said : I saw a man loitering freely in Paradise for rewards of cutting tree which was obstructing the path of the Muslims.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah asked the Prophet one day : 0 Messenger of God, give me such advice as will do benefit to me. He said : Remove the injurious things from the path of the Muslims. The Prophet said : If a man removes an injurious thing from the path of the Muslims, God writes for him a virtue. Paradise is sure for one for whom God writes a virtue. The Prophet said ; It is no lawful for a Muslim to cast such a look on another Muslim which gives him trouble in mind. He said : It is not lawful for a Muslim to threaten another Muslim with fear. He said : God does not like that the believers should be given trouble.
(4) Be modest to every Muslim Don't treat harshly with him, don't take pride near him as God does not love the proud and the self-conceited. The Prophet said : God revealed to me : Be modest to one another and don't be proud to one, another. If anybody shows pride to you, keep patience. God ordered the Prophet Take to pardon and enjoin good and keep away from the illiterate. The Prophet was modest to every Muslim, he was not harsh to them and did not dislike to do the, necessary works of the poor and the widwoss.
(5) Don't hear back-biting and don't take it to others. The Prophet said: The back-biter will not enter paradise.
(6) Give up disputes and quarrels. When you get angry with another, don't give up his association for more than three days. The Prophet said : It is not lawful for a Muslim to remain aloof
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from his brother for more than three days, nor should he turn away his face from another if both of them meet. The better of the two is one who greets first with salutation. The Prophet said: If a man pardons the faults of a Muslim, God will forgive his faults on the resurrection day. Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet never took revenge for personal wrongs. The Prophet said: Wealth does not reduce by charity. God does not increase but honour in case of pardon. God raises a man who becomes modest for the sake of God.
(7) Do good to every one either deserving or underserving. The Prophet said : Do good to everyone, pious, or impious-If you do good to one who is fit to receive, it is good. If he is not fit to receive it, you are fit to do good. The Prophet said : The root of wisdom after religion is to love for men and to do good to everyone, pious or impious. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet did not withdraw his hand from another till the latter withdrew his own hand.
(8) Treat well with all and speak to everyone according to his intellect. If you go to meet an illiterate person with words, of wisdom and with theology and dispute with the fools, you will get trouble.
(9) Honour the dead and show affection to the juniors: The Prophet said : He who does not show affection to our juniors is not of us. He said: 'To honour an aged Muslim is to honour God.' The honour of an aged man does not become perfect if without his permission one talks with others of the party. Hazrat Jaber reported : A deputation of Juhaina tribe once came to the Prophet . A young man among them stood on their behalf to talk to the Prophet. The Prophet said : Stop, where is your aged man ? The Prophet said : 'If a young man shows honour to an aged man, God will create, for him such one in his old age who will show him honour.' This means that he will live up to old age. So if you show honour to the aged, God will prolong your life. The Prophet said that the Hour will not came till a son gets angry at his parents, till there is profuse rain, till the back-biters come out from every place, till the honourable men will be unseen, till the juniors will not show honour to the aged and till the wrong doers will not be doing wrong against the honourable men. So treat affectionately with the boys according to the habit of the Prophet. Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey, the boys used to
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meet him and he waited for them standing in their front. He used to make some boys sit in his front and some in his back. He used to take the little children in his lap and some of them even passed urine in his cloth.
(10) Live with all men with smiling face and kind heart: The Prophet said : Do you know for whom Hell has been made unlawful? The companions said: Cod and his Apostle know best. He said: Those who are modest, simple and neighbours of God. He said : God loves the simple and those having smiling countenance. A certain man asked : 0 Messenger of God, give me clue to such an action which will send me to Paradise. He said To give salutation and to speak sweet words are means of forgiveness. The Prophet said : Save yourself from the fire of Hell by giving in charity even half a seed of dried grapes. If you cannot do it, save yourself in lieu of a sweet word. The Prophet said : There are rooms in Paradise of which the inner sides can be seen from the outer sides. A desert Arab said :'0 Prophet of God, for whom are these rooms ?' He said : For those who use sweet words, give food and remain busy in prayers when the people remain asleep., The Prophet advised Muaz-b-Jabal saying: Fear God, tell the truth, fuflil promise, break not trust, take care of neighbours, show kindness to the orphans, be modest in talk, greet with salam and spread peace. Hazrat Anas narrated : A poor woman came to the Prophet and said : I have got some necessity to you. Some companions were then present there. He said: Sit down in this lane and I shall also sit with you. She sat down and the Prophet also did so. She said to the Prophet what she had to say.
(11) Fuflil promise with the Muslims. The Prophet said
Promises is like charity. He said : There are three faults of hyporcrite-(1) when he promises, he breaks it, (92) when he speaks, he speaks lies, (3) and when he is entrusted with a thing, he does not return it. The Prophet said : He in whom there are these three faults is a hypocrite though he prays and fasts.
(12) Do justice to the people willingly and come to them with what they love. The Prophet said : The faith of a man does not become perfect in whom three qualities are not found-(1) to spend till he becomes poor, (2) to do justice to oneself, (3) and to greet with salam. The Prophet said : He who hopes to keep Hell distant and to enter Paradise shall testify at the time of death that
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there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God and treat with the people in such a manner as he wishes to get from them. The Prophet said : '0 Abu Darda'a , treat well with your neighbour, you will then be a believer. Love for men what you love for yourself, you will then be a Muslim. Hazrat Moses asked God : 0 Lord, who is the best judge among . Thy servants? He said : That servant who does best justice to himself.
