REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
Translated by FAZL-UL-KARIM VOL. I
THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
CHAPTER X Actions after division of Times 249
Merits of Night Prayer 259
DIVISION OF TIMES FOR ACTIONS
God has made the world subservient to men not to live in its elevated places but to gather provision there from sufficient for their permanent abode, sufficient for rewards of their souls, so that they may save themselves from deceits and deceptions of the world. All men are traveling in this world. Their first abode is cradle and last abode is grave and their real abode is Paradise or Hell The term of life is noting but the distance of journey. Its every year is a station, every month is a furlong, every day Is a mile, every breath is a step. Its religious action is a wealth and its time is the root of its wealth. Its temptations and greed are tumbling block in its path, its profit is vision of God in the abode of peace and its loss is to be distant from Him and to stay in the lowest depth of Hell being tied up with chains. He who is indifferent to his breaths will be so sorry on the Resurrection Day that there will be no limit to it. That is the time for the greatest dangers and dreadful questions. For that the friends of God give up the comforts and pleasures of the transient life of the world and remain engaged day and night in divine services after division of times, so that they may earn the nearness of God and live in comforts in the day of the greatest danger.
EXCELLENCE OF DIVINE SERVICE BY DIVISION OF TIME
Know, 0 dear readers, that there is no salvation without meeting with God. The only means to meet Him is to face death being imbued with love for Him. Love is the fruit of constant remembrance of the Beloved and to work with that end in view. One can get acquaintance with Him if one thinks constantly of Hi, His attributes, His wonderful creations and that there is no existence of any thing apart from His existence. It does not become easy if one does not give up the world except what is necessary for him. Nothing is fulfilled if time is not divided and divine services are not done according to fixed times. So divide time in to several divisions. If a man spends more than half of his time for worldly pursuits, he may be included more towards the world. Mind feels difficulty in passing half the time in divine service. Little time is allotted to divine services. If anyone wishes
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to enter paradise without rendering any account, let him spend his whole time in religious actions. If any man wishes to make his scale heavy with good deeds, let him spend most part of his time in doing good deeds. God says: You have got great occupations in day time. So remember your Lord at night and be engaged with undivided mind towards Him. God says: Remember your Lord morning and evening and make prostration to Him in a portion of the night and glorify Him long at night. God says: Glorify your Lord before sun-rise and before sun-set and glorify Him after prostration at night. God says: Praise your Lord when you stand up and read his Tasbih at the setting of the star at night. God says: Waking at night is the firmest foot step and fruitful in invocation. God says: Glorify Him in some portions of night and some portions of day, so that you may find consolation. God says: Establish prayer at two ends of the day and a portion of night. Surely good deeds remove evils.
God says: Or that man who expresses obedience by prostrating during the whole night and saying prayer who fears the next world and hopes for the mercy of his Lord. Say: Are those who are wise equal to the ignorant? God says: Their sides turn over their beds and they call their Lord in hope and fear. God says: They sleep very little at night and seek forgiveness at the latter part of night. God says: Don't drive away those who call their Lord for His pleasure at dawn and at dusk.
The above verses make it clear to you that the easy way of getting God is to engage yourself in thoughts of God and to do all actions regularly after division of time. For this reason, the Prophet said: Those who look at the sun, moon and shade to remember God are dear to God. God says: The sun and the moon go on according to a measure. God says: Have you not looked towards your Lord how He extends the shade? If He wished, He would have made it stationary and made the sun proof therein. Then I draw it easily towards Myself. God says: It is He who made the stars for you, that they may show paths in the darkness of seas and lands. So think that movements are not only for the worldly actions but also to ascertain the measure of time by their help and to do business of the next world by dividing time. The following verse is its proof: He created the day and night alternately for one who wishes to remember Him or wishes to express gratefulness. This means that what the day makes
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towards loss is compensated by the night. There is no other thing between Zikr and gratefulness. God says: I have created day and night as two signs. I make the sign of day clear by removing the sign of night, so that the people may see clearly, so that you may seek grace from your Lord and may count year.
NUMBER OF DIVISIONS OF TIME
There are seven divisions of day-(1) one division from early morning up to sun-rise, (2) two divisions from sun-rise to mid day, (3) two divisions from the declining of the sun to afternoon, (4) two divisions from afternoon to sunset. Night has got five divisions two divisions from sun-set up to going to bed and three divisions from mid-night to dawn. Now I shall narrate the divine service during these divisions of day and night.
