REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
Translated by FAZL-UL-KARIM
VOLUME ONE: THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
CHAPTER VII Secrets of Pilgrimage 188
Ten secret things of Hajj 200
SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE
Pilgrimage is one of the pillars of Islam, the beauty of divine service for the whole life, the end of actions, the perfection of Islam and the foundation of religion. On the day of pilgrimage, God revealed the following verse: Today I have perfected your religion for you and made My gifts perfect on you and I am pleased to give you Islam as a religion - 5 : 3. The Prophet said regarding it: He who dies without making pilgrimage, dies willingly as a Jew or a Christian: So how important is that divine service without which religion does not become perfect and one becomes a Jew or a Christian or a misguided one. It will, therefore, he discussed in three sections.
EXCELLENCE OF PILGRIMAGE: God says: Proclaim Haj among the people, so that they may come to you on foot or upon every camel coming from every distant place (Quran). Qatadah said: God ordered Hazrat Abraham, our Prophet and all chosen servants - Proclaim Haj among their people. Then he proclaimed: 0 people, God created a house, make pilgrimage for it. God says: 'that they may witness benefits for them'. It means trade and rewards in the next world. A certain sage said about it: By Lord of the Ka'ba, He has forgiven them. God mentions the devil as saying: I shall sit for them in your straight path. Some say that the devil will be sitting in the paths towards Mecca to prevent the people from making pilgrimage. The Prophet said: He who makes pilgrimage without doing any obscene deed and without making quarrel comes out of his sins as on the day when his mother gave birth to him. The Prophet said: The devil does not become so much humiliated, dishonoured and disgraced as on the day of Arafat. The cause is that he sees God's blessings descending and His forgiveness of great sins. The Prophet said: there is some sins out of sins which are not forgiven except without waiting at Arafat. The Prophet said: If a man comes out of his house with the intention of making pilgrimage or Umrah, there will be written for him the rewards of one pilgrimage and one Umrah up to the Resurrection Day. He who dies at Mecca or Medina, will not be presented for account and no account will be taken from him and he will be said: Enter Paradise. The Prophet
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said: There is no rewards except Paradise for an accepted Haj. The Prophet said: Those who make pilgrimage and Umrah are guests and neighbours of God. If they pray, it is accepted from them. If they seek forgiveness, God forgives them. If they invoke, their invocation is accepted. If they intercede, it is accepted. There is in another Hadis: He whose sins are greatest is a person who thinks at Arafat that God has not forgiven his sins. The Prophet said: 120 blessings descend everyday on this Ka'ba sixty for those who make Tawaf, forty for those who pray and twenty for those who visit the Ka'ba. There is in Hadis: Make much Tawaf because it is such a great thing that you will find it in your book of deeds on the Resurrection day and for which people will envy you. For this reason, to make Tawaf at first before Haj and Umrah is commendable. There is in Hadis: He who makes Tawaf for a week barefooted and bare bodies will get the reward of setting free a slave. Whose makes Tawaf in rains for a week, his past sins are forgiven. A certain sage said: If the Arafat Day and the Jumma Day occur on the same day, every person at Arafat is forgiven and that is the best day in the world. On that day the farewell pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet took place and on that day, the verse was revealed - To-day I have perfected for you your religion, bestowed My favours completely on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion-5: 53.
The people of the Book said: If the verse would have been revealed upon us, we would have observed it as a day of festival. Hazrat Omar said: I bear witness that this verse was revealed on the Prophet on the day of two festivals, the day of Arafat and, Jumma day and he was then waiting at Arafat. The Prophet said: Forgive one who has come for pilgrimage, 0 God, forgive one who seeks forgiveness for a pilgrim. Hazrat Omar said: A pilgrim is forgiven and also the man for whom he seeks forgiveness in Zilhaj, Muharram, Safar or the first part of Rabiul Awal. It was the custom of the ancient sages that they broadcasted the stories of warriors, welcomed the pilgrims, kissed on their foreheads, sought blessings from them and they hastened to do these things before they would commit sins.
EXCELLENCE OF MECCA AND KABA
The Prophet said: God promised that every year six lacs people will make pilgrimage. If their number becomes less, God will fill the number by angels. The Ka'ba will be presented on the
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Resurrection Day, adorned with ornaments like a newly wedded
bride and those who made pilgrimage will be busy in covering it
with cloth. The Ka'ba will proceed towards Paradise till it enters
it and they will also enter paradise. There is in Hadis: The Black
Stone is a jewel out of the jewels of Paradise. It will be raised
upon the Resurrection Day. It will have two eyes and one tongue
with which it will speak. It will bear witness for everyone who
kissed it and testified its truth. The Prophet used to kiss it much.
It was narrated that Hazrat Omar once made prostration over it.
