REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
IHYA UL UM-ID-DIN
THE BOOK OF WORLDLY USAGES
CHAPTER X Enjoining good & Forbidding Evil 180
ENJOINING' GOOD AND FORBIDDING EVIL
Enjoining good and prohibiting evil is the basic subject of religions . It is such a necessity for which all the Prophet were sent to the world. Had it been closed, Prophethood would have been meaningless, religions lost, idleness reigned, ignorance spread, disturbance prevailed, dangers and calamities appeared and mankind destroyed. It will be discussed in four section-(1) merits of enjoying good and prohibiting evil (2) its rules and conditions , (3) narration of prevalent corrupt practices in society, (4) and dissuasion about enjoining good and prohibiting evil to the rulers, administrators and those who are invested with
MERITS OF ENJOINING GOOD AND PROHIBITING EVIL
It appears from the Quranic verses and sayings of the Holy Pro het and of the sages and saints that enjoining good and
prohitbiting evil is compulsory.
QURAN; God says : There shall be a party from you who will call towards good and prohibit evil and they shall be successful- 3:105 Q. This is Farze Kefayah and not Faraz Ain. In other words, if some people do it, other Muslims will be absolved from its sin, but if none does it, all will be sinners. God says: All the people of the Book are not equal. A party of them recite standing in prayer all night, make prostration and have faith in God and the next world and view with one another in good deeds. They are included within the religious people. God says The believing men and believing women are friends to one another. They enjoin good on one another and prohibit evil and establish prayer. They have lien praised by God as they adopt these measures. Those who do not do these are out of the category of believers. God says : Those who are unbelievers among the children of Israil are cursed by the tongues of David
and Jesus Christ. son of Mary. This is because they committed
sins and transgressed. They did not prohibit them to divert from
evil deeds. Evil is what they did " In this verse, God says that
They are fit for curse as they gave up prohibiting the evil doings.
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God says : 'You are the best of nations created for
mankind. You enjoin good and prohibit evils.' In this verse
God Says that the Muslims are the best nation only for this that'
they enjoin good and prohibit evils . God says : When they
were reminded, they forgot. I gave salvation to those who
prohibited evils." God says in this verse clearly that they got
salvation, because they used to prohibit evils and this verse
also proves the compulsory character of this matter. God says:
If I establish them in the world, they establish prayer, pay
Zakat, enjoin good and prohibit evils God praised the
companions in the above verse. God says : Help one another in righteousness and God-fear and don't help in sin and transgression. This is an open order of God to enjoin good and forbid evil. God says : 0 believers, keep firm on justice, bearing witness for God even though it is against yourselves, parents and near relatives. This verse speaks of enjoining good to parents and relatives . God says : There is no good in most of their secret talks , except those of the man who enjoins on giving charity doing good deeds or doing good to the people. I will give ample reward to one who does it for pleasure of God . God says : If two parties of the believers fight with each other, make peace between them. This peace means to prohibit them to make rebellion and bring them back to allegiane. If it cannot be done, God ordered to kill those who do not submit. He said Fight with one who rebels till he returns to the commands of God.
Sayings of the Holy Prophet. The Prophet said ; if some people commit sins and if there are other persons fit to prohibit them and still they do not do it, they do not do any religious act. Soon punishment from God will fall on all of them . The companion Sa'labah asked the Prophet about the explanation of this verse-If you have found guidance, the misguided cannot do you any harm. He said, in reply : 0 Abu Sa'labah, enjoin good and prohibit evil. When you will find the people following greed and passions, love the world and give opinion according to every wise man, be busy then with yourself and give up the affairs of the public, because disasters and calamities will come behind your back like full dark night. He who remains firm like you, will get the rewards of fifty of you. He was asked : 0 Messenger of God, will he get rewards of fifty of them? He said: No, the rewards of fifty of you because you are getting help for good deeds, while they will not get any helper therefor.
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Hazrat Ibn Masud was asked the explanation of the above Hadis and he said : This is not that age. At the present age, enjoining good and forbidding evil are accepted, but soon there will come an age when you will enjoin good but the people, will give you trouble for that. If you say anything, it will not be accepted from you. When you get guidance, the misguided people cannot misguided you . The Prophet said : 0 mankind, God said : Before you make invocation enjoin good and prohibit evil, or else your invocation will not be accepted. The Prophet said : In comparison with Jihad in the way of God, the good deeds are nothing but like a puff of breath in a deep sea All good deep and Jihad in the way of God are nothing but a puff of breath in the deep sea in comparison with enjoining good and prohibiting evil.
The Prophet said: God will ask a servant : Who prevented you to prohibited a person form doing evil when you saw it being done ? If God would have taught him to reply he would have replied thus: 0 Lord, I entertained hope of Thee and feared men.
The Prophet said: Be careful of sitting on the pathway. The companions asked : We have got on alternative but to sit on the pathway and we hold discussion there. He said : If you are compelled to do it, fulfill the rights of the pathway.' They asked: What are the rights of the pathways ? He said : To shut up eye-sight, to have patience at harms, to respond to salutation, to enjoing good and to forbid evil The Prophet said : Except enjoining good and forbidding evil and making Zikr of God, every word of man does harm to him and not benefit. Then the Prophet said : God wil not surely punish the pious men for the sins of the people so long as they prevent them from wrong doing. The Prophet said : When your women will become disobediently, your young men will commit great sins and you will give up Jihad, what will then be your condition ? The companions asked :0 Messenger of God, will it happen? He said Yes, by One in whose hand there is my life, a more serious thing
will happen. They asked : What is that thing ? He said : When
you will take the the good does as evil and evil deeds as good,
what will be your condition ? The companion asked: Will it
happen ? He said : Yes. By One in whose hand there is my life, a
more serious thing will happen. The companions asked: What is
that thing? He said: When you will be ordered to do evil things
and prohibited from doing good deeds, what will be your
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condition then ? They said : Will at happen ? He said : Yes, By One in whose hand there is my life, a worse matter than that will happen. God will say : I take oath by Myself that I will create such disasters and calamities for them in which those who are patient
will be puzzled or perplexed.
The Prophet said: Don't wait near a man at the time when he is unjustly killed, because God's curse falls upon that man also who, being present there, does not prevent it. The Prophet said If a man be present at a place where there is danger, he shall not speak there but truth, because he will not die before his fixe time and he will neither be deprived of his fixed provision. From this Hadis , it appears that it is not lawful to enter a place of oppression and sin and be present where sins are being committed if he is notable to prevent it. The Prophet said: 'Curse descends upon that person who remains present there'. To be present at a place where a sin is being committed is unlawful in case he is unable to prevent it. For this reason, a party of earlier sages used to take to loneliness, so that evil deeds did not fall to their eyes in markets festivals and assemblies as they understood
that they were unable to remove it.