FIRST DIVISION: This covers the period from the morning twi-light up to sun-rise. This is the honoured time as God says: By oath of early dawn when it gives out breath. Praising this time, God says: Say, I take refuge to the Lord of early dawn. His power has been manifested by suppression of shade at this time as God says: Then I take it to Me easily. There is hint of reciting Tasbih at this time in this verse: When there is dusk and when there is dawn, proclaim the glory and purity of God. God says: Glorify your Lord with His praise before sun-rise and before sun set. God says: Remember the name of your Lord morning and evening.
RULES OF THIS TIME: After getting up from bed, remember God by saying: All praise is due to God who gave me life after He made me dead and to Him is the return. Then make ablution with cleansing teeth and pray two rak'ats of prayer in your house and then go to the mosque and pray two rak'ats of compulsory prayer. You should not miss morning and night prayers in congregation as there are good rewards therefore. The Prophet said with regard to the morning prayer: If a man goes to the mosque for prayer after ablution, one reward is written for each step he takes and one sin is forgiven. This reward is increased to ten fold. When he finishes the prayer at the time of sun-rise, one reward is written for his every hair of his body-and the reward of one accepted Haj is given to him. If he sits waiting for the forenoon prayer, one lac rewards are written for him for each rak'at. At the end of prayer, keep seated till sun-rise with Zikr of God. The Prophet said: If a man keeps seated till sun-rise
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after morning prayer and remains busy in Zikr, it is dear to me than the manumission of four slaves. Hazrat Hasan Basari said that the Prophet had said: God said: 0 children of Adam, make My Zikr for one hour after morning prayer and for one hour after afternoon prayer. What is acquired in between these hours will be sufficient for you. There are four kinds of recitations upto sun rise-(1) Doa and Zikr, (2) Tasbih, (3) Quran reading and (4) to ponder over the creations of God.
(1) DOA AND ZIKR: When you finish your prayer, make Monazat by saying: 0 God, send blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and also Salam. 0 God, Thou art peace, from Thee peace and to Thee peace returns. 0 our Lord, make us live with peace and admit us in the abode of peace. Thou art blessed, 0 possessor of dignity and honour. Then recite the following which the Prophet used to recite: Glory be to My Lord, the Highest, the Bestower of gifts. There is no deity but God, the single, He has got no partner. Kingdom is His and all praise is His. He gives life and takes it.. He is ever-living, He has no death, all good is in His hands and He is powerful over everything.
(2) TASBIH: It'is a collection of some formulas and each formula should be repeated from three times to one hundred times. The more you recite them, the more efficacious they are. These formulas are generally ten. (a) There is no deity but God, etc. as mentioned above. (b) Glory be to God and all praise is due to God. There is no deity but God. God is greatest. There is no might and strength except in God, the Great, the Mighty. (c) He is glorious, pure, 0 our Lord and the Lord of angels and Ruh. (d) Glory be to God, the great and all praise is His. (e) I seek forgiveness to God, the Great, there is no deity but He, the Ever living, the Ever subsisting, I seek return to Him. (f) 0 God, there is none to reject what Thou bestoweth and non to give what Thou doth reject and no man of honour can give benefit and benefit comes form Thee alone. (g) There is no deity but God, the Sovereign, the open Truth. (h) I begin in the name of God. Nothing in the world and heaven can do harm if His name is remembered and He is Hearing, Knowing. (i) 0 God, send blessings on Muhammad, Thy servant and Prophet and Apostle, the illiterate Prophet. (i) I seek refuge to God, the Hearing, the Knowing from the accursed devil. 0 Lord, I seek refuge from the machinations of the devil.
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(3) QURAN READING: If you wish to get the rewards of Zikr, Doa and Quran reading together, read before the sun rise and sun set the Doa which Khizr taught Ibrahim Taimi called "Musabbhatul Arsh" which is as follows.
(1) Read each seven times-Fateha, Nas, Falaq, Ikhlas, Kaferun and Ayatul Qursi, and then (2) recite seven times 'Glory be to God, all praise is His, there is no deity but God and God is greatest' (3) Then send blessings on the Prophet seven times and (4) then seek forgiveness seven times for yourself, for your parents and for the male and female believers and (5) then utter seven times the Doa as prescribed. Don't give it up any time before sun rise and sun set.
Ibrahim Taimi saw in dream the Prophet and asked him about the Doa that Khizr had dictated to him and the Prophet said: It is true. Khizr has spoken the truth. What Khizr says is true. He knows the dwellers of the world and he is the best of Abdals. He is one of the soldiers of God in the world. If a than recites it, among other rewards, God will forgive him and will lift His anger from him and order the angel in his left side not to write his sins for one year. None observes it except one who has been made fortunate by God and none forsakes it except one who has been made unfortunate by Him.
