REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
Translated by FAZL-UL-KARIM VOL. I
VOLUME ONE: THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
Mysteries of Cleanliness 122
Purification from impurities 124
Purification of body and mind 126
Cleansing the external Bodily growths 130
MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS
The Holy Prophet said : Religion is founded on cleanliness. He said: Cleanliness is the key to prayer. God said : Therein there are men who love purity and God loves the pure-9:109. The Prophet said : Cleanlines is one half of belief. God said : God desires to make you clean and to complete His favours on you-5:7.
Those who possess insight understand by these sayings that the most important thing is the purification of the heart. If the tradition 'cleanliness is one half of faith is limited only to the external cleanliness of physical organs by water and not also to the purification of the heart which may entertain evil designs and thoughts, its meaning then will be distant and it is impossible.
PURITY HAS GOT FOUR STAGES
(1) The first stage is the purification of the external organs from excrements and fifths. (2) The second stage is the purification of the bodily organs from sins and faults (3) The third stage is the purification of the heart from evil traits and evil vices. (4) The fourth stage is the purifications of the innerself from everything except God. This is the stage of the Prophets and the saints. Every item of cleanliness is half of action, because the object of the actions is the glorification and greatness of God. In reality God's knowledge is not attained unless the heart is purified of all things other than God. For this reason, God said Say 'God' then leave them to play in the useless falks-6:91. There can be no two things in mind at the same time and God also has not created two minds in the same man. The object of the actions is to adorn the mind with praiseworthy qualities and religous firm faith. It is well known that the mind will not be adorned with those qualities till the blameworthy evils and false faith reign in it.
To purify the mind from these evils comprises half of its actions and the first half is pre-requisite for the second. In this sense, purity is said to be half of belief. So to purify the bodily limbs from the prohibited things is the first half and to strengthen it with religous acts is its second half. These are the stages of
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belief and every stage has got its rank. Nobody will attain a higher stage unless he first goes through the lower one. He can attain real purity of heart till he purifies it from the blameworthy vices and adorn it with the praiseworthy qualities. He can't purify the heart till he purifies his organs from prohibited things and makes it firm with religous acts. The more honourable is the object, the more difficult is the attainment of that object. The longer is the road that leads to it, the greater are the obstacles. Don't think that this can be attained with ease and without efforts. He who is blind to these stages of purity will not undersand the above mentioned four stages. He will understand the lowest stage of cleanliness. It is like the outer husk of a crop or like skull in relation to brain. He understands that the outer cleanliness is the desired object and makes exaggeration in it and spends much time and wealth in abstersion (Istinja), in cleanliness of cloth, body and in the use of water and thinks that the noble puity comprises these outward and external cleanliness. The early Muslims concentrated their entire ?attention and energies on the puification of their hearts and were lenient in their outward cleanliness. Even Hazrat Omar, being placed in a high position, made abbution with the water from a jar which belonged to a Christain woman. The companions were accustomed not to wash their hands after eating from the remains of fat and food but to wipe them out against the arches of their feet and regarded the use of soap as innovation. They used to say prayer kneeling and prostrating directly on the ground in the mosque and walk barefooted on the roads. They used to use pebbles after calls of nature.
Abu Hurairah and some immates of Suffa said : We ate meal and when the prayer time came, we wiped our fingers against thepebbles and proceeded to say prayer. Hazrat Omar said : We did not know the use of soap at the time of the Prophet and the hollows of our feet were, our towels. It is said that the first four innovations after the Prophet were the use of sieves, soap, tables and eating to satiety. The efforts of the companions were towards the purification of the heart to the extent that some one among them said : It is better to say prayer with shoes than without shoes because when the Prophet look off his shoes with uncleanliness at the advent of Gabriel, the companions also took off their shoes. He told them: Way have you taken off your shoes? One of them named Nakhyi said : Perhaps someone in need may pass by and
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take these shoes. In fact, they walked barefooted, sat on the mud and sand, prayed directly on the floors of the mosque. They used to eat bread of coarse wheat which the animals trod with their feet and sometimes polluted with their urine. They made no efforts to avoid small impurities.