(13) Honour those to whom honour is due. Honour one who is understood to be honourable in rank from his nature, conduct, appearance and dresses and his status and rank. It is reported that when Hazrat Ayesha was in her tent in a journey, a beggar came to her when food was served to her and begged some food. Hazrat Ayesha said : Give him a piece of bread. Thereafter a man came to her riding on a horse. Hazrat Ayesha said : Call him to this feast. She was asked : You have given a bread to the begger, while you called the horse man to a feast. What is the reason ? Hazrat Ayesha said : God has given different persons different ranks. We should entertain them according to their ranks. This poor man will be pleased with a piece of bread, but to give to this rich man a piece of bread is out of etiquette.
It has been reported that once the Prophet entered a room and the people came there and the room was full. Then Zarir-b-Abdullah, the chief of the tribe, came there but finding no place to sit he sat upon the door. Seeing this, the Prophet gave him his shirt to sit thereon. He began to kiss it and handed it over to the Prophet and said : May God honour you as you have honoured me. The Prophet said : When any honourable man of a people comes to you, honour him. The foster mother of the Prophet, Halima, once came to him and the Prophet gave her his own shirt to her to sit on and said : Mother, you are welcome. You intercession will be accepted . You will be given what you want. She said : I intercede to you for my own people. The Prophet said : You are the owner of my dues and the dues of the people of Hashemite dynasty. Then he gave the entire booty gained in the battle of Hunain to her. Halima sold it it to Hazrat Osman for one lac dirhams.
(14) Compromise disputes among the Muslims if you have got means. The Prophet said : Shall I not inform you of a greater rank than that of prayer, fasting and Zakat ? The companions said : Surely. The Prophet said : It is to compromise disputes.
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Dispute between two persons is destructive. The Prophet said To settle dispute between two persons is the best charity. The Prophet said : Fear God and settle disputes among you, God will then compromise disputes among the believer. The Prophet said
He who settles dispute between two persons is not a great lair. He also said : Every lie is recorded except three lies-(1) the lie of a man in a war battle as it is a deception , (2) the lie of a man to settle dispute between two persons, (3) and the lie of husband to
please his wife.
(15) Keep the secrets of Muslims secret: The Prophet said : If
a man keeps the guilts of a Muslims secret, God will keep his
guilts secret both in this world and the next. He also said : If a
man keeps the sin of a man secret in this world, God will keep all
of his sins secret on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said : If a
believer keeps the fault of his brother secret, he will enter
Paradise. When Ma'az disclosed the condition of his fornication
to the Prophet, he said : Had you kept it concealed under your
cloth, it would have been better. Hazrat Abu Bakr said: If I see a
drunkard, I entertain such a hope in my mind that God will keep
this sin secret. Hazrat Omar one night went out in the city in disguise and saw a man and a woman in obscene action. In the morning he told the people : I f certain Ameer sees a man and a woman committing fornication and if he metes out prescribed punishment in the Quran to them, what is your opinion about it ? They said : You are a ruler. You have got freedom in this action. Hazr#t Ali said : Punishment in this case is unlawful, rather you are to suffer punishment for this for slander. This punishment cannot be meted out without the evidence of four persons. After this, Hazrat Omar kept silent for some days. Again he questioned them and they replied as they had said : He became inclined towards the opinion of Hazrat Ali and decided not to mete out the punishment. This is a good proof that the sins of the Muslims should be kept secret and that four eye witness are necessary for the capital punishment for fornication which is practically is possible in a case of sexual of sexual intercourse. The Prophet said : When God keeps the sin of a persons secret, He is more honourable to disclose it in the next world. Hazrat Abdur Rauf-b-Aaf narrated : We came out with Hazrat Omar secretly to travel in the city of Medina in the grim midnight. We saw a light in a house and proceeded towards it. When we came near, we found that in a closed door Rabia-b-Omayya was intoxicated
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with drinking wine. I said : Don't spy. So Hazrat Omar returned there. The Prophet said to Muwayiah : If you enquire into the secrets of the people, you will ruin them. The Prophet said : 0 people (who have faith by tongue but in whose heart the light of Islam has not yet entered), don't back-bite and Muslims, don't roam about to enquire into their secrets because he who roams about the secrets of his brother, God will enquire about his secrets. God humiliates one whose secrets He follows , even though he remains within the house. Hazrat Abu Bakr said : If I see anybody to commit prescribed offense, I will not arrest him nor I will tell anybody to arrest him till some person remains with me. A wise man said : I was seated one day with Hazrat Abdullah-b-Masud. At that time a man brought another man to him saying : This man is a drunkard. Abdullah-b-Masud said Take smell from his mouth. The people took smell from his mouth and it was found that he drank wine. He then arrested him and whipped him. He asked the man who brought him. Is this man your relative ? He said : I am his uncle. He said : You have not given him training and good manners and did not keep his sin secret. When any sin of a person is mentioned to a ruler, he has got no other alternatives but to punish him. God is forgiving and love forgiveness. Then he recited. Take to pardon and forgiveness. I will mention to you with regard to a thief who was brought to tht' Prophet for the first time. He ordered for cutting of his hands which were cut off. But then the colour of his face became changed at this. The companions asked : Are you dissatisfied with the cutting of his hands ? He said : Why should not I ? Don't be helpers of the devil against your brothers . The companions asked : Then why have you not forgiven him ? When a man in brought to a ruler for being guilty of a prescribed crime, it becomes compulsory on him to inflict the prescribed punishment on him. God is forgiving, He loves forgiveness . Then he recited : Let them pardon and forgive. Don't you like that God may forgive you ? God is forgiving, merciful.