(4) GOOD THOUGHTS. (a) Think of your past sins and try to remove them. Remove the obstacles to good deeds and think of doing good for yourself and general Muslims. (b) Think of profitable things in the spiritual world and that of the gifts of God, open and secret. Think of the God's rewards and punishments. This pondering is the best divine service as it contains the remembrance of God and two sincere things. (1) The first thing is' the acquisition of knowledge about God as contemplation is the key to the earning of spiritual light. (2) The second thing is the increase of God's love, as love does not grow unless there is firm honour for Him in heart. Glory of God is not opened to the mind unless one is acquainted with God's attributes and His wonderful creations. The fruit of meditation is acquaintance or Ma'arfat. Honour grows from acquaintance and love grows from honour and deep attachment grows from love. There is difference between Abed and Aref. The former is like one who hears about a thing and the latter is like one who sees that thing with his eyes. Aref sees God's glory with the inner light
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of his mind and Abed sees it with the outer light of his eyes. There is no limit to the inner light of mind, but there is limit to the external eye sight. The Prophet said: God has got seventy screens. If He had disclosed them, the brilliance of God's face would have destroyed what one could have seen. These screens are one above another and the brilliance of their lights has got degrees just like the difference of the lights of the stars, moon and
(2) The Second division of day begins from sun-rise to a little before mid-day. There are two duties therein. One duty is to observe Ishraq and Zoha prayers ad another duty is to do all actions in connection with the people and for their good. It is better to pray Ishraq of two rak'ats just after sun-rise and 4, 6, or 8 rak'ats Zoha prayer when the sun-rises very high and before noon. God says: Oath of Zoha and darkness of night. Regarding the second duty, it is to visit patients, to join funeral prayer, to do good works, to be present in the assemblies of the learned and to do good to the Muslims.
(3) The Third division of day begins just before noon and declining of the sun. There is order for prayer after every three hours. There is a prayer after sun-rise. After three hours, there is the prayer of Zoha and next after three hours, there is the prayer of Zuhr and next after three hours, there is Asr prayer and next after three hours there is Magrib prayer. In the mean time, one can do worldly business.
(3) The Fourth division of day begins from the declining of the sun after noon and ends after Zuhr prayer. Before Zuhr, pray four rak'ats Sunnat prayer. Make it long and this is the time of acceptance of invocation. After Zuhr prayer, pray two rak'ats Sunnat and then 2 or 4 rak'ats Nafl.
(5) The Fifth division of day begins from the end of Zuhr prayer till Asr or afternoon. There is a great reward for waiting for the next compulsory prayer after finishing one. This was the habit of the former sages. A certain wise man said: Three things are not dear to God. (1) to laugh without any wonderful thing. (2) to eat without hunger and (3) to sleep at day without being wakeful at night. To sleep for 8 hours during 24 hours is sufficient. Thus one third of life is lost in sleep.
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(6) The Sixth division of day begins from Asr prayer. Perform four rak'ats of Sunnat prayer before Azan and Aqamat and then pray four rak'ats of compulsory prayer. It is a most . opportune time. There is no prayer after Asr.
(7) The Seventh division of day begins when the sun is covered with dust and snow and is the time immediately before sun-set. God says: When it is dusk and dawn, glorify Him. God says: Glorify Him at two extremes of the day. God says: Seek forgiveness for your sins and proclaim the purity of your Lord with praise at dawn and at dusk.
FIVE DIVISIONS OF NIGHT
(1) The First division of night. When the sun sets, pray Magrib and remain busy in Zikr between two prayers. The end of this division is up to the setting of red hue in th western sky. God has taken oath of this time: Nay, I swear by the night fall. The excellence of prayer at this time is like that of night prayer as it is the first stage of night. God says: Glorify God in one portions of night. This is the prayer of Awabin. The object of the following verse is this: 'Their sides roll in their beds". When asked about this verse the Prophet said: It is the prayer between Magrib and Isha as it removes the sins of useless talks of day time and makes its end good. Pray two rak'ats after Magrib. Then pray four long prayers and then continue prayer till the setting of the red hues in the western horizon.
(2) The second divisions of night begins from the early time of Isha up to the sleep of the people. God says: I swear by night and what it brings (darkness). He said: Up to the darkness of the night' Pray four rak'ats before compulsory prayer and two rakats after it and then four rak'ats, after that 13 rak'ats and then Bitr prayer. This may be done at the earlier portion of night or latter portion. The Prophet said: There is half reward in saying prayer sitting than standing and half reward in saying prayer lying than
(3) The third division of night is in sleep. Sleep is considered as Ibadat if certain rules are observed. The Prophet said: When a man goes to bed after making Zikr with ablution, he is rewarded as in a state of prayer till he wakes up. An angel enters .his dress. If he moves during sleep and makes Zikr, the
angel invokes for him and seeks God's forgiveness for him. The Prophet said: When a man sleeps with ablution, his soul is taken up to the Throne. This happens in all cases. How then is it regarding special persons and sages? Secrets are disclosed to them during sleep. For this Reason, the Prophet said: The divine services of the learned and their breaths are Tasbih. Hazrat Mu'az said: I sleep and then pray and what I do in my sleep, I think I do it in my wakeful state. This was mentioned to the Prophet who said: Mu'az has got good knowledge of religion.