He was then making Tawaf riding and he placed his staff in his
hand on it and kissed one end of it. He said once after kissing it: I
know certainly that you are a mere piece of stone and you can not
do any benefit or harm. Had I not seen the Prophet kissing you, I
would never kissed you. Then he wept and raised his voice high. Then he said to Hazrat Ali behind him: 0 Abul Hasan, take advice and intercede, your prayer will be accepted. Hazrat Ali said: 0 Commander of the Faithful, it has got benefits and harms. He asked: In what way? He said: When God took promise from the descendants of Adam, He wrote a scroll on them and impressed it on this stone. It will bear witness for those who fulfilled their promise and against the infidels for infidelity. Hasan Basari said: One day's fast therein is equal to one lac fast and charity of one Dirham is equal to that of one lac dirhams. Thus its reward increases to one lac. There is in Hadis: One Umrah during Ramzan is like pilgrimage with me. He said: I shall be the first man who will burst out of his grave. Then the inhabitants of Jannatual Baqi will resurrect with me, then the Meccans and then the people between the two Harams (Mecca and Medinah). There is in Hadis that when Adam performed all rites of pilgrimage, the angels saw him and said: 0 Adam your Haj has been accepted. We built the Ka'ba two thousand years before you. There is in Hadis that God looks to the inmates of the world every night. He looks first to the inhabitants of Mecca and out of them first to the inhabitants of the Ka'ba. He forgives one whom He sees making Tawaf and forgives one whom he sees standing towards the Ka'ba and forgives one whom He sees praying in the Ka'ba. A friend of God said: The sun does not set in unless an Abdal makes Tawaf of the Ka'ba and it does not set in unless a friend of God makes its Tawaf. When this sort of Tawaf will end, it will be the cause of being lifted away from the world. Then the people will see in the morning that it has been lifted away andthey will find no sign therein. Then after'it, nobody will
make its pilgrimage for seven years. The Anti Christ will appear and Jesus Christ will come down and will kill Anti Christ. Then the Resurrection will come near. There is in Hadis: Before its lifting, the Ka'ba will be circumbulated always. The Ka'ba was twice destroyed and it will belifted up at- the third time. The Prophet said: God says: When I will wish to destroy the world, I will begin it first with My house and will destroy it first. Then immediately after it the world will be destroyed.
EXCELLENCE OF HABITATION AT MECCA
The God fearing men disliked to live at Mecca for three reasons. (1) Fear of being equal to Ka'ba, as to be equal from the point of honour is harmful. When the pilgrims finished pilgrimage, Hazrat Omar assembled them and said: 0 inhabitants of Yemen, go to Yemen, 0 inhabitants of Iraq, go to Iraq. He said: I fear lest the people inhabit too much in the Ka'ba. (2) Eagerness for visiting it again owing to separation, as, God made the Ka'ba as a refuge of the people and a safe place. (3) Not to live at Mecca for fear of sins and guilts is better than honouring the place. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: There is no such city except Mecca wherein the people will be punished for niyyat before actions. Thn he read this verse: If a man wishes therein to do. excessive oppression, he will be given grievous punishment. This is only foe Ka'ba. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: To store up food stuffs at Mecca is said to be excessive oppression within the precincts of the Ka'ba. He said: To commit seventy sins at Ruqia is better to me than to commit a sin at Mecca. Ruqia is a place between Mecca and Tayef. Some people feared so much that they even responded not to their calls of nature in the sacred enclosure. It is better to live at Mecca if anybody does not commit any sin. When the Prophet returned to Mecca, he turned his face towards the Ka'ba and said: 'You are the best place to me among the places of God and you are the dearest city to me among the cities of God. Had I not been ejected from you, I would never come out of it?' Why should it not be, as look towards the Ka'ba is worship and if a good deed is done there, it brings abundant rewards.
EXCELLENCE OF MEDINAH
There is no such better place as Medinah after Mecca. The rewards increase much if a good deed is done at Medina. The
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Prophet Said: One prayer in my mosque brings rewards one thousand times more than the prayer in other mosques except the mosque of Mecca.' This is true in case of all good deeds done here. After Medinah, there is the place of Baitul Muqaddas wherein a prayer brings rewards five hundred times more than that in other mosques. This is the case with all other good deeds. The Prophet said: If one prayer in the mosque of Medinah is equal to ten thousand prayers, one prayer in Baitul Muqaddas is equal to one thousand prayers and one prayer in the mosque of Mecca is equal to one lac prayers. The Prophet said: If a man bears hardships of Medinah, I shall be his intercessor on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said: 'If a man can die at Medinah, let him do it because if a man dies at Medinah, I shall be his intercessor on the Resurrection Day.' After these three places, all places are equal except the frontiers of Islam, as guarding the frontiers of Islam is necessary from the enemies and their excellence is great. For this reason, the Prophet said: Don't tie your camel except in three mosques, the mosque of the Ka'ba, the mosque of mine and the mosque of Baitul Muqaddas. The Prophet said: I had prohibited you before to visit graves, but now I say: Visit graves, but don't say 'Hazran' (I gave up). The Prophet said: All places belong to God and all are servants of God. Live in th place you like and praise God. There is in Hadis: If a man gets blessings in a thing, he should stick to it. If a man gets a source of income, he should not change it, till that source of income is changed.