Once Hazrat Omar, while going at night in the city, heard sounds of songs in a house. He got over the wall and found that there was a woman with them and a pot of wine near a man. He said : 0 enemy of God, have you thought that God will keep your sin concealed ? He said : 0 Commander of the faithful, you have come yourself ! Don't be hasty in judgement I committed one sin this time, but you have committed three sins. God said: Don't
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spy, You have committed spying and therefore committed one sin. God says : 'It is not righteousness that you should come to the houses by their back-doors. ' You have come overstepping the wall and so you have committed another sin God says : Don't enter a house other than your own houses till you seek permission and greet their inmates-25:27 Q. You have entered my house without permission and greeting. Hazrat Omar said If I pardon you, will it do any good to you ? He said : By God, 0 Commander of the faithful, it will do me good. If you pardon me, I will never do it. Then he pardoned him and went away.
The Prophet said: God will take a believer near Him, spread His mercy on him and keep his fault secret on the Resurrection Day. God will say : 0 My servant, I have kept it secret for you in the world and I wished to pardon you to-day. Then the book of good deeds will be given to him. The Prophet said: Every person of my followers will be forgiven except Muzaher who is a person who commits sins and then discloses them. He also said : If a person hears the news of a people secretly but they dislike it, molten brass will be put into their ears on the Resurrection Day.
(16) Keep away from places of slander and back-biting so that the minds of the people remain free from cherishing evil ideas about you. God says : Don't abuse those whom they worship besides God, lest they abuse God out of enmity. The Prophet said Do you see a man who rebukes his parents ? The companions said : Is there anybody who rebukes his own parents ? He said Yes, some one rebukes his parent and he in turn rebukes his parents. !r order to avoid evil conjecture of the people, one should not even talk with his wife before the public on the path way. Once Hazrat Omar passed by a man who was talking with a woman on the road. When Omar was about to whip him, he said She is my wife. Hazrat Omar said : Why have you not talked with her in a place where people will not see you ?
(17) Intercede for everyone. Make intercession to one who has got authority, to remove the needs of a Muslim and try hard to meet his requirements. The Prophet said : If anybody amongst you seeks something from me, I wish I should give it to him at once, but if anyone among you remains present near me, I like that he should intercede for him, as he gets rewards for that. So make intercession, you will get reward. God does through His Prophet what He loves. The Prophet said : Intercede to me, you
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will get rewards. I make delay to do a thing though I wish to do it, so that you may get rewards by interceding for it. The Prophet said: No charity is better than oral charity ? He was asked : What is oral charity ? He said : A just pleading which saves the life of man, benefits man or saves a man from a calamity.
(18) Greet every Muslim with salam before talk and before greeting handshake with him. The Prophet said : Don't respond to one who begins talk before salam till he begins talk with salam. A wise man said : Once I went to the Prophet but did not great him with salam and did not seek permission. The Prophet said Go back and say : 'Peace be on you' and then enter. The Prophet said: When you enter your house, greet its inmates with salam, because when one of you greets, the devil does not enter his house. Hazrat Anas said : I have been serving the Prophet for the last eight years. He said to me one day : 0 Anas, make ablution well, your life will be prolonged. Greet with salam to any of my followers whom you meet, your rewards will increase . Greet with salam the inmates of a house when you enter it, that will be good for you. He also said : When two believers meet and handshake with each other, seventy virtues are divided among them. He who meets out of them with smiling, countenance, will get sixty nine virtue therefrom. God says : When you are greeted with greeting, greet them with a better greeting than it or similar to it. The Prophet said : By One in whose hand there is my life, you will not enter Paradise till you believe, you will not believe till you love one another. Shall I not inform you of such an action for which you will love one another if you do it? The companions said : Yes, 0 Messenger of God. He said : Spread. peace among you. He said : When a Muslim greets another Muslim with salam and the latter responds to it, the angels bless him seventy times, The Prophet said : The rider will salute one sitting. When one of a party salutes, it is sufficient for them.
Handshaking with salam is Sunnat: A man came to the Prophet and said : Peace be on you. He said : For him, ten rewards have been written. Another man came and said : Peace be on you and God's mercy. He said : For him twenty rewards have been written. Another came and said : Peace be on you, God's mercy and His blessing. He said : For him thirty rewards have been written. Hazrat Anas saluted the boys while passing by them. The Prophet said : Don't greet the Jews and the Christens first. If
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one of you meets any of them on the path or, lead him to the narrow corner of the path. The Prophet said : Don't handshake with the Zimmis and don't greet them first. When you meet any of them, take him to a corner of the pathway.