THERE ARE TEN RULES OF SLEEP
(1) Teeth cleansing and ablution. The Prophet said: When a man sleeps with ablution, his soul is hung up with the Throne and his dream becomes true If he sleeps without ablution, his soul cannot reach there and he cannot see dreams which are true.
(2) Keep tooth stick and ablution water near the head so that you may stand for prayer when awake. The Prophet used to cleanse teeth may times at night specially when he awoke from sleep. The Prophet said: If a man goes to bed with this intention that he would pray at night and his two eyes prevail upon him nd he sleeps till dawn, whatever he intended is written for him and his sleep is a gift from God as it were.
(3) Sleep at night keeping a written wasiat near your head as it is no wonder to meet with death during sleep. If a man dies without wasiat, he will not be Permitted to talk in grave till Resurrection Day. The dead persons will come to meet him and question him but he will not be able to talk.
(4) Sleep with sound mind after making Taubah for all sins and seek forgiveness for all Muslims. Don't pollute your mind by oppressing any man and don't be firm in committing sin after waking. The Prophet said: If a man goes to bed with the intention of doing no oppression, hatred and envy, his sins are forgiven.
(5) Don't sleep in soft bed and your bed should be of middle kind. There was nothing between the bodies of Ahle Suffa and earth. They used to say: Our bodies have been made of earth and shall have to return to earth.
(6) Don't sleep till it overtakes you. The sleep of Ahle Suffah was strong, food little and talk necessary. For this reason, it is
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said that they slept little at night even though it prevailed upon,. them. The Prophet said: Don't take too much trouble at night. The Prophet was asked: A certain person prays at night. Wheat sleep prevails over him, he keeps himself hanging with a rope, The, Prophet prohibited him from that. He said: When it becomes easy to you at night, pray. When sleep becomes strong, sleep. The Prophet said: Strive hard in actions as God does not inflict trouble over you until you inflict trouble on yourself. The Prophet said: He who does religious actions easily is best of you The Prophet said: I pray and sleep, keep fast and break. This is my way. He who does not follow my ways in not of me The Prophet said: Don't take too much trouble for religion as it is firm. He who wishes to stick to it firmly, it will
overcome him. Don't make divine service a burden on you.
(7) Sleep facing the Ka'ba. It is like keeping a dead body in grave keeping the face towards the Ka'ba.
(8) Invoke at the time of sleep and say: 0 Lord. I keep my side in Thy name and shall raise it up in Thy name-up to the end. Recike special 'verses of the Quran, such as
Ayatul Qursi, the last portion of Suran Badr, Sura A'raf, Falaq and . Nas and 25 times of the following formula Sobhan Allah walhamdo lillah wala Ilaha Illallah and Allaho Akbar.
(9) Remember God at the time of sleep. Sleep is a kind of death and rising is a kind of Resurrection. God says: God takes souls at the time of their death and the souls of those who do not die in their sleep. God says: He it is who causes you to die at night.' As a man who is awake sees things which he does not see in sleep, so also a sleeping man sees things which his mind cannot conceive in wakeful state. Sleep is the period between life and death as Barzakh is the period between this world and the next world. Loqman asked his son: 0 dear son, if you doubt about death, don't sleep. As you sleep, so you will die. If you doubt about resurrection, don't be awake. As you wake up after sleep, so you will wake up after your death. Hazrat Ayesha said: When the Prophet went to bed, he used to place his head upon his right hand, think himself dead and say: 0 God, Lord of seven heavens and Lord of the greatThrone.0 our Lord and the Lord of all things and their owner.
(10) Doa after waking up. When the Prophet woke up form sleep, he used to recite the following: There is no. deity but God, the Single, the Almighty, Lord of heavens and earth and what is therein, the Mighty. the Forgiving". After rising, always remember God. That is the sign of love. When you stand up after rising from sleep, recite: All praise is for God who has given us life after He has made us dead and to
Him is the Resurrection.