DUTIES OF HAJ
Two things are necessary for the health of Haj-Time and Islam. There are five conditions of Haj which are obligatory - (1), to be a Muslim, (2) to be a free man, (3) to be intelligent and able, (4) to be major, (5) to make Haj in time. One must be of sound health and the route must be safe and sound. He must have ' sufficient money to go and to be back from journey and for the maintenance of the family in the mean time. If a man is unable to make pilgrimage on account of his physical illness or bodily infirmity from which he has got no hope of recovery, he must send his representative with expense to make pilgrimage. A son may not take money from his father to make pilgrimage on behalf of his father. If a man dies before making pilgrimage inspite of his solvency, there will be grievous punishment for him. Hazrat
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Sayeed-b-Jubair, Ibrahim Nakhyi, Muzahed and Taus said: If we knew that a certain man died without making Haj, we did not say funeral prayer for him. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: If a man dies without Haj and without paying Zakat, he will pray for return to the world. Then he read this verse: 0 my Lord, send me again that I may do good deeds which I left undone.
FIVE COMPULSORY DUTIES OF HAJ: To make Ihram, to make Tawaf, to make Sayee, to wait at Arafat and then to shave hairs. These are also compulsory in Urnrah except waiting at
SIX WAJEB OF HAJ: To make lhram at the appointed place, (2) to throw pebbles at Mina, (3) to wait at Arafat till sunset, (4) to spend the night at Muzdalafah, (5) to stay at Mina, (6) and to make Tawaf of the Ka'ba at the time of farewell.
MODES OF HAJ: Haj can be performed in three modes - (1) Ifrad, (2) Qeran and (3) Tamattu. The mode of making pilgrimage by Ifrad is the best. Ifrad is a kind of pilgrimage in which Ihram is made with the sole intention of Haj and not Umrah and Ihram is broken after the necessary duties are performed. Then Ihram is made for Umrah. (2) In the Qeran Haj, Ihram is made for both Haj and Umrah at the same time. (3) In Tamattu Haj, first Ihram is made for Haj before it actually takes place. Ihram is made at the fixed place and then the pilgrim comes to Mecca and breaks it. just before Haj, he again makes Ihram and breaks it after Haj and thereafter makes Tawaf. When there is no Ihram, everything can be enjoyed even sexual intercourse with wife. There are some conditions in Tamattu Haj - (1) not to be included within th people of Ka'ba. (2) to make Umrah before Haj, (3) to make Umrah in the months of pilgrimage, (4) not to go to a distance for making Ihram for Haj, (5) to make Haj and Umrah by the same person. it is compulsory for such a pilgrim to sacrifice a goat. If he cannot do it, he will fast before sacrifice for three days separately or unitedly and when he returns home, he will fast for seven days in the same manner.
PROHIBITED THINGS IN HAJ AND UMRAH
(1) During Haj and Umrah, it is prohibited to put on shirt, trouser, sock, turban. A wearing apparel without stitch and sandal may be used. One should not cover his head as head is included within Ihram. A woman can wear stitched cloth but her
face will remain uncovered. (2) He shall not use scents of any kind. (3) He shall shave the hairs of head and not manicure nails. (4) He shall not have sexual intercourse before the end of Ihram. (5) It is unlawful to kiss, embrace or to marry or get married during Ihram. (6) It is unlawful to sacrifice game of land except game of sea.
EIGHT DUTIES OF HAJ FROM FIRST TO LAST
(1) There are eight duties when one comes out of his house till he makes Ihram. (a) He shall make Tauba, pay compensation to the oppressed and clear off his debts and give expenses of maintenance for his family members till his return. He shall return the trusts entrusted to him and take legally earned money sufficient for his journey expenses till his return along with the additional sum for the poor, the destitute and the weak. He shall spend something in charity before he starts.
(2) He shall seek a religious companion. He will seek your good and help you. He will remind you if you forget. Take farewell from relatives, friends and neighbours and seek their blessings and give your blessings to them by saying: I am entrusting to God your religion and your trust and the end of your actions. The Prophet used to pray for the man who wished to perform'Haj: May God keep you in His protection. May He give you provision of God fear. May He forgive your sins, and may He keep your face towards good wherever you are.
(3) Pray two rak'ats of prayer before starting from home with Fateha and Sura Kaferun in the first rak'at and Sura Ikhlas in the second rakat. When you finish your prayer, raise your two hands and seek blessings with this Doa: 0 God, you are my friend in this journey, you are my successor for my properties, children and friends, save me and them from all calamities. 0 God, I seek from you in this journey virtues, God fear and actions pleasing to you. 0 God, make the world narrow for me, make my journey easy and give me provision of health of body, religion and safety of properties and take us for pilgrimage of your House and for visiting the grave of your Prophet Muhammad (P.H). 0 God, I seek refuge to you from the troubles of journey, from change of conditions and from the evil looks of the family members and friends. 0 God, give us and them the blessings of your nearness.
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Don't deprive us and them of your blessing and don't change your kindness on us and on them.
(4) When you will come near the door of your house, say: In the name of God, I rely on God, there is no power and might except in God. 0 Lord, I seek refuge to Thee that I my not be misguided, that I may not misguide anybody, that I may not slip or that I may not cause anybody to slip, that I may not be oppressed or that I may not oppress anybody, that nobody may ascribe ignorance to me, nor I may ascribe ignorance to anybody. I seek refuge to Thee from all these matters.
(5) When you get on board of your conveyance, say in the name of God and with God, God is greatest trust on God, the Great, the Mighty. There is no power and no might except in God. Whatever God wills comes into being. God has made this conveyance subservient to us. We shall have to return to our Lord. When you sit on the conveyance, recite seven times: All praise is due to God who showed me path for it. We would not have found guidance if God did not show us guidance. 0 God Thou art our carrier on backs and Thou art helper in all our affairs.