The Prophet said: 'When a man is present at the time of commission of a sin and he hates it, he remains as it were absent from it. When a man remains absent at the time of commission of a sin but he loves it, he remains as it were present there. His presence there is accidental and not out of volition as it is prohibited. The Prophet said : The Almighty God did not send any Prophet who had no disciples. He lived among them till God wished that he should live among them to instruct them to follow His injunction and the Book. Afterwards He took his life. After him, his disciples used to act according to God's Book and His command and the ways of the Prophet. When they died. there came after them a party of men who used to deliver sermon upon pulpits but they themselves did bad deeds. When you will see it, then it will become the duty of every believer to fight with his hand . If he is unable todo it, he wil fight with his tongue . Without this, his Islam does not remain.
Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: The Prophet was once asked : 0 Messenger of God, will any place be destroyed if there are pious men therein ? He said: Yes. He was asked: What is its reason? He said : They will neglect their duties and they will remind silent
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though they will see them committing sins. For that, they will be destroyed. The Prophet siiid : The Almighty God ordered an angel : Throw this place upside down upon its inhabitants. A man said : 0 Lord, there is a certain servant of Three in this place. He did not commit a single sin for a moment. He said : Throw this place on that man and those people, as he did not turn his face to them even for a moment.
The Prophet said: God sent punishments on the inhabitants of a place which numbered eighteen thousands. Their worship was like the worship of the Prophets. The companions asked : 0 Messenger of God, wy has it occurred ? He said : They did not express anger for the sake of God did not enjoin (hem good and prohibit them evil Moses once asked qod : '0 Lord, who is dearest to Thee ? He said : That servant who humbly comes towards My will as a vulture rushes towards its object, that servant who remains ready to help My pious servants in such a way just as a suckling child keeps attached to its mother's breast and that servant who gets angry when an unlawful thing corners to him in such a way just as a leopard does not care when angry whether the people are many or few. It appears that the merits of enjoining good or forbidding evil are great in the face of such
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq asked: 0 Messenger of God, is there any Jihad except Jihad with the unbelievers ? The Prophet said : Yes. 0 Abu Bakr, the Mujahids in the way of God are. better than the martys. They are given provision and they are alive. They roam about in the world and God praises them before the angels. Paradise has been adorned for them. Hazrat Abu Bakr asked : 0 Messenger of God, who are they ? He said They enjoin good and forbid evil, love one another for the sake of God and give up hatred for one another for the sake of God. Then he said : By One in whose hand there is my life, one of them will live in such palace which is placed above all other palaces and above all the palaces of the martyrs. That palace will have three lac doers. Each door is most valuable and made of emeralds and jewels of green colour and every door will have light. In that palace, he will have three lac Hurs who will look with askance eye : Whenever any Hur who will look at a person he will say : Do you remember such and such a day when you enjoined good and forbade evil ?
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Hazrat Abu Obaidah said: I asked : 0 Prophet of God, who is
the most honourable near God among the martyrs ? He said : The martyr who stands before a tyrant ruler and enjoins him to do good and prohibit evil and for which he is killed. If the tyrant ruler does not kill him, pen will be shut up for him til he lives. The Prophet said : The greatest martyr among my follows will be that person who, standing before a tyrant ruler, enjoins him to do good and prohibits evils as a result of which the ruler kills him. His place will be between Hamaza and Ja'far. Hazrat Omar said I heard the Prophet say : Those persons of the present age are bad who do not do justice and who do not enjoined good and
Hazrat Abu Darda said You shall enjoin good and prohibit evil, or else God will place over you such a tyrant ruler who will not show honour to your elders and show kindness to your juniors. The religious men among you will pray against them but God will not accept their prayer. They will seek help against them but they will not be helped. They will seek forgiveness but they will not be forgiven. God revealed to the Prophet Usha-b-Nun : I will destroy from your followers forty thousand religious men and sixty thousand sinners . He said : 0 Lord, I have understood the reason of the destruction of the sinners, but what is the fault of the religious men ? He said : They were not dissatisfied with them when I remained satisfied and they used to take their meals with the sinners. Hazrat Ali said . The Jihad which begins before you are the Jihad which beings before you are the Jihads of your hands and then the Jihad of your tongue and then'the Jihad of your heart. When your heart does not enjoin good and prohibit evil, it becomes enveloped with darkness and its upper portion goes towards its lower portion.
DUTIES OF ENJOINING GOOD AND
There are four head of this matter-(1) one who prevents sins, (2) one who commit sins, (3) the sin which is prevented, (4) and the mode of prevention of sin, Each head has got rules and
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(1) One who prevents sins. One who prohibits evils must have some qualifications. He must be wise and must have strength and ability to do the sama. An insaneman, an unbeliever and disqualified man go out of this rule and are unfit to prohibit evils. The ordinary people also are unfit for it unless they get orders from the rulers. A slaves, a woman and a transgressor are unfit to perform their function. (a) So one must be mature of age and wise. (b) He must be a believer. He who disbelieves the basis of religion is not fit for this purpose (c) He must have sense of justice. God says : Do you enjoin men to do good and forget it for yourselves ? God says : It is a most reprehensible thing to God that you say what you do not do. The Prophet said : While passing by a party of men in the night of ascention to heaven. I saw that their lips were cut by the scissors of fire. I asked : Who are you ? They said : We used to enjoin good, but we ourselves used not to do it. We used to prohibit evils, but we ourselves used to do them. God revealed to Jesus Christ. Give advice first to yourself. When you follow that advice, give advice to others said that it is lawful of a great sinner to enjoin good and forbid evil.
There are five stages of enjoining good and forbidding evil, (1) The first stage is giving simple advice, (2) the second stage is to give sermon with sweet words. (3) the third stage is to abuse and mere out harsh treatment, (4) the fourth stage is to apply force and prevent one from doing a sinful, act, such as to throw wine from its pot,to snatch away dress of silk and stolen articles and to return them to rightful owner and (5) the fifth stage is to assault, beat and threaten one from doing a sinful act Except in the fifth stage man is not required to obtain permission of the authorities to do such works in the four stages.