These things have now changed. The people termed cleanliness for ironed cloth and say that it is the foundation of religion. One group spend most of their times in beautifying their bodies just like a new bride but their minds are full of evil thoughts, pride, self conceit, ignorance, show and hypocrisy. He who cleanses with-stones after calls of nature, walks barefooted in mud, prays in mosque on the floor, walks on the rugs without leather over shoes or makes ablution with water belonging to an old woman, is attacked furiosuly and he is termed as impure.
The following are three matters of external purity-(1) purification from impurities, (2) purification of the body from excrements and (3) purification from bodily growths. such as pairing of nails, cutting off hairs, circumcision, removal of the hairs of pubes and the like.
PURIFICATION FROM IMPURITES
There are three matters in this, the things to be removed, the means of removal and the meaning of removal. That which shall have to be removed is of three kinds inanimate objects, animate objects and parts of animate objects. As to inanimate objects, all are pure except wine and intoxicating things. As to animate objects, all except dogs and pigs and their young ones are pure. when an animal dies, it becomes impure except five-locusts, fish, worms in foodstuffs, dead animals which have no flowing blood like flies, beetles and the like. Asto purity from inanimate objects, it is of two kinds, the first is what is cut off from an animal and its law is the same as that of dead bodies. Hair is not impure. Bones, however, become impure after death. The second is what is changed after entering into body. They are all impure. What emits from the body not after change is pure, such as sweat and tear. Things which have a fixed seat and are subject to change are impure. such as saliva, mucus of nose except the seedof of life like
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semen, eggs. Blood, pus, feces, urine are impure. Nothing is exempted of these impruites except five things (1) the remains of odour after abstertion with pebbles are exempted, (2) whatever cannot be avoided, such as mud in the streets and the dust of dung inspite of their impurity is exempted, (3) what is attached to the leather socks of impurites of the streets is exempted after it has been wiped against earth. (4) the blood of fleas and the like little or much on shirt is exempted except when it goes beyond the oridinary limits. (5) and the blood of itches and pimples is exempted.
THE MEANS OF REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES
The means of removal of impurities are either condensed or liquid things. The condensed or solid things are pebbles of abstersion. Pebble purifies it if it is itself pure and dried. It should be hard, pure, dry and free from illegality. Liquid thing is water with which impurities are cleansed. Only pure water can remove impurities. The water, when mixed with impure thing and changing not its colour is pure, but if its colour taste and adour are changed, it becomes impure. The Prophet said : When water is sufficient to fill two pitchers, it carries no impurities, if less, it carries impurities and does not remain pure. This is applicable in case of stagnant water. If flowing water mixes with impure things and does not remain pure. This is applicable in case of stagnant water. If flowing water mixes with.impure things and becomes changed, it becomes them impure.
Some incidents together with urgent need and necessity strengthen the belief that only change in water was, taken into consideration by the Prophet. The following words of the Prophet support it : Water was created pure and nothing makes it impure except that which changes its colour, taste and smell.
MANNER TO REMOVE IMPURITIES: If the impurity is not a matter of touch, it is sufficient to run water over all its parts. If the impurity is physical, it should be removed. If its taste remains, it indicates the persistence of the physical matter. The same is true of the persistence of colour. If it sticks, it is exempted provided it is thoroughly rubbed. If taste persists, the persistence of its physical matter is perceived.
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PURIFICATION OF BODY FROM EXCREMENTS
It comprises abstersion, ablution, bath and purifiaction with sand. We are now stating the manner of their performance in the prescribed order. The following are the rules of answering the calls of nature. If one is pressed by calls of nature, he should go from the view of men and take shelter behind something. He should not uncover his private parts before he sits down and should not face or keep back Ka'ba sun or moon but there is no harm when he is within a room. He should not sit in a meeting place of the people, urinate in stagnant water, under a fruit tree, or in a hard surface and windy place, He should sit on his left leg. When entering a room, he should advance his left leg first and then his right leg and should not urinate while standing. Hazrat Omar said : While I was urinating standing, the Prophet told me 0 Omar, don't pass urine standing. Hazrat Ibnul Mobarak said There is no harm in urinating in abathroom if the water goes out flowing. The Prophet said : Let nobody among you urinate in a bathroom and then make ablution as many machinations come from it. None should take with him anything which contains the name of God or His Apostle. On entering room, he should say: I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil, the filthy, they impure, the abominable, the pernicious. On leaving it, he should say : All prise is due to God who has removed from me what was harmful to me and left for me what is useful. Before sitting, he should take pebbles with him. He should not wash his private part with water in the first place. He should take utmost pains in cleansing his penis from urine by shalking it to and for three times. Hazrat Salman said : The Prophet taught us everything even how to cleanse after calls of nature. He prohibited us to clear with bone, or dung or face the Ka'ba.