(6) Most of your journey should be at night. The Prophet paid: You should travel at night, as the earth becomes narrow at night and not at day. Sleep little during the night that you^may be helper in journey. When you reach a high place, say: 0 God, Lord of seven heavens and that which casts shade, Lord of seven earths and that which reduces it, Lord of the devil and those whom they misguide, Lord of air and on what it blows upon, Lord of sea and what it blows upon, I seek good of the inhabitants of this place, I seek refuge to Thee from their evils. When you land at any place, pray two rak'ats.
(7) You should not travel during day time. Don't walk alone and don't go out of your company and keep a watch at the time of your sleep at night. Spread out your hands if you sleep at the early part of night. If you sleep by the latter part of night, place your head on the palm of your hand. Thus the Prophet used to sleep in his journey in order to guard against the loss of a prayer. The loss of a prayer is more severe than the loss of a pilgrimage.
(8) When you get on a high place on the way, recite Takbir thrice and then recite: 0 God, Thy honour is above all honours, Thine is all praise and all glory when you get down, recite Tasbih.
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DUTIES FROM MIQAT TO THE ENTRY
(1) Take bath with the intention of making Ihram, comb your hairs and head, manicure your nails, clip your mustache and do everything as described in the chapter on purity and cleanliness. (2) Put on two pieces of unsewn Ihram cloth. White cloth is dearest to God. Use scent in body and cloth, (3). Take journey if you walk on foot. Now make niyyat of either Ifrad, Qeran or Tamattu Haj and say Talbiyah-present to Thee, 0 God, present to Thee, there is no partner for Thee, all praise and gifts are for Thee, there is no partner for Thee. (4) When you enter into Ihram, recite the following: 0 God, I make niyyat for pilgrimage. 0 God, make it easy for me, help me in fulfilling its duties, accept it from me. There are other invocations also. (5) It is commendable to recite Talbiah in a loud voice at the time of ascending, descending, riding on conveyance. It is as follows: 0 God, I am present to Thee, I am present to Thee, There is no partner for Thee. All praise, gifts and lordship are for Thee. Thou bast got no partner. Whenever anything astonished the Prophet, he used to say: Labbaik, the life of the next world is true life.
DUTIES AFTER ENTRY INTO
MECCA TILL TAWAF
(1) Take bath to enter Mecca.
(2) When you enter the first boundury of Harem outside Mecca, then recite: 0 God, this is Thy sacred sanctuary. Thy safe place. So save my blood, my hairs and my body from Hell. Save me from Thy chastisement on the day Thou wilt resurrect Thy servants and include me in the company of Thy friends and those subservient to Thee.
(3) Enter Mecca by the high place of Mecca and come out of it by its low place.
(4) When you enter Mecca and come near the Ka'ba, recite the following: There is no deity but God. God is greatest. 0 God, Thou art Peace, from Thee peace, and Thou abode is the abode of peace. Blessed art Thou, 0 possessor of glory and honour. 0 God, this is Thy house. Thou bast made is sacred and honourable. So increase its honour, respect and awe. 0 God, open for me the
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doors of Thy mercy and admit me in Thy Paradise and give me refuge from the accursed devil.
(5) When you enter the Ka'ba, enter it through the door of Banu Shaibah and recite: In the name of God, with God, from God, towards God, in the way of God and upon the religion of the Apostle of God. When you will come near the Ka'ba, recite: 0 God, accept my repentance, forgive my faults, reduce my, burden. All praise is due to God who has taken me to His sacred House, who has made it the refuge of men and their safe place and a guide to the universe. 0 God, I am Thy servant. This is Thy city, this is Thy sanctuary and this is Thy house. I am present to Thee. I beseech. Thy mercy and I inform Thee of the invocation of one afflicted. I seek Thy forgiveness and"Thy pleasure.
(6) Then touch the Black Stone by your right hand, kiss it and recite: 0 God, I have fulfilled Thy trust and my promise. Bear witness of my fulfillment.
FOURTH DUTY TAWAF (Circumbulation) Observe seven rules in Tawaf:
(1) Observe the conditions of prayer in Tawaf. In other words be pure from all sorts of uncleanliness and cover your private.parts. Tawaf is like prayer except that conversation is allowed therein. It shall be done with Ihram dress as prescribed. (2) Then wait at the Black Stone which is the preliminary point of circling the Ka'ba. (3) Recite at the start of Tawaf: In the name of God, God is greatest. 0 God, I began this circling after putting faith in Thee, testifying to the truth of Thy Book, fulfilling promise with Thee and following the ways of Thy Apostle Muhammad (Peace be on him). After crossing the Black Stone, recite when you reach the door of the Ka'ba: 0 God, this House is Thine, this sanctuary is Thine, this safe place is Thine and this place is the place of refuge from Hell to Thee. Thus there are recitations at every point round the Ka'ba as prescribed and you will go round the Ka'ba seven times.
(7) After finishing Tawaf, pray two rak'ats at Maqame Ibrahim following the Prophet and make invocations. The Prophet said: He who makes Tawaf of the Ka'ba seven times and then prays two rak'ats will get the rewards of setting free a slave.