SOME EXAMPLES OF GIVING ADVICE
TO THE RULERS
(a) Once Caliph Merwan-b-Hakam was delivering sermon before I'd prayer. A man said to him Sermon is generally held after I'd prayer. Merwan said to him : Leave this word. He said The. Prophet said : If anyone of you sees a bad thing, let him prevent it by his hand. If he.cannot do it, let him prohibit him by this tongue. If cannot do it also let him cherish hatred for it in his
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mind. This is the weakest faith. The rulers are also included in this advice. (b) Once Caliph Mehdhi came to Mecca and stayed there for many days. At the time of Tawaf of the Ka'ba it was cleared of the public. One Abdullah-b-Mazruq jumped up and said to the Caliph : Look at what you are doing. Who ha. given you more right regarding the Ka'ba than that of one who comes from a distant place. God says : The man who stays therein and the man who comes from a distant place are all. equal who has given you power to drive out the people ? The Caliph recognized him as one of his officers and brought him to Bagdad after arrest and confined him in a stable. His men tied him with a horse for killing him. God subdued the horse to him. Baffled at this, they locked him in a room with the key in Caliph's hand. Three days after this, he was found to the amazement of all eating vegetables in a garden. He was taken to the Caliph and asked : Who has taken you out of this room ? The Caliph raised aloud his cry and asked him Don't you fear that I can kill you ? He was laughing and said : I would have feared you if you would have been the owner of life an death. Afterwards he remained in jail upto the death of Mehdi. when he was released afterwafds, he went to Mecca and sacrificed one'hundred camels to fulfil the vow of his release.
(3) The following story has been narrated by Habban-bAbdullah. While travelling in a certain place with one Solaiman, Caliph Harun Rashid said : You have got -a beautiful singing female slave. Tell her to sing before me. When she came the Caliph told him to bring musical instrument. When he was taking it to the Caliph, he met a hermit on the way. The hermit took the instrument and broke it into pieces. The man complained about it to the Caliph who called the hermit out of anger. When the hermit entered the Caliph's darbar with a bag of small pebbles, the Caliph asked him why he had broken the musical instrument. The hermit said : I heard your father and his predecessors to recite this verse on the pulpit: God orders you to do justice, to show kindness, to give charity to the near relatives and prohibits you from evils and rebellion, I saw evil and broke the musical instrument to pieces. The Caliph remained silent and allowed the hermit to go. When the hermit went away out of the Caliph's darbar, the latter gave a purse of money to a man and said : Follow this hermit. If you hear him say : I have told the Caliph such and such, don't give it to him. If you find him silent,
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give it to him. When the hermit went out, he went to the place of date-stones and remained silent. The man gave the purse to him.,-, The hermit said to the man : Tell the Commander of the faithful to return the money wherefrom he took it. Then he began to pick up date-stones and recite the following poems:
'I see the worldly addicted engrossed in anxieties,
Along with the increase of their wealth, sorrows increase The world gives to the honourable troubles and disgrace, It gives him who submits to it an honourable place, Give up what is useless to you and unnecessary, And take to what is to you absolutely necessary.
(4) The sage Sufiyan Saori said : Caliph Mehdi once went on a pilgrimage in 166 Hijri. I found him at Jamrah Aqabah to throw stones and then the people were pushed back on all sides by sticks. I waited there for sometime and said to the Caliph : Oman having beautiful face, I heard the narrator say this Hadis : I saw the Messenger of God on the Day of sacrifice to throw stones here in which there was no beating no driving out of the people, no assault by sticks and in which it was not said : Go back all around " . Put you are driving the people from left, right and front. The Caliph asked : Who is the man He was told that he was Sufiyan Saori The. Caliph said : 0 Sufiyan, had there been Caliph Mansur, you would not have dared to say this . He said : If you has seen the disasters that fell on Caliph Mansure, the condition wherein you are now would have been less.
(5) Once a man was found enjoining good and forbidding evil without permission of the Caliph Mamun. When the man was brought before the Caliph he said : 0 Commander of the faithful, we help you in your task : God said : The believing men and women are friends to one another. They enjoin good etc. The Prophet also said : A believer in relation to another is like a building one portion of which strengthens the other. Hearing this, the Caliph became pleased with him and said : You are a fit person to undertaken this task.
(6) One who gives advice should have strength and power. He who is unable to undertake this task should entertain hatred for sinful acts. Inability here means to fear injury and harm from the person to whom advice is given. God says : Don't meet destruction by your own hands. There are three kinds of sin-(1)
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tnajrr sin for which there are prescribed punishments in the Quran and to prevent them is compulsory ; (2) such sins which are done continuously, such as wine drinking, wearing silk dresses, using cups of gold and silver and to prevent them is compulsory : (3) and such sins which are expected to be committed in future. There are four conditions for prevention of these evils. The first condition is that it must be an evil action in the eye of Shariat and it must be unlawful. The second condition is that it is to be prevented in the course of it commission. If a man has finished drinking wine, it is not applicable in the case except by way of advice. (3) The third condition is that it must be known to the man preventing it as a sinful act without enquiry. If a man commits a sin after closing the door of his house, to enquire about it secretly is not lawful. Once Hazrat Omar secretly entered a house and found a man committing a sinful act. The man said on being asked : If I have committed one sin. You have committed three sins. Being asked about them, has said: God says: Don't spy into the secrets of another but you have done it. Don't enter the houses by their backs-you have come after overriding the wall. God says : Don't enter a house except with permission of the owner and without salutation-you have neither taken permission, nor saluted its inmates. After this, Hazrat Omar let him off after imposing on him the condition of repentance. (4) The fourth condition is that the evil must be known to be evil without efforts. If otherwise, there is no forbidding of evil. These relate of the minor details of different sects. One sect gives opinion that a particular act like eating lizard is an evil, while according to another sect. It is not an evil.
THE MAN WHO SHOULD BE
PREVENTED FROM SIN
The sin which should be prevented must be such as is fit to be prevented according to Shariat. If a man is seen drinking wine, he should be prevented from drinking it and it is compulsory. So is the case of a mad man if seen to commit adultery with a woman. If a man is seen damaging the crops of another, he should be prevented from doing it for two reason, first to fulfill the duty towards God and secondly towards the man wronged. The law of a lost thing found is that if it is susceptible of damage, one is not bound to take it.
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MODES OF PREVENTION OF SIN
Know, 0 dear readers, that there are different modes of prevention of sins in different stages. The first stage is to know the condition of the sinner, the second stage is to inform him of the harm of sin, the third stage is to prevent him from doing the sinful act the fourth stage is to advise him, and give him admonition the fifth stage is to rebuke him and use harsh words, the sixth stages is to apply force, the seventh stage is to give him threat of beating, the eight stage is to actually beat him the ninth stage is to use weapons against him and the tenth stage is to fight against him with followers and soldiers.