MANNER OF ABSTERSION
He will perform abstersion wtih three stones. If the orifice is cleansed there with, it is good and if not more stones may be used. The Prophet said : Let one who uses stones use odd numbers. He shall take stones in his left hand, place it in the fore part of his orifice and run it over with horizontal and circular motions to the rear part. Thus it will continue from the rear part to the fore part. Taking the third stone, he should run it around
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the orifice. He should then move to another place and perfrom the act of abstersion with water. At the end of abstersion, he should say : 0 my God, purify my heart from hypocrisy and make my private part pure from indecencies. he should then wipe his hand against earth or wall till odour is removed therefrom. The use of stones and water are both desirable. It is related that when God revealed the verse (9 : 109) : "Therein are men who love purity and God loves the pure,' the Apostle of God said to the people of Quba : What is the purity for which God has praised you ? They said : We are accustomed to use both stones and water after calls of nature.
MANNER OF ABLUTION
He shall commence with the use of tooth stick. The Prophet said : Your mouths are the pathways of the Quran. Cleanse them therefore with stick. The Prophet said : Prayer after the use of tooth stick is better than prayer without its use by seventy five times. He said : Had it not been difficults for my followers, I would have ordered them to use tooth stick before every prayer. He said : Why should I not see you with yellow teeth ? The Prophet was accustomed to use tooth stick several times every night. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The Prophet has so repeatedly commanded us to use tooth stick that we thought that soon a revelation would come for its use. The Prophet said : Use tooth stick, as it purifies the mouth and please God. Hazrat Ali said Use of tooth stick increases memory and removes phlegm. The companion of the Prophet used to keep tootch stick in their ears even at the time of journey.
It is desirable to use the tooth-stick before every prayer and every ablution, before and after sleep, after eating anything of unpleasant smell. After the use of tooth-stick face the Ka'ba for ablution and then say : In the name of God, the Merciful, the most Compassionate. The Prophet said : There is no ablution for one who does not take the name of God, that is complete ablution. He should then wash his hands three times and should say : 0 God, I ask Three for luck and blessing and seek refuge to thee against ill-luck and destruction. He shall rinse his mouth thrice with water and say afterwards : 0 God, help me to read Thy Book and glorify Thy name. Then he shall take up water and cleanse his nose thrice and say : 0 God. grant me to enjoy the fragrance of pardise while Thou art pleased to promise it with me. At the time
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of throwing dust from nose, he should say : I seek refuge to These from the stench of Hell and from the evil of the world. He will then wash his face thrice from ear to hear and from flat portion of head to the fore part of the chin. As he washes his face, he should say : 0 God, make my face white and bright with Thy light on the day when Thou will make the faces of Thy friends bright. He should then wash his arms upto the elbows three times. The believers will come on the Resurrection Day with brightness on their foreheads, writs and ankles from the effect of ablution. The Prophet said Whose is able to cleanse the fore part of his head, let him do so. He should then wipe his head by soaking his hands in water. Thrice he should do it and say : 0 God, cover me with Thy mercy and shower upon me Thy blessings. He shall then wipe his ears both outside and inside with fresh water thrice. He should then wipe his neck with fresh water because the Prophet said : Wiping the neck from behind will save one from breach of trust on the Resurrection Day. Then he should wash his right foot thrice and left foot thrice. When he will finish ablulion thus, he should raise his head towards the sky and say
I testify that there is no deity but God. He is one and there is no patner for Him. I testify also that Muhammad is the servant and Apostle of God.