Hazrat Ayesha reported: A party of the Jews came to the Prophet and said : Sa'm (death) on you The Prophet said : On you too. Hazrat Ayesha said : On you also death and curse. The Prophet then said : 0 Ayesha. God loves kindness in everything. Hazrat Ayesha said : Have you not heard what they said ? He said : I also said : On you too The Prophet said : The rider will salute one who walks, one who walks will salute one seated, a small party to the big party, the juniors to the seniors. The Prophet said : Don't follow the Jews and the Christians, because the greeting of the Jewsis hint by fingers and the greeting of the Christains is clapping by hands. The Prophet said : When a man reaches an assembly, he shall salute them. When he thinks good to sit, then he will sit. When he goes away, he will salute them. The first man has got no greater right than the last. Hazrat Omar said : I heard the Prophet say: When two Muslims meet with each other and one of them greets another and handshakes with him, one hundred mercies are showered on them, ninety for one who first greets and ten for one who handshakes. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Handshake increases love. The Prophet said : Handshakes among you perfects greeting. The Prophet said . Handshake is like kissing the hand of Muslim to his brother. There is no harm in kissing the hand of a religious man and an honourable man out of respect. Ibn Omar said : We used to kiss the hands of the Prophet. A desert Arab came and said : 0 Messenger of God, give me permission to kiss his head and hands. On permission being given, he kissed his head and hands. Hazrat Bar'a-b-Ajeb reported that when he saluted the Prophet at the time of ablution, he did not respond to it till he finished his ablution. Then he responded to him and handshaked with him. He said This is the practice of the foreigners. The Prophet said: When two Muslims meet with each other and handshake, their sins fall down.
It is prohibited to bow the head at the time of greeting. Hazrat Anas said : We asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God, shall we bow our head for one another ? He said : No They said : Shall we kiss one another ? He said : No They said Shall we
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handshake with one another ? He said : Yes . Hazrat Abu Zarr said : Whenever I met the Prophet, he handshaked with me. Once during my absence he enquired of rhe. When I heard it, I came to him and found him sitting in a Khatia. He got up from it and embraced me." This shows that embracing is good. It is Makruh to stand up for a man thinking him great but to stand in his honour is not Makruh. Hazrat Anas said that nobody was dearer to the companions than the Prophet. When they saw him, they used not to stand up, because they knew that the Prophet disliked it. The Prophet once said to them : When you see me, don't stand up as the foreigners do. The Prophet said: Let one seek his abode in Hell who is pleased with the standing of other for him. The Prophet said : Let nobody take the seat of another person after asking him to get up, rather he should make it spacious. One day a man saluted the Prophet while he was passing urine. He did not respond to him and disliked it. He said When one of you meets his brother, let him say 'Peace be on you and God's mercy. If he does not get space after greeting, let him not go but take seat behind the rows. The Prophet said : If two Muslims handshake with each other after meeting, God forgives them before they part away.
(19) To help the distressed: Save your Muslim brother from oppression on his honour, wealth and life, remove it and help him, because it is binding on account of the brotherhood of Islam. Once a man abused another before the Prophet to which another man protested. The Prophet said : If a man saves the honour of his brother Muslim, it stands as a screen of Hell. He said : If a Muslim saves the honour of another Muslim it becomes the duty of God to remove from him the fire of Hell on the Resurrection day. The Prophet said : If a Muslim is mentioned before his brother and the latter does not help him inspite of his ability to help, God will arrest him in the world and the next. If a Muslim is mentioned before his brother and he helps him, God will help him in this world and the next. The Prophet said: if a Muslim keeps alive the honour of his brother Muslim in this world, God will send to him an angel on the Resurrection day to save him from hell-fire. He said : If a Muslim helps his brother Muslim in a place in which his honour is at stake, God will help him in such a place where he well be dependent on him for his help. On the otherhand, if a Muslim is about to disgrace his brother Muslim, and if another Muslim does not help him according to his ability and show no
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sympathy, God will disgrace an dishonour him in such a place where he will be waiting for help.
(20) Respond to sneezing: The Prophet said : He who sneezes will say : God's praise in all circumstances and one who hears it will say : May God have mercy on you. The sneezer will then say May God guide you and make your mind pure. Once the Prophet replied to a sneezer and did not reply to another. When asked the reason he said : One has praised God and another remained silent. The Prophet said : When a Muslim sneezes thrice, respond to him. If he increases more than thrice, it is a disease. When the Prophet sneezed, he used to shut up his mouth with his hand or cloth. The Jews sneezed before the Prophet with the hope of getting a reply 'May God show you mercy. He used to say : Say : May God guide you. The Prophet said : Sneezing comes from God and yawing for the devil . When one of you yawn, let him place his hand upon his mouth. Moses said : 0 Lord, art Thou near me, so that I may hold secret conversation with Thee ? Art thou distant, so that I may speak loudly to Thee ? He said : I am with one who remembers Me. He said : We are sometime in such a condition that to remember Thee is impertinence, such as in the state of impurity or at the times of calls of nature. He said : Remember meat all times.