(1) The First stage. To spy into the secrets of a sinner is prohibited. So one should not enquire what is occurring in a house. But if anyone informs you that a certain man in drinking or wine doing some unlawful act, it then becomes you duty to prevent it so the first thing is to enquire about the condition of the sinner.
(2) The second stage is to inform the sinner that he is committing or going to commit a sin. Many men do sinful acts out of ignorance. If warning is given, they may themselves desist from the sinful acts. For instance an illiterate man observes his prayer but does not bow and prostrate well or prays with unclean cloth. Had he known them, he would not have prayed thus.. Man is not born learned. Learning shall have to be acquired.
(3) The third stage is to prohibit a sinner by sermon, admonition and showing fear of God. If a man commits sir after knowing it to be a sin, he should be given sermon and shown fear of God's punishment. He should be informed of the traditions of the Prophet which deal with punishment of the crime. The Muslims are like one soul and so the destructive faults should be removed from the soul. One who gives advice should take precaution whether he himself is free from that vice. He should then remember what God said to Jesus Christ. 0 son of Mary, first take advicq to yourself. If you obey it, then give advice to the people or elf you will become ashamed of Me. Once a man asked the sage Daud Tai about the condition of a person who enjoins good and forbids evil to a ruler or a man in power. He said : I fear whipping by him. The man said : If the person can
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bear it? He said: I fear death . The man said: If he can bear it? He said : I fear for him self-praise begotten by praise of the people.
(4) The Fourth stage is a abuse and using harsh words. If there is good result in the use of soft words with the wrong doer, harsh words should not he resorted to. When it fails, then use harsh words and abuse him . This is like the words of Prophet Abraham : Woe to you and what you worship except God. Use such words to him: 0 fool, don't you fear God. 0 sinner, 0 ignorant man. This wise man is he who has been described by the Prophet in the following words : The wise man is he who humbles himself and acts for what is after death and the fool is he who follows low desires and hopes for forgivesness of God. There are two rules in this stage. (1). Don't abuse except When necessary and use harsh words when necessary. If appreciable result is not seen by the measure, express anger by turning away from him.
(5) The Fifth stage is to correct evils by hand, such as pouring down wine, taking off silk dress from the body, ejecting from a land unlawfully occupied. This method should be adopted after the failure of the first four stages. Keep correction within limit and don't exceed what is necessary.
(6) The Sixth stage is to threaten and warn. If all the previous modes of correction fail, this method should be be adopted. For instance, one should say to the drunkard : Throw away the wine, otherwise I shall break your head and I shall strike your neck or I shall put you to disgrace.
(7) The Seventh stage is to assault by hand or stick in case the previous modes of correction fail . Eighth stage is to fight with followers being armed. Many a time people arms are necessary to ward off evil because many a time wrong door with his party man remain ready to fight. When the two parties meet, fight begins and it is necessary for pleasure of God and to remove the injuries of sinful actions. It is allowed for the warriors against the unbelievers . Similarly it is necessary to bring the great transgressors under control.
QUALIFICATIONS OF ONE PREVENTING WRONGS
One who prevents wrong and evils should have the following qualifications-
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(1) knowledge that the act is wrong (2) God-fear and (3) good conduct. Regarding knowledge, the place, limit and order for preventation of wrongful act should be known and should remain confined within the rules of Shariat. Without such knowledge, one can not distinguish between right and wrong. God- fear is necessary for one who prevents evil because one who prevents it should act for self-interest but for the sake of God. Such a man should possess also good conduct, kindness and humanity. When anger aries, good conduct only can control
If one who prevents evils possess these three qualities, he can earn merits for preventing sins. If he does not possess these qualities , he exceeds many a time the limits of Shariat. The Prophet said : He who is not patient in enjoining good and for bidding evil and has got no knowledge of enjoining good and for bidding evil shall not enjoin good and prohibit evil, So it appears that knowledge, patience and kindness are necessary in the
matter of advice.
Hasrat Hasan Basari said : If you are an adviser for good deeds, first fulfill them yourself or else you will be ruined. Anas reported. We asked the Messenger of God : 0 Messenger God, shall we cease to enjoin good and prohibit evil to others if we do not act fully according to our sermons and refrain from doing evils? The Prophet said : If you are unable to act fully according to your sermons, still you will enjoin good. If you are unable to give up fully whatyou prohibit, still you will'prohibit it. A certain sage advised his sons. If anyone amongst you wishes to enjoin good, he should advice himself first with good qualities of patience and hope for rewards from God . He who hopes for rewards of God will not find any difficulty therein. One rule of Hasbat or advice is to remain satisfied with patience. For this reason, God kept patience attached with advice. The wise Loqman advised his son : 0 dear son, establish prayer, enjoin good and prohibit evil, Be patient at the danger that will befall on
you for this.
(4) Absence of greed. One who takes up the mission of advice should not keep much connection with the world and should not have fear. He who depends on men will not be able to prevent sins. Once a speaker advised Caliph Mamun and spoke harshly with him. The Caliph said to him : 0 gentleman, be
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modest as he who was better than you was-sent by God to people worse than yourself with the instruction of advising them with soft words. God says; Tell him soft words, so that he may take lesson and fear. Once a slave came to the Prophet and said: Give me permission to commit fornication . At this, the companions raised a loud cry. The Prophet said: Bring him to me When he sat before the Prophet, he said : Do you like that somebody should commit fornication with your mother ? He said : Never. The Prophet said: So nobody like that another should commit fornication with his mother. He thus asked him whether he liked formination with his daughter, sister, niece and aunt and each time he replied in the negative. The Prophet then touched his chest with his hand and prayed : 0 God, purify his mind, pardon his sins and his private parts. From that time, there was no action more heinous in his sight than fornication.
Fateh-b-Sakhraf said: Once a man with daggger in hand was dragging a woman by force. Nobody dared to go near him for
fear of being murdered. The woman raising loud cries being confined in his hand. Suddenly the sage Bashr Hafi was passing by that way. He went to him and touched his shoulder. As a result, the man fell down senseless and the sage then left the place. The woman also went away. When the man regained his senses, the people asked him : What has happened to you ? He said : I don't know anything, but I remember this much that a man came tome and said after touching me : Certainly God sees you and your action. On hearing his words, fear came in my mind and my feet got paralysed. I don't know the man. They said : He is Bashr Hafi . On that very day, he was attached with fever which ultimately led him to the grave.