There are several undesirable things in ablution-to wash each limb more than three times. The Prophet said : Whoever goes beyond three times transgresses. He said : soon there will appear among my people those who will exaggerate in ablution and invocation.
EXCELLENCE OF ABLUTION: The Prophet said : Whoever makes ablution well and prays two rak'ats of prayer in such a way that nothing of the world occurs in his mind, goes out of his sins in such a manner that he comes out as it were from the womb of his mother. The Prophet said : Should I not inform you what atones sins and raises ranks ?-performing ablution in distress, to step towards the mosques qpd to wait for the next prayer after a prayer. This the "bond". He repeated it three times. The Prophet said after washing each limb: God does not accept prayer except this ablution. He performed ablution after pouring water twice on each limb and said: God will reward him twice. He performed ablution of each limb thrice said : This is the abluation of the
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Prophets before me and of Abraham. The Prophet said : Whose remembers God at the time of his ablution, God purifies his whole body and he who does not remember God, is not purified except those places where the water was applied. The Prophet said : Whose makes ablution after ablution, ten merits are recorded for him. The Prophet said : Ablution after ablution is like a light. The Prophet said : When a Muslim in ablution rinses his mouth, the sins come out of his mouth. When he blows his nose, the sins come out of his nose. When he washes his face, the sins fall down from his face, even from his eye brows. When he washes his two hands, the sins fall down from his two hands, even from be neath his finger-nails, when he wipes his head, the sins comes out of his head, even from his two ears. When he washes his feet, the sins come out of his feet, even from beneath his toes. Then he goes to the mosque and prays. Those become additional. There is in another tradition : One who makes ablution is like a fasting man. The Prophet said. Whose performs ablution well and then says looking to the sky : I testify that there is no deity but God and He has no associate and I testify that Muhammad is the Apostle of God, eight gates of Pardise are opened up for him and he will enter therein through whichever gate he wishes.
MANNER OF BATH
One shall place the vessel with water to his right and then after taking the name of God wash his hands thrice and remove any impurity he has from his ' body. He shall then perform ablution in the manner already described with the exception of washing of feet. He shall then pour water on his head thrice, over the right side thrice, over his left side thrice. He shall then rub his body infront and back including beard and hairs. He is not required to make ablution after bath provided he has performed it before bath.
Bath is compulsory in four cases, in case of emission of semen, in case of copulation, after masturbation and after child birth. Other baths are sunnat, such as baths on two I'd days, Friday, at the time of Ihram, at the time of waiting at Arafat, at the time of entry into Mecca, on the last three days of pilgrimage, at the farewell circumbulation, at the time of conversion to Islam, after recovery from swoom and after washing a dead body.
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MANNER OF TAYAMMAM
The manner of purification with sand is as follows. If the use of water does harm to a person, if water is not found on search, or if there is danger in reaching the place of water such as fear of ferocius beast or fear of enemies, or if the water is even insufficient to quench thrist, or if the water is in possession of another and the price is high, or if he is ill, or has got wound and water will do harm, then he should wait till the time of compulsory prayer comes. He should then proceed to use pure soil with intention of Tayammam. He should put his right palm over the sandy soil and lift it to his face, wipe it and intend to observe prayer. It should be done only once. Then he shall again place his left'plam over the sand and wipe his right hand and then place his right hand to the elbows over the sand and then wipe his left hand up to the elbows. By this Tayammam, only one prayer at a time can be done.
CLEANSING THE EXTERNAL BODILY GROWTHS
These are of two kinds, the discharges and the wet excretions of the body and bodily growths. These excretions are eight in number.