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r(4) Fourth division of night begins from mid night and ends with the end of night except one sixth of it remaining. At this time, a man rises to pray Tahajjud. God says: I swear by the night when it is deep. The Prophet was asked: Which time of the night is the appropriate time for exception of invocation? He said: Mid-night Prophet David said: 0 Lord, I love to do your service, but what time is most opportune? God evealed to him: 0 David, don't be awake in the early or latter part of the night as he who does not sleep in its early part sleeps at its latter part. If one keeps awake at the latter part of the nigh he cannot remain awake at its early part, Keep awake in its middle portion, keep alone with Me at that time and I also will remain alone with you and will raise up your necessities The Prophet was asked: What portion of night is best? He said: The middle of the latter half of night. During this time, pray by two rak'ats. The Prophet used to pray at least 13 rak'ats at this including Bitr prayer. There are prescribed invocations to be recited therein.
(5) Fifth division of night. The remaining portion of night is Sehri time. God says: Seek forgiveness at Sehri time. This is the time of departure of angels of night and the arrival of the angels of day. When there is dawn, there is the end of this division and the beginning of the divisions of the day. The Prophet said: If a man fasts, gives charity, visits the sick and attends funeral service every day, his sins are forgiven. In another narration, he enters Paradise. The companions did not miss a day without charity even though it be with a date or a piece of bread: as the Prophet said: A man remains under the shadow of his charity till he faces judgment. The Prophet said: Saveyourself from Hell by giving in charity even a portion of date. The Prophet said: If a man rises at dawn, there is the duty of charity upon every vein of his body. He has got 360 veins. Your enjoining good is an act of charity, your forbidding evil is an act of charity, your helping a weak man in bearing his load is an act of charity, your showing path to man is an act of charity, your removing nuisance from the pathway is an act of charity. Even he named Tasbih and Tahlil as acts of charity. Then he said: Two rak'ats of prayer before noon take away all rewards.
DIVISIONS OF TIME ACCORDING
(1) A WORSHIPER is one who has got no business except divine service. If he gives up divine service, he sits without occupation. Some of the companions used to recite Tasbih 1200 times daily, some 30,000times, some prayed from 300 to 600 rka'ts. Others prayed at least 100 rak'ats a day and a night. Some finished the Quran once a day, some twice a day. Karrah-b- Bashrah used to make Tawaf of the Ka'ba 70 times at day time and 70 times at night. Inspite of that, they finished the Quran twice every day and night. The saint Ibrahim-b-Adham said as reported from an angel that he who recites the following will not die till he sees his place in Paradise: Glory be to the Highest Judge. Glory be to the strict Law-giver. Glory be to One who effaces the night and brings the day. glory be to One whom no affair can keep busy. Gory be to God, the Merciful, the Begining.
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(2) A LEARNED MAN is he whose learning benefits the eo~~le, such as giving legal decisions, teaching, writing religions boos. His division of time is not like those of an Abed or worshiper, as his reading and writing
time. are necessary and i` requires meat deal of
me. The excellence of learning and teaching proves it. The learning which we speak of and which is above divine service is that learning which creates a desire for the Hereafter, distaste of this world or such a learning which helps journey towards the next world and not that learning which helps increase of wealth and properties. He should be busy up to sun- rise in Zikr and invocations and after sun-rise up to noon in teaching and learning, and from noon to Asr in reading and writing books and from Asr to sunset in Hadis, Tafsir and other benefiting subjects.
(3) STUDENTS: The Prophet said: To be present in an assembly of Zikr is better than prayers of one thousand rak'ats, attending one thousand funerals and visiting one thousand patients. The Prophet said: When you see a garden of Paradise, roam in it. He asked: 0 Prophet of God, what is the garden of Paradise? He said: Assembly of Zikr. So a student should not turn away from such an assembly. When a man complained to Hasan Basari above the hardness of his heart, he said to him: Attend the assembles of Zikr.
(4) BUSINESS MAN: He who is required to do business for all times to maintain his family members, should do it without engaging himself in divine service for all times with this condition that he must remember God in all his dealings and not forget Him and perform compulsory divine services.
j(5) AN ADMINISTRATOR is like a leader. Similar is the case of a judge, or a mutawalli or a person on whom the affairs the Muslims have been entrusted. They should remember how the rightly guided Caliphs conducted themselves with heavy duties on their shoulders.
(6) UNITARIAN: He is one who is engaged in the meditation of God, does not love anybody except God and does not fear anybody except Him. He does not accept provision except from Him. Such a man need not observe the divisions of time but should keep company with God soon after the compulsory prayers with humility of mind. In other words there is lesson for him in whatever thoughts occur in his mind, whatever sound falls in his ears and whatever things fall in his eyes. Such a man flees towards God as God says: So flee away to God. The support of the above version is found also in the following verse: when you put them alone and they do not worship except God, they take shelter to a cave and your Lord will provide them with space out of His mercy. There is another verses: I am going towards my Lord and He will soon guide me'. This is the rank of a Siddiq.