EVIL ACTIONS PREVALENT IN SOCIETY
All evil actions are of two kinds-Haram (unlawful) and Markruh (not commendable). To prevent what is unlawful is compulsory and to remain silent at the time of its commission is unlawful . To prevent what is Makruh is Mustahab or commendable and to remain silent at the time of its commissions is not good but not unlawful.
The following are some of the evil actions in mosques-to make bow and prostration not in a good manner, to recite the Quran in a melodious voice, to prolong the prayer call, putting
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on by the Imam of'a black robe or of a robe consisting mostly of silk, to tell stories in Friday sermon, to buy or sell at the time of Jumma prayer.
The following are some of evils in markets-to tell lies to the customers, to conceal the defects of commodities and articles of sale, to increase or reduce the weights and measures, to sell toys of animals and buy them to sell articles of gold and silver, silk dresses etc. Some of the evils in path ways are the following to construct shops in the pathways, to encroach the pathway by extending the verandah of a building, to tie animals obstructing the pathway of the people, to sacrifice animals on the pathway, to throw refuges, to allow water of a building to fall on the pathway or by extending a pipe. The following are some of the evils in feasts-to spread cushions of silk, to serve in cups of gold and silver, to beat drums, or to sing songs, to serve unlawful foods and drinks, to arouse laughter by telling false stories, to spend lavishly in various kinds of food. The following are some of the evils in buildings-to spend unnecessary expenses in the construction of buildings because to spend money without benefit is to destroy it. If a man has got only one hundred dinars without any other property and it is necessary for the maintenance of his family members, his spending it in a marriage will be considered as misuse and to prevent him from it is compulsory. God says : Don't spread your hand to its utmost spreading lest you sit down condemned and despaired. God says: DtOn't be extravagant, in expense. The extravagant are the brothers of the devils.. God says : When they spend, they are not extravagant, nor miser. To prevent miserliness and extravagance is compulsory.
ADVICE TO THE RULERS
In case of enjoining good to the rulers and kings and forbidding them evils, only the first two modes should to adopted and not the other modes of harsh treatment, abuses, assault and fight. In other words, they should be advised with sweet words with full possession of knowledge of their evil actions. To apply other modes in their case in unlawful as it creats disturbance and loss of peace and tranquillity. To t lc risk personally and individually is not unlawful without risking ,the people in general into dangers and difficulties, because the Prophet said : Hamza, son of Abdul Muttableb, is best among the
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martyrs and then the next best is he who standing before a ruler enjoins him good and forbids him evil for which he is killed by him. His rank is lower than Hamza. The Prophet said : The best Jihad is to speak right words before, a tyrnt ruler. The Prophet praised Hazrat Omar by saying : He is an iron man and the defamation of a back- biter cannot divert him from the matters of God. Those who had firm and certain faith approached the rulers with truth and enjoined them good and forbade evils even at the
risk of their lives, properties and honour in order to be blessed with martyrdom.
(1) When the Quraish leaders wished to take revenge on the
Prophet, Hazrat Abu Bakr raised protest. Hazrat Urwah said : I
asked Abdullah-b-Amr: What was the greatest trouble which the
Quraish gave to the Prophet ? He said : I went once to Quraish
who were then discussing about the Prophet sitting in the Ka'ba
and saying : This man has made us fool, abused our forefathers
and our religion. He has disorganized our unity, abused our
idols and we have shown patience in a great task. Suddenly the
Prophet appeared there, kissed the black Stone'and made Tawaf
round the Ka'ba . The Quraish begann to abuse him each time
when he was passing by them in the round. Then the Prophet
said : 0 Quraish don't you hear ? Beware, by One in whose hand
there is my life, I have not come to you with a sacrificial animal.
The Quraish then bent down their heads and one of them said
How sweet is this word. He gave consolation to the Prophet and
said : 0 Abul Qasem, go away, by God, we are not ignorant. Then
the Prophet went away, from that place. Next morning, one of
the Quraish threw a sheet of cloth round the neck of the Prophet and began to drag him by force. Hazrat Abu Bakr went to him and said crying : Woe to you : Will you kill this man ? He only said : My lord is God. They then let off the Prophet.
In another narration, it was reported that Abdullah-b-Omar said : When the Prophet was in the precints of t4,e Ka'ba Oqbah-b-Obay caught hold of neck with a a sheet of cloth and began to drag him therewith with force. Hazrat Abu Bakr came there and drove him out and said : Will you kill such a man who says : God is my Lord? He has come to-you with clear message
from your Lord,
(2) It was reported that Caliph Muwayiah kept the allowance, of the Muslims in abeyance for sometime . When he was
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delivering sermon on a pulpit, Abu Muslim Khaolani stood up and said : 0 Muwayiah, these allowances are not your paternal properties, nor were they acquired by your father and mother. The Caliph then grew into rage, got down from the pulpit and said to them : Sit down in your own places. Then he went to a bathroom, took bath and came again and said : Abu Muslim uttered such words which enkinded my rage. I heard the Prophet say : Wrath comes from the devil and the devil was created of fire and fire can be extinguished by water. When someone of you gets angry, take bath. Therefore I took bath and Abu Muslim uttered the truth that these properties were not acquired by my wealth or by my parents. Take now your allowances.
A(3) Hazrat Zart-b-Mehasan reported: Hazrat Abu Musa Ash'ari was our governor at Basra. When he read khutba, he used first to praise God and send blessings on the Prophet and thereafter he used to pray for Hazrat Omar. I did not like that Hazrat Abu Bakr should be omitted from the prayer. I stood up and said to him : Why don't you pray for the first Caliph Hazrat bu Bakr ? He did not pay any heed to my request but complained against me to Hazrat Omar. The latter summoned me. I was then sent to Hazrat Omar to Medina. The latter asked me : What has occurred between you and my governor Abu Musa Ash'ari ? He said : When he reads Khutba, he prays, for you only, I was dissatisfied at it and said to him: Why don't you pray also for Hazrat Abu Bakr and why do you give superiority of Omar over him ?.Inspite of this, he complained against me to you. At this, Hazrat Omar began to weep and said : You are more fit for the post of governor than my governor and more guided towards truth. Forgive me and God will forgive you. I said : 0 Commander of the faithful, God has forgiven you. Hazrat Omar began to weep and said : By God, shall I not inform you of Abu Bakr's one night and one day ? Yes I said tell me'.