(21) Help at the time of distress and calamities: God says Remove evil with what is good. God says : They remove evil by good deeds. Hazrat Abu Abbas explained this evil by saying Those who treat with salam and modesty in lieu of harm and harsh treatment. God says : If God would not have repelled one people by another, cloister, etc. would have been destroyed. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said that the meaning of another is a people with hope, fear, modesty and humble behavior. The Prophet said
0 Ayesha, the worst man on the Resurrection Day will be a man whom the people forsake for fear of his harm. He said : If a man keeps patience to save his honour after hearing abusive words, it will be an act of charity for him.
(22) Give up the company of the rich and take the company of the poor and show kindness on the orphans. The Prophet said : 0 God, let me live as a poor man let me die as a poor man and resurrect me with the poor. Whenever Hazrat Solaiman saw a poor man, he sat with him and said : A poor man is sitting by the side of a poor man . It has been reported that nothing could
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please Jesus Christ so much as he was when addressed as a poor man. The sage Fuzail said : I heard that a Prophet said : 0 Lord, how can I know that you are pleased with me ? He said : Look for it when the poor remain satisfied with you. the Prophet said : Be careful of the assemblies of the dead. He was asked : 0 Messenger of God, who are the dead ? He said : The rich men. Moses asked God: 0 Lord, where shall I search for Thee ? He said : Near the broken heart. The Prophet said : Don't be envious for the fortunes of. the sinners, because you do not know that will be their condition. There is behind them one who enquires of them with haste.
Orphans The Prophet said : Paradise is sure for one who maintains an orphan after taking him from Muslim parents till he comes of age. He said : I and the care taker of an orphan will remain in Paradise like these two fingers. He hinted by joining his two fingers. He said : He who passes his hand out of sympathy on the hairs of an orphan will get virtues to the proportion of hairs on which his hand has passed. The Prophet said : The best house of the Muslim is one in which an orphan is well treated and the worst house of the Muslims is one is which an orphan is badly treated.
(23) Give advice to every Muslim . The Prophet said : A believer shall love for another believer what he loves for himself. He said - Nobody of you can be a believer till he loves for his brother what he loves for himself. He said : One of you is like a mirror for another. If he sees anything wrong in him, he should remove it from him. He said : He who fulfills the needs of his brother Muslim, has done divine service as it were for his whole .life. He said : If a man destroys the honour of a believer, God will destroy his virtues one the Resurrection Day. He said : If a man spends one hour to relieve the sufferings of his brother Muslim :day or night, it is better than two months, I tiqaf (seclution in mosque) , whether his sufferings are removed or not. The Prophet said : If a man removes the anxieties of a believer or helps an oppressed person, God forgives his seventy three sins. He said : Help your brother Muslim, he be oppressed or oppressor. He was asked : How can he help the oppressor ? He said : He thing to God is to incur pleasure to the mind of a believer, or to pay off his debt or to appease his hunger by giving food. The Prophet said : If a man saves a believer from the deceit
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of a hypocrite, God will send for him on the Resurrection Day an angel who will protect his flesh from Hell- fire. He said : There is no sin worse than two sin-(1) to set up partners with God and. (2) to oppress God's servants. There is no virtue better than two virtue (1) to have faith in God and (2) and to do good to God's servants. The Prophet said : He whose mind is not moved with the sufferings of the Muslims, is not of them. The sage Ma'ruf Karkhi said : If one says everyday : 0 God, show mercy on the followers of Muhammad, God will include him in the class of Abdals. In another narration : If a, man recites thrice everyday: 0 God, make the followers of Muhammad, good, 0 God, relieve the suffering of the followers of Muhammad God enrolls him as one of the Abdals.
(24) Call on the diseased. If a a Muslim falls ill, call on him and nurse him. The following rules must be observed when you go to see a patient. (1) Sit for a short while before the patient, ask him few questions, take information of his health with soft mind and pray for his recovery. The Prophet said : If a man goes to a patient and places his hand on his forehead or asks the condition of his disease his meeting with him becomes perfect. Handshaking perfects your greeting. The Prophet said: He who meets with a patient, sits by the side of Paradise. When he return, he is entrusted with seventy thousand angels who pray for him up to night. He said : When a man goes to see a patient, he remains inmerged in mercy. When he sits by his bed, it becomes permanent. He said : When a Muslim goes to see his brother, a diseased Muslim or meets with him, God says Blessings on you, your steps, are good. He said : When a man falls ill, God sends to him two angels saying : Look what he says to the patient. When he comes to him and praises God, they carry it to God and prays to Him, God says. If I cause the death of this servant, I will admit him in Paradise. If I cure him, I will give him better flesh than this flesh, better blood than this blood and forgive his sins. The Prophet said : God gives disease to a man whom He loves. He said : The Prophet once came to see a patient and said : In the name of God, the most Compassionate, the Most Merciful, I give you from the evil which I see to the refuge of God, the Unique, free from want. He begets not, nor is He begotten and there is none like him. The Prophet said : Visit a patient every alternate day and treat modestly with him.
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(25) Join the funeral prayer of a Muslim. The Prophet said He who follows the bier will get a Qirat of virtue. If he waits uptoburial, he will get two Qirats of virture. The Prophet said One Qirat is like coins full of Uhud mountain. He said : Three things follow a dead man, two return and one does not return. His relatives and wealth return, but his actions do not return.