(Running between Safa and Merwa)
After finishing Tawaf, take to running between the two hillocks - Safa and Merwa seven times and recite the following before doing it: There is no deity but He. There is no partner for Him. His is the kingdom and His is all praise. He giveth life and taketh life and He is eternal without death. All good is in His hands and He is powerful over all things. There is no deity but God. He is single. He has proved true. His promise, helped His servant and honoured His army and routed the allies. There is no deity but God, being sincere to Him in worship though the polytheists dislike it. Then at the beginning of running, recite: 0 Lord, forgive and show mercy and pardon what Thou knowest. Thou art majestic and honourable. 0 God, our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the hereafter
and save us from Hell.
SIXTH DUTY-WAITING AT ARAFAT
The waiting time at Arafat is from noon of the 9th Zil-haj to the early dawn of the 10th Zil-Haj. After reaching Mina, recite the following: 0 God, this is Mina, bestow grace on me as Thou hast bestowed grace here on Thy friend and those who were obedient to Thee. Reaching at Arafat, fix your tent and wait there with a great penitent mind and recite invocations and supplications as much as possible and seek forgiveness and
mercy of God.
SEVENTH DUTY OTHER INSTITUTIONS OF HAJ
At sun rise the next day, start from Arafat and reach Muzdalafah and recite the following: 0 God, this is Muzdalafah, people of different tongues have gathered here seeking different necessary thiis from Thee. Make me one of those who have sought from Thee and Thou hast granted them. Then pray Magrib and Isha together with one Azan and two Aqamats. Stay here for one night as it is included within the institution of Haj. Next day, start for Mina and reach the place of stone throwing and throw seven stones there as prescribed. Then sacrifice an animal and then shave your head. Then return to Mecca and make Tawaf of the Ka'ba. Then return to Mina again.
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EIGHTH AND NINTH DUTIES UMRAH,
TAWAF OF FAREWELL
He who intends to make Umrah before or after Haj, let him take bath, put on Ihram dress and make Ihram from its appointed place. When you enter Mecca, go round the Ka'ba seven times reciting the prescribed invocations and run between Safa and Merwa. Then it ends with the shaving of head. After finishing all rites of Haj and Umrah, make Tawaf of the Ka'ba seven times before you start for home and seek forgiveness from God and express gratefulness for getting opportunity of making Haj and
TENTH DUTY-VISIT TO MEDINAH
The Prophet said: Whose visits my grave after my death has met me as it were during my life time. He also said: He who does not visit me inspite of having means oppresses me. He also said: Whose does not come to me except with the object of visiting me, it is duty of God that I become his intercessor. He also said: He who wishes to visit Medinah, should send much blessings upon the Prophet on his way to Medinah. When the wall and trees of Medinah fall to his eyes, he will recite: 0 God, this is the sanctuaryof Thy Apostle. So make it a shield for saving me from Hell and a safe place from punishment and bad account. When you enter Medinah, recite the following: In the name of God and upon the religion of the Apostle of God. 0 Lord, enter me a true entry and take me out a true taking out and. send for me from Thee a strong helper. Then pray two rak'ats after entering the mosque and then wait near the face of the Holy Prophet and send profuse Darud and blessings on him as prescribed. The Prophet said: The place between my grave and pulpit is one of the gardens of paradise and my pulpit is upon my fountain.
Then visit Jannatul Baqiy, the place of burials of the martyrs and of Hazrats Osman, Hasan Jainal Abedin, Imam Baquie, Imam Jafar Sadeq, Hazrat Fatema. Then observe prayer at the Qubba mosque as the Prophet said: He who comes out of his house and comes to the mosque of Qubba and says prayer there, the rewards of an Umrah are written for him. The Prophets said: He who can die at Medinah should do it, as I shall be an intercessor for one who dies at Medinah. Then visit the grave of the Prophet when leaving Medinah.
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TEN SECRET THINGS OF HAJ
(1) The money for expense will be lawful. Hands will be free from trades and commerce and all thoughts will be centered round one God and the mind will rest satisfied with the Zikr of God and its signs. There is in Hadis: In the latter days, the people will go for Haj but their object will be four. The rulers will go to increase their power, the rich for trade and commerce, the poor for begging and the learned for name and fame. These things can be earned but if Haj is performed with these objects, no reward is acquired for Haj. It will go out of the limit of Haj, specially when one goes as a representative for Haj. The Prophet said: God will admit three persons in paradise for one Haj - one who makes death-instruction of doing Haj, one who follows this custom and one who performs it on behalf of his brother. God gives the world on account of religion but He does not give religion on account of the world. The Prophet said: He who makes Jihad in the way of God is like the mother of Moses. She took remuneration for suckling her son. To receive remuneration for Haj by representation in like the receipt of remuneration of the mother of Moses and there is no fault in it, but it will not be legal to perform Haj as an agent with the object of getting remuneration, rather to accept remuneration with the object of performing Haj is legal as the mother of Moses did.
(2) Don't help the enemies of God by keeping the properties in trust. Some chief of Mecca and some Sarcars of Arabia remain busy in keeping the people away from the path of Haj. To entruest them with properties is to help oppression, Try to save yourselves from their hands and if you are unable, it is better to return home than to help oppressors. This is an innovation.