Hazrat Omar said: When the Prophet with Abu Bakr came out one night to migrate to Medina the Prophet with Abu Bakr ding the Prophet from all sides. When the Prophet was feeling pain in his toes for walking long, Abu Bakr raised him up to his shoulder and carried him till he reached the cave of Saur and said to the Prophet : Don't enter this cave till I first enter it. If there is any injurious animal in it, it will first attack me. When he entered into the cave and found nothing, he carried the Prophet into it.
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There was a small hole in the cave and Abu Bakr closed it by one
of his feet. A little after a snake stung the foot of Abu Bakr who
began to shed tears at the pain caused by the poison of the snake.
The Prophet saw it and asked him : 0 Abu Bakr, don't weep
Surely God is with us. This is one night of Hazrat Abu Bakr.
Regarding his one day, I may let you know that when the
Prophet expried, some desert Arabs raised the standard of
rebellion. Some of them said : We shall observe prayer but we
shall not pay Zakat. I came to Abu Bakr and advised him to be
kind to the rebels. He said to me : You were powerful during the
days of ignorance but you have become fearful in Islam. Why
should I show kindness to them ? When the Prophet expired and
revelation stopped they stopped payment of Zakat they used to pay it to the Prophet but before this he fought against them for this . So we shall fight against them in this matter. By God, it is he who has shown us the true path. This is Abu Bakr's one day. Then Hazrat Omar sent a letter to his governor rebuking him for not praying for Abu Bakr in his khutba (4) The sage Ata-b-Rebah once went to Caliph Abdul Malek-b-Merwan at Mecca. When the Caliph saw the sage Ata, he stood in his honour and asked him Have-you got any necessity ? The sage said : 0 Commander of the faithful, fear this sacred place of God and His Prophet, keep its purity, fear God in the matters of the descendants of Muhajirs and Ansars, as by their help you are sitting in this throne. Fear God regarding the soldiers guarding the frontiers as they are the forts of the Muslims and take care of the affairs of the Muslims.
You will be asked about these maters. Don't be different to those
who are under your control and don't shut up your doors against
them. The Caliph said : I will try to follow your advice.
(5) Once the sage was brought before the Caliph Walid-b
Abdul Malek. He said to the Caliph : I heard that there is a well
named Habhab in Hell. The well has been reserved by God for
every tyrant ruler. On hearing this. Walid raised a cry and fell senseless.
(6) The sage Ibn Ali Shamelah was famous for his wisdom and good treatment. Once he went to Caliph Abdul Malek-b-Merwan who requested him to tell him some words of advice. He said : 0 Commander of the Faithful , on the Resurrection day, mankind will not be saved from its grevious punishment and serious condition . Only he who please God
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displeasing himself will be safe. The Caliph wept at this and said I will keep the advice as the object of my life till I live.
(7) The tyrant governor Hajjaj once called the learned men of Basra and Kufa including the sage Hasan Basari. Hajjaj began to condemn Hazrat Ali : Ibn Ayesha said : We began to support him. Hazrat Hasan Basari began to cut his thumb and remained silent. Hajjaj said to him : Why do I see you silent ? What is your opinion regarding Ali ? Hasan Basari said : God said regarding Hazrat Ali : I have fixed the Qibla to what you are accustomed only to examine those who follow the Apostle from amongs those who turn on their heels-2:143 . Hazrat Ali was one of those believers whom God gave guidance. My opinion about him is that he was cousin and son in law of the Prophet and he was dearest to him. God adorned him with many virtues. You or anybody else will not be able to enter into his attributes. My opinion is that God is sufficient for any fault that he might have got. At this the face of Hajjaj became reddish and he stood up in rage. Then he entered his house and we went away.
One day, Hajjaj summoned the sage Hasan Basari and said Do you say that God will destroy those who kill the servants of God for money ? He replied : Yes. Hajjaj asked : Why do you say this ? He said : The cause is that God took promise from the learned that they would make the people understand the words of religion and not conceal them. Hajjaj said : 0 Hasan, hold your tongue, I warn you that you should not make me listen to what I don't like. There is a great deal of difference between your body and mind.
(9) The sage Hatil Jayyat once came to Hajjaj who asked him Are you Hatil ? He said : Yes, ask me what you wish. I have taken promise for three matters to God near Maqame Ibrahim (1) I will speak truth whoever asks me anything, (2) I will have patience If anybody throws me into danger and (3) 1 will express gratefulness if anybody pardons me. Then Hajjaj said : What do you say about me ? He said : You are the enemy of God. in the earth, you destroy the honour of the people and kill them at your whim. Hajjaj said : What do you say about Caliph Abu Malek-bMerwan ? He said : He is a greater sinner than you. Among his sins. You are one . On hearing this, Hajjaj ordered : Punish this man. Then inflicting whipping on him, the whip of the executioner broke. Then the executioner tied him with a ropes
and began to cut his flesh with a knife, but he did not utter even 'uf Hajjaj was informed that the man's end was nearing to which he said: If he expires, throw his body into the market. Jafar said : I and one of his friends came to him and said to him : 0 Hatil, have you got any necessity ? He said : One handful water. When they brought water to him, he drank it and soon expired. His age was then only 18 years.
(10) Omar-b-Hubairah was governor of Basra, Kufa Madina and Syria. He called to his court Shafi of Kufa and Hasan Basari of Basra. He said to Shahi : I wish to cancel the allowances of some persons about whom I heard that they say many things against me. My wish is that they should return to my allegiance. What do you say ? He said : A ruler is like a father. Sometimes he is right and sometimes he commits mistakes for which he incures no sin. The ruler was pleased to hear my advice. Then he said to the sage Hasan Basari : What do you say about it ? he replied : I heard the companion Abdur Rahman reporting that the Prophet said : God will make paradise unlawful for one who, being appointed to rule over the people, does not look to their welfare and provision. Regarding the cancellation of allowances of the people I say that to preserve the right of God is more an important duty than to preserve your right. God is more fit to be obeyed. There is no permission to show allegiance to the created being disobedient to God. The letter of the commander of the Faithful can not be placed above the Book of God. Accept it if it is contrary to it. The Book of God and throw it if it is contrary to it. 0 Ibn Hubairah, fear God, Perchance a messenger may come to you from the Lord, of the universe. He may take you to the grave and remove you from the palace. The governor Ibn Hubairah said : 0 Shaikh, don't say these words. God selected the the commander of the Faithful as a ruler. Hasan Basari said : He who gives you better advice regarding religion is better than one who hopes to incure your pleasure. Shubi then said : I did never see a man more brave and learned than Hasan Basari.