(26) Visit the graves of the dead. The object is to pray, to take lessons and to make the mind soft. The Prophet said : I have not seen a more horrible secenery than grave. The Prophet once went to the grave of his mother Amina. He said : I sought permission of God to visit her grave and He gave me permission. I sought His permission for her forgiveness but he refused it. He began to weep. He said: grave is the first station out of the stations of the next world. If its inmate gets relief from it, what will occurs after it will be easy. If he does not get relief from it, what occurs after it will be severe. Hazrat Abu Darda'a used to sit by graves., Being asked the reason, he said I sit with such people who remind me of the next world. If I go away from them they do not back-bite me. The Prophet said : There is'no night in which a proclaimer does not proclaim : 0 inmates of the graves, whom do" you envy ? They say : We envy the inmates of mosques, as they fast and we do not fast, as they pray and we do not pray, as they remember God and we do not remember Him. Sufiyan Saori said: He who remember grave much, will get a garden in Paradise out of His gardens. He who does.not remember grave gets a hole in Hell out of its holes.
RIGHTS OF NEIGHBOURS
As a Muslim has got rights over you, so a neighbour also has got rights over you. The Prophet said : There are three classes of neighbours. The first class neighbour has got one right, the second class two, and the third class three. He who is a neighbour, a Muslim and a relative has got three rights, one right of being a neighbour, one right of being a relative, and one night of being a Muslim. The second class neighbour has got two rights, one right of being a Muslim and one right of being a neighbour. The third class neighbour has got only one right. The right of being an infidel neighbour. The Prophet said : Treat well with your neighbour, you will be a Muslim. The Prophet said Gebriel was insisting always to pay the tight of the neighbour so much that I thought that he would give him the right of inheritance. The Prophet said : Let him who believes in God and
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the next world honour his neighbour . He said : He is not a believer from whose harms his neighbour is not safe. He said The first two who will come as disputants on the Resurrection day will be neighbours. He said : When you throw a stone at the dog of neighbour, you cause trouble to his mind. The Prophet once was said : A certain man fasts all day and prays all night, but he give trouble to his neighbour. The Prophet said : he is in Hell. At another time, a man complained against his neighbour to the Prophet and he said: Have patience. When he said twice and thrice. The Prophet said : Throw your goods on the pathway. When he threw them, the people asked him: What is the matter with you? They were told that his neighbour was giving him trouble . They began to say : God's curse upon him. His neighbour came to him and said : By God, I will not treat with him further in such a manner. Once the Prophet said : Proclaim forty surrounding houses as houses of neighbours. He said fortune and misfortune lie in woman, house and conveyance. A woman is a cause of fortune when her dower is little, her marriage is easily performed and her character and conduct are good. The cause of her misfortune occurs when her dower is heavy, her marriage is solemnised with difficulty and her character and conduct are bad. Fortune regarding a house occurs when it is spacious and its neighbour is good and misfortune comes when it is narrow and its neighbour is bad. Fortune regarding a horse comes when it becomes submissive and has got a good figure and misfortune comes when it is disobedient and
has got an ugly figure.
In short, the rights of a neighbour on you are the following Salute him first, don't talk with him for long, don't ask about his condition long. Call on him when he is ill, show sympathy in his distress, be sorry in his sorrows, be happy in his happiness, share enjoyments in his happiness, pardon his faults, don't look at the inner side of his house from the top of your roof, don't trouble him by replacing your rafters on his wall, don't let water flow down his courtyard, don't shut up the outflow of water of his house through your boundary, don't make the path to his house narrow, cover his fault if it is out, try to remove his distress as soon as possible, take care of his house in his absence, don't hear his back-biting, talk with his sons and daughters with affection and read out to him "What he is ignorant" of the worldly and
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The Prophet said: Do you know about your duties towards your neighbour ? Help him if he seeks your help, give him loan if he wants it, remove his wants if he is in wants, follow his bier if he is dead, give him joy him if he gets good news, show him sympathy and express sorrow if he is in danger, don't raise up your building so high without his permission so as to obstruct his air, don't give him trouble. If you purchase some fruits, give him something. If you do not do it, take them secretly to your house. Don't allow your children to come out with them as it may cause displeasure of his children. Don't give him trouble by the smoke of your cook-shed. There is no harm in sending food cooked in your cook-shed to your neighbour's house, Then he said: Do you know the rights of a neighbour ? By one in whose hand there is my life, one on whom God shows mercy can fuflil these duties towards neighbours. Hasan Basari used to present the meat of Qurbani to his neighbours-jews and Christians. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : My friend the Prophet gave me these instructions: When you cook curry, increase its Soup and send something to your neighbour. Hazrat Ayesha said : 0 Messenger of God, I have got two neighbours, the house of one is near my house and the house of another is some distant. Whose right is greater ? He said : The right of one whose house is nearer.