EXCELLENCE OF NIGHT WORSHIP
The Prophet said: Sun-set prayer is best to God. It has not been reduced f or a traveller. It opens night prayers and ends day prayers. If a
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man prays two rak'ats Magrib prayers, two buildings will be built for him in Paradise. The distance of the two buildings is the path of one hundred years. In between them, there are trees which are sufficient for the inmates of the world to see after roaming. The Prophet said: If a man says ten rak'ats of prayer between Magrigb and Isha, there will be building for him in Paradise. Hazrat Omar asked: 0 Prophet of God, ,,our buildings then would be numerous. He said: God has got much more and better. The Prophet said: If a man prays Magrib in congregation and two rak'ats in addition without talking any worldly things in between them and reads chapter Faitha and then verses from the first portion of chapter Baqr and two verses from its middle, chapter Ikhlas 15 times and then makes Ruku and prostration and when he stands for the second rak'at and recites chapter Fatiha, Ayatul Kursi and three verse of chapter Baqr, and chapter Ikhlas. 15 times, his rewards will be unlimited according to a tradition.
Once Obaidullah was asked: Did the Prophet pray except the compulsory prayers? He replied: He prayed between Magrib and lsha, that is the prayer of Awabin. Hazrat Anas and Ibn Masud used to pray them always. The sage Abu Sloaiman Darani said that to pray this Awabin prayer is better than optional fast.
EXCELLENCE OF NIGHT PRAYER
QURAN: God says: Your Lord knows that you stand up in prayer for two thirds of the night. God says: Divine service at night is the firm footstep and fruitful for invocations. God says: He who says prayer standing and with prostration throughout the night and fears the next world, etc. God says: Those who pass the night for their Lord prostrating and standing in prayer, etc. God says: Seek help with patience and prayer.,
HADIS: Thee Prophet said: When one of you sleeps, the devil knots three ties by his side and says to each tie: You have got a greater portion of night acrd so sleep. If he awakes and makes Zikr of God, one tie is unloosened. If he prays, another tie is unloosened. Then he rises up with pleasure or with displeasure. Mention was once made to the Prophet of a man who sleeps all the night and he said: The devil has passed urine in his ears. The Prophet said: If a man prays two rak'ats in mid night, it is better for him than the world and what i t contains. Had it not been difficult for my followers, I would have made it compulsory for them. The Prophet said: There is a time at night which nobody should miss. If he-prays at that time, God acce is it. This happens in all nights. Mugirah-b-Shubah narrated that the Prophet used to stand so iong.in prayer that his feet became swollen. He was asked: What is it? God has forgiven all your past and future sins. He said: Shall I not be a grateful servant?
This shows that the additional worship is for additional rank as gratefulness brings additional rewards. God says: If you are grateful, I will givenyou additional rewards. The Prophet said: 0 Abu Hurairah, .if-you wish to get the mercy of God while you are alive and while you -are dead in grave, getup at night and pray and seek the pleasure of God.,
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0 Abu Hurairah, pray in a corner of your house. As the dwellers of the earth see the brightness of the stars, so the inmates of heaven see the light of your house. The Prophet said: You should pray at night as it was the habit of your earlier sages. Prayer at night brings one near God, his sins are forgiven, diseases of body are cured and faults are prevented. The Prophet said: If a man prays at night though being prevailed upon by sleep; the rewards of prayers are also written for him. Sleep is an act of charity for him. The Prophet said to Abu Zarr: Don't you take luggage for your) journey? He said: Yes He said: Why don't you take properties for the Resurrection Day? 0 Abu Zarr, shall I not inform you what will benefit you? He said: Yes, my parents be sacrificed to thee. He said: Fast in summer for resurrection and pray two rak'ats in the darkness of night for loneliness in grave, make pilgrimage for great works and give charity to thee poor.
It has been narrated that there was a man at the time of the Prophet who used to stand in prayer when the people remained asleep and recite the Quran and say: 0 Lord of Hell, save me from it. When it was mentioned to the Prophet, he said: Call me when he prays. He came and heard him saying that. When it was dawn, he said to him: O man. why don't you pray for Paradise? He said: 0 Prophet of God, I rant read mere as my actions have not reached that stage Then Gebriel came down and said: Inform him that God has saved him from Hell and admitted him in Paradise. Gebriel said to the Prophet How good lbn Omar would have been if he would have prayed at night? The Prophet informed him of it. Afterwards he used to pray at night. Hazrat zoynal Abedin said: Once Hazrat Ihya ate bread of wheat to his satisfaction and slept up to morning. God then revealed to him: 0 Ihya, you have considered your house better than My house, your neighbour better than My neighbours. 0 Ihya, by My glory and honour, if you peep at the garden of paradise, your fat will be swollen to get it and your soul will proceed forward. If you look once to Hell, your fat will melt and you will shed blood after tears and you will get new skin after your old skin has melted.