(1) That which attaches to the hairs of head such as dirt and lice should be removed by washing, combing and the use of ointment. The Prophet used to oil his hairs and comb them on every alternate days and ordered his followers to do the same. The Prophet said : Oil your hairs on every alternate days. He also said : Let one honour his hairs. It means : Keep them clean of filth and arrange them. Once a man came to the Prophet with dishevelled hairs and fuffled beard and he said : Has he got no oil wherewith to arrange his hairs ? Then he said : One of you comes as if he is a devil. (2) Filth which collects in the holes of ears. This filth should carefully be caleansed. (3) Filth in the nose should be removed by inhaling and exhaling. (4) The filth which collects between the teeth and the tip of the tongne should be removed by tooth stick and the rinsing of mouth. (5) Filth which attaches to the beard should be removed and the beaid should be combed. There is a well known tradition that the Prophet either at home or
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in journey never parted with his tooth stick, comb and mirror. Hazrat Ayesha said that the Prophet said: God loves a man who adorns himself whenever he goes out to meet with his brethren. (6) The filth which collects in finger joints should be removed and the Prophet ordered his followers to cleanse them specially after eating. (7) The filth which collects in nails of fingers should be removed. The Prophet ordered that the manicuring of nails, plucking the hairs of armpits and shaving the pubes should be done once every forty days. Once revelation stopped coming to the Prophet. When Gebrail came to him, he asked him the reason and Gebrail said : How can revelation come to you when you have not cleansed the filth from your knuckls and nails and filth of mouth by toothstick? (8) Filth of the whole body collected through perspiration and dust of path ways should be removed by bath. There is no harm to enter public bath room for that.
SECOND KIND OF FILTHS
These are bodily growths and are of eight kinds. (1) Hairs of head. There is no harm in shaving the hairs of head for one who desires to be clean and there is no harm in keeping them provided he oils them and keeps arranged and combed. (2) Hairs of moustache., The Prophet said : Cut off your moustaches, in another naration, spare your moustaches. In another naration, trim your moustaches and spare your beards. In other words, let your moustaches extend to the upper lip. Shaving of moustaches was never mentioned in the tradition, while trimming so closely as to resemble shaving has been narrated by the companions. There is no harm in leaving the ends of moustaches to hang down. The Prophet said : Cut off your moustache along a tooth stick. The Prophet said : Spear the beard and let it grow. The Prophet said : Do the opposite as the Jews used to spare their moustaches and trim their beards.
(3) Hairs of armpits should be removed once every forty days either by plucking or by shaving (4) Hairs of pubes should be removed once every forty days either by shaving or by the use of a depilatory. (5) Nails should he manicured because of their ugly appearances and also because of the dirt which collects underneath them. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah, manicure your nails as the devil sits therein when they are long. (6-7) Navel cord and foreskin of genital organ. The naval cord is cut off at the time of birth of a child. The Prophet said : Circumcision
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is sunnat for a male and meritorious for a female. Excess should be avoided in the case of a female. The Prophet said to Omme Atiyyah : 0 Omme Atiyyah, be moderae in circumcision and cut off only a small portion of clitoris, for it is better to preserve feminity and more welcome to masculinity. (8) Length of beard. There are differences of opinion regarding the length of the beard. Some say that it is to be kept up to the grip and there is no harm in cutting beyond the grip. Hazrat Omar and some Tabeyins used to do it. Hasan Basari and Qatadah said that to spare it to grow long is better as the Prophet said : Spare your beards. It has been said that the bigger the beard, the smaller the intellect.
There are ten undesirable practices regarding beard. These are dyeing the beard black, bleaching it with sulpher, plucking it, plucking the grey hairs, trimming it, augmenting its size, keeping it dishevelled, combing it for show of people, making it black for show of youth, making it grey to attract honour and dyeing it red or yellow. Dyeing it with black colour is prohibited as the Prophet said : The best or your youths is he who follows the old among you and the worst of your old is he who follows the youth among you. The Prophet said : Black dye is the sign of the inmates of Hell. The first man who used black dye was Pharaoh. The Prophet said : There will appear in latter ages people who will dye their beards black like the peak of pigeons. They will not get the fragranc eof Paradise. Dyeing the beard yellow or red is permitted. The Prophet said : Yellow is the colour with which the Muslims dye their beards and red is the colour with which the believers dye their beards. Henna can be used for red dye and saffron and phillyrea for yellow dye. Bleaching the beard with sulpher to give the appearance of advanced age to attract venration and to have their testimony accepted is undesirable. To shave beard is Makruh or undesirable. So also plucking grey hair because the Prophet prohitited it as it is a light for a believer.
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