(11) Ibn Ali Jubair was once present before the Caliph Mansur. Hasan-b-Zaid was then governor of Medina . Some people complained against the governor Hasan to the Caliph . The latter asked Ibn Ali Jubair about the govneror. He said Hasan conducts his affairs according to his whim and does not do justice. The Caliph then asked him. What do you say about me
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? He said : I bear witness that you have sized power unjustly and there is injustice prevalent in your rule. Then the Caliph Mansur caught hold of his neck and said : Had I not been here, Persia, Byzantium, Dailam and Turkey world have snatched this place from you. After this, the Caliph released him as said: By God had I not known that you area truthful man, I would have killed you.
(12) Hazrat Aozayi reported : Caliph Mansure once called me and said : Advise me. I said : 0 Commander of the Faithful, the Prophet said : God made Paradise unlawful of the ruler who dies being displeased with his subjects. 'He who dislike truth hates God as He is the open Truth. It is just that you should upkeep the honour of your subjects, establish justice among them, not shut up your doors against them, be happy in their happiness and sorry in their sorrows. There are the foreigners, the unbelievers and the Muslims under you rule and upon you is the duty of doing justice among them.
0 Commander of the Faithful once there was stick of grape in the hand of the Prophet. He used to cleanse his teeth and threaten the hypocrites therewith . The Prophet said : Then Gebriel cam down and said : 0 Muhammad, why is this stick ? you have broken the hearts of your people and created terror in their minds on its account, Now think of those who shed the blood of their subjects, destroyed their houses and banished them from their countries.
Once the Prophet assaulted as desert Arab very unwillingly with his own hand. Than Gebriel came down and said : 0 Muhammad, God has not sent you either as an oppressor or as a proud man. Then the Prophet called the desert Arab and said Take retaliation on me. The Arabs said: My-parents be sacrificed to you, I have forgiven you. I will never do it. If you have killed me. I would have still prayed good for you.
0 Commander of the faithful, the Prophet said : The place of even an arrow in paradise for one of you is better than the world and its wealth, Your rule will not last for ever as it did not last for your predecessors. I have heard that Hazrat Omar said : If any young one of a goat perishes by the side of the river Tigris, I fear I may be asked about it also. How will it be if a man comes to your court for justice and returns despaired ? Do you know about the verse revealed to Prophet Daud: 0 Daud, I have appointed you
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Caliph (vicegerent) in this world. So establish justice among them and don't follow your low desires, lest it may misguide you from the way of God.
God says in the Zabur: 0 David, when two parties come to you for justice, don't think in your mind that judgment will be give in favour of one to whom your mind inclines and he will be victorious over his adversary. In that case, your name will be cut off from the register of Prophethood and you will not be fit to represent Me. 0 David, I have sent my Prophets to take care of My servants as a shepherd takes care of his flock of sheep. They have been given knowledge of that care and burden of administration, so that they may tie the broken thing, and make alive the weak by provision. 0 Commander of the Faithful, you are tired by such a thing, which if placed upon heaven and earth, they would have refused to bear it and would have been fearful.
0 Commander of the Faithful, I heard that Hazrat Omar appointed a man to collect Zakat from the Ansars. After some days Omar heard that he stayed in his house and therefore he asked him: Why have you not gone out to discharge your duty ? Don't you know that you will get rewards of one warrior in the way of God ? He said: I have heard that the Prophet said : If any man is entrusted with an office of the public, he will be raised up on the Resurrection Day with his hands tied up to his neck. Nothing will unloosen it except justice. Then he will wait upon a bridge of fire. It will break down with him and as a result all his limbs will be broken. Then he will be brought and accounts will be taken. If he be pious, he will get salvation for his good deeds. If he be a sinner, he will be raised along with it and will fall down to the, abyss of Hell, Hazrat Omar asked him : From whd1n have you heard this Hadis ? He said : From Abu Zarr and Salman Faresi when they were brought, they admitted it and then Hazrat Omar Said : Woe to me, who will take the power of administration when there are such evils in it ? Abu Zarr said: That man will take it whose nose will be cut by God, whose face will be powerded to dust by Him. Then he began to weep.
Then I said : 0 Commander of the Faithful, your grand father Abbas wanted governorship of Mecca, but, the Prophet said to him: 0 Abbass, uncle of the Prophet, keep yourself away from this trouble. It is better than the burden of administration . You cannot conceive it. The Prophet said it out of kindness to his
202 Enjoining good and forbidding evil Vol-II
uncle. He told him that it would not be of any use to God. God then revealed to him: Warn your near relatives. The Prophet then said : 0 Abbas, 0 Sufia, 0 Fatema (daughter of the Prophet). I am not responsible for you to God. My actions will help me and your actions will help you. Hazrat Omar said : The burden of administration devolves upon one who has got deep knowledge, who is firm in promise, whose evils can not openly be spoken of who does not fear his relatives and whom the slanders of the slanderers cannot move. Hazrat Omar said : There are four classes of rules-(1) a powerful ruler who keeps himself and his officers engaged. They are like warriors in the way of God. The hand of mercy is upon them. (2) A weak ruler who does not make efforts in administrative matters and owing to his weakness his officers pass time in comforts. He will be ruined and will not get salvation (3) A ruler who keeps his officers busy in duties but himself remains in comforts. This is such a calamity about which the Prophet said : A bad shepherd isa danger and ruins himself. (4) A ruler who lives in comforts and his officers also live likewise. They are all ruined.
0 Commander of the Faithful, I heard that Gebriel once came to the Prophet and said : When God passed order to enkindle the fire of Hell I have come to you. Fire has been placed in Hell for the Resurrection Day. He asked : 0 Gebriel, describe the fire of Hell to me. He said : According to the orders of God, it burnt for one thousand years and. then it assumed reddish hue. Then it burnt for another one thousand years and then it assumed yellowish colour. It burnt for another one thousand years and then it assumed black colour. The fire of Hell is at present dense black. Its fleak does not rise up, nor can it be extinguished. By One who sent you as a true Prophet , if a piece of cloth of the inmates of Hell would have been exposed to the inmates of the world. All would have expired owing to its stench. If an iron chain would have fallen in the world, all would have expired owing to its stench. When the Prophet heard it from Gebriel, he wept and Gebriel also wept Gebriel said : 0 Muhammad why are you weeping ? Your past and future sins have all been forgiven. The Prophet said ; Shall I not be a grateful servant ? 0 Gebriel, why are you weeping ? You are the trusted spirit and trustworthy in Tauhid. Gebriel said : I fear I may be tried as Harut and Marut were tried. I can't trust my rank near God: They both wept till a proclamation came from heaven : 0 Gebriel, 0 Muhammad. God
Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 203
made both of you safe from punishment . Muhammad's rank over all other Prophet is like that of Gebriel over the rest of the angels.