The Prophet was asked: a certain man prays at night but commits theft at dawn. He said: He will not do what he does. The Prophet said; May God show mercy on him who rises up at night and prays, then wakes his wife from sleep and she also prays. If she refuses, he throws water on her face. The Prophet said: May God show mercy on the woman who rises up at night and prays and then wakes up her husband and he also prays. If he refuses, she throws water on his face. The Prophet said: If a man rises u at night and awakes his wife and both pray two rak'ats of prayers, both we regarded as remembering ones. The Prophet said: After compulsory prayer, the best prayer is prayer at night. The Prophet said: If a man sleeps in his appointed time or in any portion of it and makes divine service between Falr and Zuhr, he worships as it were the whole night.
Wise Saying: Once Hazrat Omar fell down agar reciting some verses at night and he was looked after for many days as patient is looked after. When the people went to sleep, Ibn Masud used to rise up and his voice used to be heard up to morning like the humming of bees. Sufiyan Saori ate one night with satisfaction and said: When an ass is
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given good grass,' its actions also become good. He prayed up to dawn. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: I don't know whether i t is better to spend this property in charity than to keep awake at night. He was asked: Why do the aces of those who pray Tahajjud become brighter than those of others? He said: Because they stay with the Merciful in loneliness and
get light from His light.
Hazrat Fuzail said: If you cannot keep awake at night and keep fast at day time, know that you have been deprived of good and that your sins have become great. Rubi said: I spent many nights in the house of Imam Shafeyi. He used to sleep very little at night. Abu Zuairiya said: I stayed once at the house of Abu Hunifa for six months. He never kept his side on his bed for one single night. At first he used to keep awoke for half the night. While passing once by ape Me' e, he heard them say: This man keeps awake the whole night. said. I don't do it. After-wards he used to keep awake the whole night. The sage Malek-b-Dinar said: One night I forgot my duty and began to sleep. I found in dream a beautiful young girl with a letter in her hand saying to me: Can you read this letter? I said Yes. She handed over to me the letter which contained:
What! joy and hope have destroyed you!
Has your mind forgot the hope of Hurs? You will stay in paradise without death. You will make enjoyment then with Hurs. So rise up from sleep it is best for you. Reciting Quran in Tahajjud is better than sleep.
Mosruq once started on pilgrimage and spent the whole night in prostration. It is narrated that Wahab-b-Munabbah did not place his side on bed for thirty years. Solaiman Taimi prayed Fajar for 40 years with the ablution of Isha.
CAUSES OF MAKING NIGHT-WAKING EASY
Know, 0 dear readers, that night waking is difficult for many persons but it is easy for one who has got by God's mercy the secret and open conditions of night-waking. The open conditions are four-(I) Not to eat and drink much It begets sleep and there is trouble in prayers. A certain Sufi used toad vise his disciples: 0 congregation of disciples, don't eat much, don't drink much. If you do it, it will increase your sleep and you will repent much at the time of your death. To reduce stomach from the burden of food is good. (2) Not to make too much labour at day time, as too much labour brings too much sleep. (3) Not to give up a little sleep at day time as it is sunnat for night waking (4) Not to commit sins at day, as it makes the heart hard and creates barrier to get mercy of God. Sufi yan Saori said: On account of one sin, I have been deprived of prayer at night for five months. He was questioned: What is that sin? He said: I said in my mind on seeing a man weeping: This he is doing for show of people.
SECRET CONDITIONS OF NIGHT WAKING
(1) To keep the mind safe from hatred of the Muslims, from innovations and the sorrowful thoughts of the world, If a man is
Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 263
engaged in worldly pursuits, it does not become easy for him to pray at night. If he stands in prayer, thoughts of his worldly actions come in his mind.
(2) to keep fear of God strong in mind and to lessen hope. When a man thinks of Hell and of the next world, his sleep goes away and fear comes in his mind.
(3) To know the excellence of night prayer and to hope for th M.
(4) Love for God and strength of faith greatly entourage might wakefulness, as night prayer is nothing buttohold secret talk with God. He knows the condition of mind and sees whatever faults the mind has got. Forviveness is to be sought for these faults to God. When there is love for God, you will love loneliness without doubt and tasto in monazat. This taste will give you encouragement to wake up at night. This taste should not be removed as wisdom and wise sayings testify it. The sage Fuzail- b-yeaz said: When the sun sets in, I become glad in darkness as 1 can stay then with my Lord in loneliness. When it rises up, I become sorry at the advent of men to me. A certain learned man said: "The pleasure which a Sufi gets in Monazat at night can be compared with that in Paradise.