Hazrat Ayesha said: There are ten habits of an honourable man. They may be found in a man, but may not be found in his father. They may be found in his servant but may not be found in his master. God gives these to one whom He loves-(1) to speak the truth, (2) to treat good with the people, (3) to give charity to the beggars, (4) to help in domestic works, (5) to treat well with relatives, (6) to protect trust, (7) to perform the duties towards a neighbour, (8) to maintain friendship, (9) to entertain guests and (10) to keep shame. These are the foundations for all qualities. The Prophet said : 0 Muslim women, don't think insignificant to give your neighbours even a goat's cooked hoof. The Prophet said : The fortune of a Muslim is in spacious abode, good neighbour and satisfactory conveyance. One man asked : 0 Messenger of God, how shall I know whether a man is good or bad ? He said : When you hear your neighbour say 'He is good' he is really good. If you hear say 'he is bad', he is really bad. The Prophet said : If a man has got a share in a wall, he shall not sell it without asking his cosharer. The Prophet said : A neighbour, can place his rafter in the wall of his neighbour whether he is willing
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or not. He said : Let none amongst you refuges his neighbour from placing rafter on his wall. The Prophet said : God gives sweetness to one whose good He wishes. He was asked : What is the meaning of sweetness ? His said: He makes him dear to his neighbour.
RIGHTS OF RELATIVES
The Prophet said: God says : I am Rahim (Merciful and Raham (relationship) is derived from my name. I keep attached to one who joins it and I keep aloof from one who severs it. The Prophet said : If any man is pleased to prolong his life and to make his livelihood solvent, let him fear God and join the tie of relation ship. The Prophet was once asked : Who is the best persons ? He said : One who fears God most, keeps best connection with his relatives, gives much advice for good deeds and prohibits bad deeds. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : My friend (Prophet) advised me to keep good relation with relatives even though they treat badly. He ordered me to speak the truth though bitter. The Prophet said : Raham (relationship) is hanging with the Throne. The man who fulfills his duties towards his relatives is not the real protector of relationship but he is one who joins it after it is severed. He said : The rewards of keeping good relation with relatives are found more hastily than other rewards. His wealth and properties increase inspite of the inmates of his house being sinners and their numbers increase when they keep the relationship intact.
When the Prophet started for the conquest of Mecca, a man came to him and said : If you wish to marry a beautiful woman and to get a camel of red hue, start a campaign against the tribe of Mudlej. He said : God prohibited me to wage a campaign against them owing to my relationship with them the Prophet said: Charity to a poor man has go.* one merit and charity to a poor relative has good two merits. God says : You will never attain righteousness till you spend what you love. Hazrat Abu Talha was greatly satisfied on hearing the verse and wished to give in charity his garden of dates and said : 0 Prophet of God, I have gifted in charity this garden for the poor and destitue. The Prophet of God said : Your reward from God has become sure. Distribute it among your near relatives. The Prophet said : The greatest rewards is of that charity which you give to your relative who has got dispute with you. This can be understood from the
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following Hadis. The Prophet said : If a man joins the tie of relationship after it is severed and gives in charity to a man who deprives him, he will get the greatest rewards. Hazrat Omar sent this order to his governors : Order relatives to meet one another.
RIGHTS OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN
The nearer is the relation, the greater are the duties towards him. Parents are nearest to a man and so the duty towards them is greatest. The Prophet said : A son cannot fuflil his duties towards his father He can, however, fulfil a part of it if he sees his father as a slave and liberates him. The Prophet said : To treat good with parents is better than prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, zakat, Umrah and jihad in the way of God. He said : If a man gets up at morning pleasing his parents, two doors of Paradise are opened up for him. If he gets up at dusk, he gets similar rewards. If he pleases one of them, one door is opened up for him even though they both oppress him (thrice) If a man gets up at dawn displeasing his parents, two doors are opened up for him towards Hell. If a man does it at dusk, he will get similar punishment. If he displeases one of them, one door is opened up for him, even though they both oppress him (thrice). The Prophet said : The fragrance of Paradise will be smelt from five hundred years' distance. He who is disobedient to parents and he who severs the tie of relationship will not get it. The Prophet said: Obey your mother, then your father, then your sister, your brother and then your nearest relatives and then the near relatives. God said to Moses : 0 Moses, if a man obeys his parents but commits sins, I enroll him as obedient to parents. If a man disobeys Me but is obedient to his parents. I enroll him as obedient to parents. It has been reported that when Hazrat Yakub (Israil) went to Joseph, the latter did not stand in his honour. God then revealed to him : Have you not stood up in honour of your father ? By oath of My glory, I will not make any Prophet out of your descendants.
The Prophet said: When a man wishes to give charity for his Muslim parents, his parents get is rewards without any reduction. Once a man asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God, is there any duty remaining towards parents after their death ? He said: Yes, to invoke for them, to seek forgiveness for them, to fulfill their promise, to honour their friends and to preserve the tie of their relatives. The Prophet said : The best duty is to keep
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connection with those who were dear to them after their death. The Prophet said : The right of a mother is double than that of a father. He said : The Invocation by a mother for her child is soon accepted. He was asked : What is its reason ? He said : She is more affectionate than father. The invocation of relatives does not go baffled. The Prophet was once asked : With whom shall I keep the tie of relationship ? He said : With you parents. He said : I have got no parents. He said : Then with your children. As you have got duties towards you parents, so also you have got duties towards your children. The Prophet said : May God show mercy on the father who helps his children to obey him. In other words., he does not help them by his evil actions to go to misguidance. The Prophet said : Treat equally with your children in the matter of charity. It has been said that a child is your flower and till he reaches the age of seven years, you will enjoy his fragrance. When he is seven years old, he becomes your servant and thereafter he becomes either your enemy or sharer in your works.