(3) Take sufficient money and provision with you so that you may not feel difficulty for charity. Take the middle course for expenditure. Save yourself from taking delicious food and drink. There is no misuse in excessive charity. There is no good in excessive expense and there is no excessive expense in good things. A certain wise man said : To give provisions in the path of Haj is considered as expense in the way of God. Hazrat Ibn Omar said : To have good provision in journey is honour. He used to
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say : The best is the pilgrimage in which sincere intention is perfect, expense is most pure and sure faith is best. The Prophet said : There is no reward for an accepted Haj except paradise. The Prophet was asked : 0 Apostle of God, what is an accepted Haj? He said : The pilgrimage in which good words are uttered and food is given.
(4) Give up indecent actions, evil actions, quarrels and disputes. This is the injunction of the Quran. Indecent actions mean indecent and useless talks including such talks with females, talks of intercourse with them as they increase desire of intercourse. All things which give encouragement to do prohibited things are also prohibited. Evil actions mean such actions which take away from the religion of God. Quarrels and disputes give rise to hatred and envy. Sufiyan said : He who talks indecent words destroys his Haj. Quarrel is opposed to good words and the Prophet termed good words as good deeds of Haj. Don't inflict trouble on anybody and adopt good conduct. As journey discloses the character and conduct of a man, it is therefore named Safa.
(5) It is better to perform Haj by walking on foot. Abdullah-b-Abbas instructed his sons at the time of his death : 0 my children, perform Haj by walking on foot, as for each step of such a pilgrim there is written 700 rewards out of the rewards of Haram. He was questioned : What are the rewards of Haram ? He said : One good deed brings one lac rewards. It is better to walk from Mecca to Arafat and from Arafat to Mina. A perfect Haj is one in which niyat is taken when one comes out of his house for Ihram and to walk on foot. God says : Make Haj and Umrah perfect for God. Hazrats Omar, Ali and Ibn Masud explained His verse in the above way.
(6) Don't ride without keeping the balance of burden behind and keep the things separate if possible. This gives relief to the camel. The Prophet made pilgrimage riding on conveyance and even he made Tawaf riding, so that the people might follow him in his action. The Prophet said : Learn your institutions from me.
(7) Keep your countenance unsmooth, hairs dishevelled, body laden with dust, indifferent to pride and attachment for the world, as the Prophet enjoined his followers to remain then without beauty and with dishevelled hairs. The Prophet said : A
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pilgrim is dressed dishevelled and his body is dust laden. God says : Look to the visitors of My house. They have come to Me with hairs dishevelled and with body dust-landen from every distant part of hills. God says : 'Then perform the institutions of Haj.' This means to shave hairs, to clip mustaches and to manicure nails. Hazrat Omar sent instructions to his generals Put on old clothes and habituate yourselves to bear hardships.
(8) Show kindness to the riding animals and don't take anything on them beyond their strength. Sleeping over their backs gives them trouble and gives a sense of heaviness to them. The friends of God did not sleep on the backs of animals. The Prophet said : Don't make the backs of your animals seats, and to descent from their backs morning and evening is commendable as it gives rest to the animals. Abu Darda'a said to his camel at the time of his death : 0 camel, don't dispute with me near your Lord, as I did not burden you with load beyond your strength. Once a man said to the sage Ibnul Mobarak : I am giving this letter of mine with you. You will take it to the destination.' He said : I will ask the owner of the camel about it, as I took hire of this camel. Thus he feared to carry it on account of God fear and piety.
(9) Seek nearness of God by sacrificing an animal. Try to sacrifice an animal which is strong and strout. If sacrifice is compulsory, don't eat its meat and if optional, you may eat its meat. God says : 'Whose honour the signs of God'. This is explained by saying to sacrifice stout and strong animal. The ancient people did not press for price of three things-animals of pilgrimage, setting free of slaves and animals of sacrifice, as the best of three things is that which is best in price and most valuable to the seller. The object is not the increase in meat but to purify from the guilt of miserliness and to adorn it for God with honour as its flesh and blood will not reach God but He will accept from you God fear. The Prophet was asked : How is Haj accepted ? He said : By A'z and Sa'z. To proclaim Talbiah loudly is called A'z and to sacrifice a camel is called Sa'z. The Prophet said : Nothing is dearer to God on the day of sacrifice out of the actions of men than the sacrifice of an animal. It will come on the Resurrection Day with its hoof and horns and its blood falls in a place near God before it falls on the ground. So purify your soul by sacrifice. There is in Hadis : There is reward for every hair of
the sacrificed animal and for every drop of blood and it will be weighed near God. So give good news. The Prophet said Sacrifice a good animal, as it will be your carrier on the Resurrection Day.
(1) To spend with a cheerful mind. Bear with Pleasure sacrifice of the loss that is caused in the matter of properties or the occurrence of any calamity, because it is a proof of the acceptance of Haj. The troubles and calamities on the way to pilgrimage is like expense in the way of God and the expense of a dirham at that time is equal to the expense of seven hundred dirhams. That is the reward of bearing hardships in the way of Jihad. Nothing is spoiled near God of any trouble which is foreborn and every loss which is sustained. It is said that if one gives up sins and bad company and takes up good company and gives up assembly of useless talks and takes to the assemblies of Zikr, they are the signs of acceptance of Haj.
SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERNAL ACTIONS OF HAJ
KNOWLEDGE: The first thing of Haj is to know everything in connection with Haj. Know. 0 dear readers, that you will not be able to reach God till you can control your passions and low desires, restrain yourself from all enjoyments and pleasure, make short your necessities and work only for the sake of God. For this reason, the friends of God of yore used to live far away from the localities of men and lived in lonely places in caves of mountains and hills, so that their love.for God might be deep. God says about them in the Quran : Because there are hermits and those who renounced the work among them and they are not proud. When they began to live contrary to it and gave up loneliness for divine service and mixed with the people to fulfill their low desires, God sent the Apostle Muhammad (P. H.) to reawaken the paths of the next world and to call them to the aways of the Prophets. On being questioned by the religious people about the life of a hermit, the Prophet said : God gave us in lieu thereof Jihad and Takbir in every elevated place (Haj). The Prophet said : God gave this gift for this people and made Haj as their monkery, honoured the ancient House as His House fixed it as the object of desire of the people, made its surrounding place pure to show honour to the House, made Arafat an opening space as the precincts of His House and
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honoured the place by prohibiting hunting and cutting off trees therein. He madeit as the Darbarof the greatest Emperor. Every visitor comes to the Darbar from every distant and inaccessible place dishevelled in hairs and laden with dust and in the most humble spirit. He knows that no house can encompass God and no town can cover him and yet he does it to make his divine service and his allegiance and obedience perfect. For this reason, throwing of stones at Mina, running between Safa and Merwa and other institutions do not come within understading or seem good. But by these acts, full servitude is expressed, The object of the payment of Zakat is understood. The object of fasting to restrain sexual passion and low desires is understood. The object of prayer is also understood. But no satisfactory reason is ostensibly found in the throwing of stones, running between Safa and Merwa, nor they come within understanding. It is however true that true servitude is a separate thing and to serve God means that one should conduct himself according to the order of God, whether it contains any meaning or not. The object of obeying orders is nothing but to serve God. It is an act of wisdom to obey God in places where intellect cannot enter and which it cannot comprehend. Servitude to God is expressed fully when you understand a thing or not. For this reason, The Prophet said regarding Haj : I consider Haj thus a veritable truth, servitude in reality and slavery of the highest order. He did not say this with regard to prayer and other divine services. So the institutions which cannot be understood by intellect are the perfect divine services for making the heart pure, because to act contrary to nature and to return from habits is the real servitude and slavery.
DESIRE FOR HAJ: The Ka'ba is the House of God. The meaning of coming to it is to see God there. He who desires to visit the Ka'ba in the world should have his object not to be deprived of it. His object should be his look to the countenance of God in His permanent abode. This earthly eye has got no power to have a glimpse of the Divine light, nor can it bear the brilliance of His light. The light of eye in the next world will be permanent and will be free from the causes of destruction and change and then it will be of for glimpse of the Lord. But one can be fit to earn it by not visiting His House. So desire to meet Him will lead you to the causes of visit without doubt
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FIRM DETERMINATION OF MAKING HAJ
Know, 0 dear readers, that you will intend to be separate from your home and family by the help of your firm determination and turn your face towards visiting the House after giving up comforts and pleasures of home life. Know in your mind the honour of the Ka'ba and the exalted rank of its Owner. Make your firm determination only for God, keep distant from name and fame and make your intention sincere and pure.
TO CUT OFF TIE IN HAJ: It means to pay compensation to the oppressed and to make sincere repentance to God from all sins. Every oppression has got a compensation and every compensation is due to somebody. Don't hope to return home and make wasiat to your children in writing and think of this journey as the journey for the next world.
PROVISIONS OF JOURNEY: Seek provision from your lawful earnings and think that your good deeds are the provisions of your next world and these will go with you after your death. Regarding conveyance. Be grateful to God that you have got a conveyance to carry you and your loads. Remember that you are visiting a funeral prayer in the journey towards the next world. The affairs of Haj are like journey to the next world. Ihram cloth When you put it on. remember the coffin cloth with which you will be clothed. As you wear tow unsewn pieces of cloth to go near the House of God and change your habit of putting on fine clothes, so you will not be able to meet with God after your death unless you take clothes contrary to the clothes of this world. As there is no stitching of cotton cloth for burial, so there is no stitching of Ihram cloth.
STARTING FROM HOME: When you come out of your home, know that you are going on a journey to God after separating your family and friends. Think then in your mind what is your object, to whom are you going, to meet whom do you hope ? You are going to meet the greatest emperor and for that you have surrendered and you have responded to it. Bring this consolation in mind that if you visit the Ka'ba you may get glimpse of its Owner. This is your last object and it will help you towards that object. Hope in mind to reach the Ka'ba and that your Haj may be accepted, Don't depend on your good deeds and believe firmly in the mercy of God. If you cannot reach the Ka'ba
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and die on the way, it will help to meet Him being His guest as God says : If a man goes out of his house and makes emigration to God and His Apostle and then death overtakes him, his reward is upon God 4:100Q. When you reach the Miqat or the fixed place for Ihram, remember all the great events when you will leave the world up to the Resurrcetion Day. When you remember the danger of crossing the way, remember then the questions of Munkar and Naqir. If you see the ferocious beasts on the way, remember the biting of snakes in graves.