0 Commander of the Faithful. I heard that Hazrat Omar said
Don't give me time even for moment if two persons wait long before me seeking justice in the matter of their property. The greatest difficulty is to establish the duties towards God. The greats honour near God is God fear. God gives honour to one who seeks honour by doing divine service. God disgraces one who seeks honour by committing sins.
These are my advises to you, peace be on you. The Caliph Mansur then gave him the present of a purse. He did not accept it saying: I will not sell this advice in lieu of a temporary thing of the world.
(14) Once Caliph Mansur stayed sometimes at Darum Nadwa at Mecca. He used to pray at the latter part of the night at the Ka'ba and go round it and nobody knew it. He then used to lead the morning prayer. One right while going round the Ka'ba he heard a man saying : 0 God. I complain to you that disuubance, rebellion, oppressin and injustice are going on in the country. After hearing it, the Caliph sat in a corner and the man was called to him. When he came, the Caliph said : I have heard you saying such and such. I am greatly disturbed to hear it. The man said : If you grant me security of life, I may tell you. The Caliph said : You have got no fear. The man then said : You are responsible for the disurbance and disorder in the country. The greed which finds place in you has not entered into any other person. God placed upon you the burden of administration over the Muslims. You are neglecting to do good to them and you are busy in misapporiating their properties. Between you and the public, there are, the stumbling block of limes, bricks, iron doors and guards with arms. You have appointed such officers who oppress the people. You have given them power to take by oppression the properties of the people. You have issued orders prohibiting the entry of the public to you except some persons. You have made no provision for the oppressed, hungry, naked, weak and poor. When the people see that you have selected some special men for you and do not give permission to anybody except those persons, they say that the Caliph has broken the
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trust of God. So they say : Why should we not break our trust with him?
During the reign of Banu Omayya, whenever the oppessed reached the rulers, they at once meted out justice to them. You amass wealth for one of three reasons (1) If you say: I amass wealth for my children, God advises you that when a child is born,it does not take wealth with it or food. God gives it out of His kindness provision and arranged it beforehand in its mother's breast. (2) If you say : I am getting wealth to make my reign firm, God advises you that those who were before you amassed gold and silver, arms and ammunition which did not benefit to them. When God intended to make you Caliph, you had no wealth. (3) If you say : I amass wealth in order to live more comfortably than what I lived before, I will say that the rank which is gained by good works is more than that in which you are now. What will you do with the reign which God has given you ? When the Almighty will snatch away your reign and call you to account, your pomp and grandeur will come of one use to you.
The Caliph Mansur, on hearing it, began to weep bitterly and then said : Alas, had I not been created. Had I been a thing not fit to be mentioned. Then the sage said : Keep near you some high classed leaders and guides from the learned. Then the sage went away after saying : If you recite morning and evening some
invocations, it wilt give you the following results. .Your faults
will be forgiven, your joy will become lasting, your sins will be forgiven, your invocation will be accepted, your provision will. increase, your hopes will become successful, and you will die as a martyr. The invocation is the following:
0 God, I bow to Thy glory. As thou art gracious to the kind, so Thou art above the great with Thy greatness. As Thou hast got knowledge of the things above Thy Throne, so Thou hast knowledge of the things below the abyss of the earth. To Thee, the machinations of mind is like open things. Thy knowledge of express things is 'Pike secret things. Everything before Thy glory is humble. Every powerful manis humble to Thy power . All affairs in this world and in the next are in Thy hands. Give me relief and a way out for the thoughts I am entering my faults and keep my undersirable things secret. Beget love in me to invoke such things for which I am not fit for my sins. I invoke Thee
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freedom from fear and for Thy pleasure. Thou art doing so much good to me but I am committing sins. Thou art giving me love through Thy mercy and I am causing you anger by my sins. Put my firm faith in Thee, give me courage to invoke Thy shower of mercy and blessing on me Thou art Forgiven, the Compassionate. The above talk were held between Mansur and Khizr (peace be on him).
(5) When Harun Rashid became Caliph, the learned men met him and he fixed their annual allowances. Only his friend Sufyan Saori did not meet him. Then the Caliph wrote to him a letter inviting him to come to his palace. When the sage Sufyan received the letter, he wrote in reply on its back : From Sufyan to Harun Rashid : proud of wealth and deprived of the taste of faith, I write to you that I demolished the path of love for you and cut off my love for you. I dislike action for which you cite me as a witness as you have written that you have opened your treasury for the Muslim. You are spending it unjustly and against the provision of Shariat. You are satisfied with what you have done. .0 Harun, you are spending the wealth of the State extravagantly without the consent of the people. Are the widows, orphans and learned satisfied, with your actions ? Know that you shall have to face the Alimighty very soon. You have taken your seat on the Throne being dressed with silk robes. You have hung down long screen over your doors and kept your tyrant soldiers as guards. They drink wine but beat the drunkards. They commit fornicators but mete out prescribed punishment on the fornicat or s. They steal but they cut off the hands of thieves. Why don't you. inflict punishment on them before they inflict punishment on others?
He handed over the letter to the messenger of the Caliph without closing it in envelope without any seal. The messenger handed over the letter to the Caliph who accepted it cordially. He then used to keep it by his side and read it at the end of each prayer till his death.
(16) The Caliph Rashid stayed for some days at Kufa after pilgrimage. People then began to come to him. One Bahlul of deranged brain was one of them. When Harun came to him, he proclaimed loudly : 0 Commander of the Faithful. At this, Rashid uncovered his face and said : 0 Bahlul, Labbaik, Bahlul said : You should take to modesty and humility in your journey.
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At this the Caliph began to weep and said : Give me more advice. Bahlul said : 0 Commander of the Faithful, if any man spends something out of his God given wealth and gives charity, he is enrolled as a pious man. Then the Caliph presented him something which he refused to accept saying : I have got to need of it.
These are some of the example of the previous sages and learned men in enjoining good and forfidding evil. They cared very little the-powers of the rulers and depended entirely on God. They remained satisfied in the belief that God would grant them the benefit of martyrdom.
THE END OF CHAPTER 10 OF VOLUME 2
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