The Prophet said: Observe Aqiqa (birth ceremony) on the seventh day of child's birth, give him a name and remove from him uncleanliness. When the child is six years old, teach him good manners, when nine years old , separate his bed, beat him when thirteen years old for saying prayer and get him married when sixteen years old. Then tell him catching his hands : I have taught you good manners, I have given you education and I have got you married. Now I pray to God that He may save you from dangers and difficulties and punishment of the next world. The Prophet said : The right of a son upon his father is that his father will teach him good manners and give him a good name. A man complained against his son to the Prophet. He asked : Have you invoked against him ? He said : Yes. He said : You have ruined him. It is commendable to show kindness to the son. Hazrat Aqra'a-b-Habes saw the Prophet kissing his grandson Hasan and said : I have got ten children but I never kissed any of them. The Prophet said : He who is not kind will not get kindness.
Once the Prophet was in prostration leading a prayer, when Hussain got upon his shoulder. The Prophet made such delay in prostration that the companions thought that revelation was coming to him. When he finished the prayer, the Prophet said Hussain has made me his conveyance. I did not like to put him aside till he finished his work. The Prophet said : The fragrance
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of a child is the fragrance of Paradise. Once a man came from Yemen to join jihad to the Prophet who asked him. Have you got parents? He said : Yes . He asked : Have they given you permission for jihad ? He said : No. The Prophet said : Go to your parents and take their permission. If they do no give permission, serve them to your utmost, because of all the merits with which you will meet with God after Tauhid, the best is in the service of parents. At another time, a man sought advice from the Prophet about his joining jihad. He asked him : Have you :t your mother? He said : Yes . He said : Stay with her, as parad4 e lives under her feet. At another time, a man came to give allegiance to the Prophet and said: My parents were weeping at the time when I was leaving them. The Prophet said : Go back and give them joy as you have made them weep . The Prophet said : The right of an elder brother is like the right of a father over his son.
RIGHTS OF SLAVES AND SERVANTS
The last advice that the Prophet gave was regarding slaves----:.Fear God. give them food you eat, give them cloth you put on and don't inflict on them work beyond their strength. If you don't wish to keep them, ask them to go and don't inflict punishment on the servants of God. God has placed them under your control. If He wishes, He may place you under their control. The Prophet said : Give the slaves food and cloth with justice and don't engage them in works beyond their capacity. He said : The cheat, the proud, those who break trust and those who ill-treat the slaves will not enter Paradise . A man asked the Prophet How many times shall I forgive the faults of a servant? He remained silent for a while and then said : Forgive him seventy times every day. Once a companion of the Prophet beat a slave who began to raise loud cry. The Prophet : came there and he stopped beating. The Prophet said : Why did you not pardon him before ? You have restrained your hand when you have seen me. He said : 0 Messenger of God, I give manumission for the pleasure of God . The Prophet said : Had you not done it, Hell would have blackened your face. The Prophet said : When any slave serves his master and serves divine service well, double reward are written for him.
The Prophet said: the first three persons who will enter paradise and the first three persons who will enter Hell were
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presented to me. The first three persons who v. ill enter paradise are a martyr, then such a slave who does well his divine service and service to his master, then a needy man who refrains from begging although he has got a large family. The first three persons who will enter Hell are a tyrant ruler, then such a person of wealth who does not pay the dues of ' :od and then the proud poor man. Hazrat Abv Masud Ansari said : When I was beating my slave, I heard a sound from my back : 0 Abu Mas'ud. On turning back I found the Messenger of God. Immediately I threw the stick in my hand and he said : By God, God has got more power over you than your power over this slave. The Prophet said : When any servant comes to any of you with food, let him ask him to sit and take food with him. If he does not do it, let him give him a morsel of food. In another narration, when a slave prepares food for you and gives you relief from it, the vapour of that food and his labour are sufficient for you. Make him sit near you and take meal with him. If he does not do it, allow him to take some food therefrom and allow him to take something therefrom by hand or place some food in his hand and tell him : Eat. The Prophet said : He who takes care of his female slave and gets her married after setting her free, will get double rewards. The Prophet said : Everyone of you is a king and every one will be asked about his subjects under his control.
The sum total of your duties towards, servants and slaves are
Allow him to take share in your food and dress, don't give him work beyond his strength don't took to him with an eye of hate and contempt pardon his faults and think at the time of anger upon him that God has got power to punish you for your sins and guilts and that He has got more power than you. The Prophet said : Three persons will not be asked any question-one who has brought separation in the united party, on who has become disobedient to his Imam (leader) and died as a sinner and the woman whom her husband left behind after relieving her from worldly needs and who after that shows her external beauty. No account will be taken of three persons - one who becomes partner in the screen, glory and honour of God, one who is not free from doubt about the existence of God and one who becomes despaired of the mercy of God.
THE END OF CHAPTER 6 OF VOLUME 2
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