TALBIAH AT MIQAT: Know that Talbiah means to respond to the call of God. Remember Him between hope and fear and depend on the mercy of God. Imam Sufiyan Saori said that Imam Jainal Abedin son of Hazrat Hussain made pilgrimage. When he made Ihram, his face became changed and he had no strength to say Labbaik. He was asked : Why are you not uttering Labbaik ? He said : I fear lest I may be said : You have no Labbaik and fortune, When he uttered Labbaik, he suddenly fell in swoon and remained long in that condition. As a result, he could not wait at Arafat. Abu Solaiman Darani did not utter Labbaik even after walking a mile. Then he fell down senseles. When he recoverd from his swoon, he said : 0 Ahmad, woe to you, i fear lest I may be said : There is no Labbaik and fortune for you. Remember at the time when you utter Labbaik the condition of the people on the day of congregation.
ENTRY INTO MECCA: Remember at the time when you enter Mecca that you have reached safely in the sacred place of God and hope from God that you will be safe from punishment on account of your entry into Mecca. When you look at the Ka'ba remember its glory and hope to meet its Owner. Tawaf of Ka'ba's like prayer. Remember then that your Tawaf is like the Tawaf of the near angles who are making round the Throne. Don't think that the object of your Tawaf is the Tawaf of your body round the House but its object is the Tawaf of your mind with the rememberance of God. Know that an honourable Tawaf is the Tawaf of mind before God. The Ka'ba is the outward darbar of a king. He who is not seen by external eye appears there. Soul is a thing of the spiritual world as body is of the material world. God is in the unseen world. This visible world leads to the world unseen. This is for those for whom God opened this door. Think that the Ka'ba is the exact prototype of the Baitul Mamur in
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heaven. The angles make Tawaf of Baitul Mamur and the people of, the Ka'ba.
KISSING: When you kiss the Black Stone, think that it is a sign of allegiance and kiss His hand. Be firm in your will that you are fulfilling your promise. The Prophet said : The Black stone is the right hand of God in the World. As a man handshakes with his brother, so God also handshakes with the people by means of the Black Stone.
SAYI BETWEEN SAFA AND MERWA: Sayi between these two hillocks in expectation of getting His glimpse is just as a mna goes forward and backward in getting a glimpse of his emperor. Think that Safa is the scale of good deeds and Merwa of bad deeds. By running between these two hillocks, think which of the scales becomes heavy. The wait in Arafat. After seeing the vast concourse of people of different climes and tongues, you will remember the case of the great congregation on the Resurrection Day that each people will gather there with their respective Prophet and each people will except intercession of their Prophet and -remain busy to know whether his intercesion was accepted or not. When you will remember this, keep your mind engaged in the rememberance of God. Throwing of stones. Obey God's command by throwing stones and show sincerely and honestly your servitude to God even though it does not come to your understanding, because blind obedience of a slave to his master gains the love of the master. Then intend to follow the deeds of Abraham who drove away the devil by throwing stones at him when the latter wanted to misguide him and not to sacrifice his dearest son Ismail in obedience to God's command. The meaning of Haj is to obey God's- commands without argument and without exercising intellect.
SACRIFICE OF ANIMAL: Sacrifice in a mass scale brings the people near God. For this reason, the animal for sacrifice should be stout and strong. Hope that in lieu of every limb of the sacrificed animal, God will save your every limb from Hell-fire. The more it is stout and strong, the more you will be free from Hell-fire.
VISITING MEDINAH: When your sight will fall on the wall of the city of Medinah, remember that God selected this city for His Prophet and took him there. This is the place of the
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promulgation of God's compulsory ordinanace and the ways of the Prophet. He fought with the enemies here and preached Islam up to his death. God established the religion through the successors of the Prophet. Then think of the foot-steps of the Prophet in the city and take steps with care and honour. The Prophet said: God will present before me many people. They will say: 0 Muhammad, 0 Muhammad. I will say: 0 Lord, they are my companions. He will say: You don't know what evil deeds they have done after you? I will say: Then be off from me." If you have not followed the Prophet, you will be far away from him; still you will hope for the mercy of God. When you will reach the mosque, remember that God selected the place for the Prophet and the earliest Muslims. Enter it in fear and hope. When Wais Qarni entered the mosque of Medina and began to wait at the door, he said: This is the grave of the Holy Prophet. At once he fell in swoon. When he regained his senses, he said: Take me out of this. I have got no taste in the place where the Prophet has been buried.
MEETING WITH THE PROPHET: Meet with him as if he is alive and that you are standing before him. Don't go very near his grave as you would not have gone to him if he were alive. Don't touch his grave and don't kiss it and know that God knows your mind, your standing and your salutation. The Prophet said: God appointed an angel in his grave. Whose sends salam to him out of his followers he will take it to him. This has been said with regard to that person who will not be present before his grave. How will it be in case of that man who left his home and family and relatives and journeyed in difficult places and hills and came to visit the Prophet? The Prophet said: If a man sends one Darud on me, God will send ten Daruds on him. Then come to the pulpit of the Apostle of God and think of his standing thereon and his sermons to his followers. When it will be finished, think whether your Haj has been accepted or not as He does not accept Haj of one whom He does not love.
====== THE END OF CHAPTER 7 - VOLUME ONE======
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