SIX STAGES OF NIGHT-WAKING
(1) To keep awake the whole night. This is the highest rank belonging only to the strong who are always engaged in divine service, those who get taste in monazat to Him., This is the food and life of their souls. For this reason, they feel easy to keep awake for the whole night. They sleep at day time when the people remain busy in worldly deeds. This was the practice of some early sages and saints. They used to say morning prayer with the ablution of Isha prayer. Abu Taleb makki narrate his from 4o narrators. Among them, there were Sayyed-bMusayyeb, Sufyan-b- Solaim, Fuzail-b-Yeaz, Wahab-b-Ward, Taus, Wahab-b-Monabhah, Rabiy-b-Khasem, Hakam, Abu Solaiman Darani, Ali-b-Bakar, Abu Abullah, Abu Asem, Abu Zaber Salman, Malek-b-Dinar, Solaiman Taimi, Eazid Rakkashi, Abu Hazem, Muhammad-b-Mungader and others.
(2) To keep awake for half the night. Such men were innumerable. Their habit was to sleep in the first portion out of three portions of night and the last portion out of six portions of night. Their time of prayer was at mid-night and that is better for it.
(3) To keep awake for one third of the night. For this, they used to sleep u to mid night and then in the one sixth portion of the night. They lied to sleep in the latter part of the night as the slumber of morning is removed by that. Hazrat Ayesha said: I did not see the Prophet but in sleep after Sehri time.
(4) To keep awake in one sixth portion of the night. It is the middle of the later part of the night and before one sixth portion of the night.
(5) Not to observe any time of night for prayer. Such a man keeps awake at the first part of the night till sleep prevails over him. When he wakes up, he prays. When he again feels the urge of sleep, he goes to
264 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I
bed. Thus he gets up twice and sleeps twice during the same night. This is difficult buL better. This was the habit of the Prophet, some great companions and Tabeyins. The Prophet sometimes kept awake for one third of the night, sometimes two thirds and sometimes one sixth. God says: your Lord knows that you stand in prayer nearly two thirds of the night or half or one third. Hazrat Ayessha said: The Prophet used to get up on hearing the crowing of cock. This happened in the last portion out of the six portions of the night.
(6) This is the lowest waking. To keep awake to the measurement of four or two rak'ats of prayer or to remain busy in Zikr and invocations for one hour. For this he gets the rewards of waking up for the whole night. The Prophet said: Pray at night even through it is to the length of the time of milking a goat.
EXCELLENCE OF SPECIAL NIGHTS AND DAYS
To do divine service in the nights which have got excellence is sunnat. The number of these nights is fifteen. Nobody should neglect these nights as these are the reasons of good deeds and the best time for trade in religion. If a man is indifferent at the time of season, he cannot make profit. These nights are the following. Six odd nights of the last portion of Ramzan including the Blessed night the night, of 17th Ramzan in which the believers and the infidels met Badr.
The remaining nine nights are as follows: The first night of Muharram the night of Ashura, thee first night of Rajab, the 15th night of Rajab, the 27th night of Rajab as it is the night of Prophet's ascension to heaven. The Prophet said about this night of mercy: If a man does good deeds in this night, he gets the rev ards of one hundred years He who prays 12 rak'ats in this night reading in each Rak'at chapter Fatiha and one chapter of the Quran Tashahhad once and sends blessings on the Prophet one hundred times, invokes for himself what he wishes for him in this world and the next and gets up at dawn with fast, God acceptall his invocations. Then there is the middle night of Shaban. One is to pray one hundred rak'ats of prayer and recite Faitha, ten times Ikhals in each rak'at. Then there are the night of Arafat and the two nights of two I'ds. The Prophet said: One who wakes up in the nights of two I'ds, his soul will not die when all souls will die.
There are nineteen days of excellence: The day of Araft, the day of Ashura, the day of 27th Rajab (If a man fasts on the day, he keeps fast as it were for sixty months and God sends Gebrief on this day with His message), the 17th day of Ramzan (the day on which the battle of Badr was fought), the 15th day of Shaban, the Jumma day, two day of two I'ds, ten days of Zilhaj and the day of Tashriq. The Prophet said: If the day of Jumma is safe, all the days are safe. If the month of Ramzan is saf, the whole year is safe.
====== THE END OF CHAPTER 10 - VOLUME ONE======
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