AL-ABBS ibn Abd al-Mualib (d. 32 [652/3])-61, 63, 69. The uncle of the Prophet, before whom he was born, it is sometimes said, by two years. An important personality at Mecca, he held the ancient office of providing water (siqya) to the pilgrims. While always tolerant of his nephews cause, he joined it only upon the conquest of Mecca in 8 AH. (EI2, I. 8-9 [W. Montgomery Watt]; I¡ba, II. 263.)

ABD ALLH IBN ABBS-77. See 'Ibn Abbs'.

ABD ALLH IBN AMR IBN AL ø (d. c 65 [684/5])-128, 131, 243, 256. A Companion of the Prophet, and an authority on the Tradition. He was celebrated for his austere lifestyle, which he was enjoined by the Prophet to temper. (Nawaw, Tahdhb, 361-2.)

ABD ALLH IBN MASD-243. See 'Ibn Masd'.

ABD ALLH IBN AL-MUBRAK ibn Wÿi| al-ðanal (d. 181 [797/8])-89, 164. An influential saint and scholar of the Law. Originally of Merv in Central Asia, he travelled to study with Mlik ibn Anas in Medina and al-Awz in Syria before he died in combat against the Byzantines. His works on renunciation and the Holy War have been published and are still popular. (GALS, I. 256; øafad, XVII. 419-20; Ab Nuaym, VIII. 162-91; Ar, 124-8.)

ABD ALLH IBN RAWA al-Khazraj (d. 8 [629])-131. An early Medinese convert chiefly remembered for his heroism at the battle of Muta, where, after assuming the command after the deaths of Zayd ibn ritha and Jafar ibn Ab lib, he too joined the ranks of the martyrs. (EI2, I. 50-1 [A. Schaade]; I¡ba, II. 298-9.)

ABD ALLH IBN SALM ibn al-rith al-Qaynuq (d. 43 [663/4])-81. Said to have been a rabbi of aristocratic stock before converting to Islam, he is credited with a large corpus of Judaic tales, many of which are to be found in al-abars commentary on the Qurn. He participated in the conquest of Syria and Palestine, but died in Medina. (EI2, I. 52 [J. Horovitz]; I¡ba, II. 312-3.)

ABD ALLH IBN SUMAY (d. 181 [797/8])-21. A respected traditionist of Basra. (Zabd, X. 242.)

ABD ALLH IBN THALABA al-Udhr (d. c 87 [705/6])-23. A Follower (tbi), and a 'weeper' (bakk), whose tears are said to have left permanent marks on his cheeks. A pupil of Ibn Umar and Ab Hurayra in |adth, he left a number of sayings on the subject of death. (Kshif, II. 68; Ab Nuaym, VI. 245-6; Ÿafad, XVII. 99.)

ABD ALLH IBN UBAYD IBN UMAYR al-Layth (d. 113 [731/2])-135. An early ascetic and renowned preacher of Mecca, as well as a highly-regarded traditionist who studied under Ibn Abbs. (Mashhr, 83; Ab Nuaym, III. 354-9; Ÿafad, XVII. 304-5.)

ABD ALLH IBN UMAR-15, 29, 79, 182, 245. See 'Ibn Umar'.

ABD ALLH IBN ZAMA ibn al-Aswad ibn al-Mualib al-Qurash (d. c 35 [655/6])-64, 65. A Companion, and a prolific narrator of Traditions. His father is said to have died with the idolators at the battle of Badr. (I¡ba, II. 303-4; Istb, II. 298-300.)

ABD ALLH AL-ZARRD-159. Possibly Abd Allh ibn Abn al-Zarrd, a traditionist who died in 287 (900/1) at Baghdad. (Trkh Baghdd, IX. 421.)

ABD AL-MALIK IBN MARWN (regn. 65-86 [685-705])-86-7. The fifth Umayyad caliph, remembered for administrative reforms and a number of successful campaigns against the Khrijite rebels and Byzantine encroachment.

ABD AL-RAMN IBN AL-AL IBN AL-LAJLJ-117. A traditionist of Aleppo, whose father was also a respected scholar. (Kshif, II. 160.)

ABD AL-RAMN ibn Ab Bakr al-Qurash (d. c 54 [673/4])-61, 112. The elder son of Ab Bakr, he participated in his fathers campaign in the Yamma, where he acquired some fame as an archer. (I¡ba, II. 399-401; Istb, II. 391-4.)

ABD AL-RAMN IBN AWF al-Qurash (d. 31 [652])-77, 80. One of the first to respond to the Prophets call in Mecca, he took part in the migration to Abyssinia. A wealthy merchant, he donated huge sums in charity, and was one of the council of six nominated by Umar to choose his successor, as well as being one of the ten men assured of Heaven by the Prophet while they still lived. (EI2, I. 84 [M.Th. Houtsma-W. Montgomery Watt]; I¡ba, II. 408-10.)

ABD AL-RAMN IBN YSUF-22. Unidentified: many figures with this name are recorded.

ABD AL-WID IBN ZAYD (d. c 177 [793/4])-157. A companion of al-asan al-Ba¡r and al-Drn chiefly remembered for the importance which he attached to solitude. According to Ab Nuaym, he was partially paralysed, from which affliction he was released only at the time of prayer. (Ab Nuaym, VI. 155-65; Bidya, X. 171; Massignon, Essai, 194.)

ABUL-ABBS IBN A (d. c 309 [921/2])-93. A Sufi of Baghdad and a companion of al-Junayd. He is said to have written a number of works, but these are now lost. (Sulam, 260-8.)

ABUL-ABBS AL-DNAWAR (d. c 340 [951/2])-91. A Sufi who preached at Nsbr and Samarqand. He was a companion of al Jurayr and Ab Sad al-Kharrz. (Sulam, 500-4; Ab Nuaym, X. 383.)

AB AL AL-RDHBR (d. 322 [933/4])-91. The well known Sufi of Baghdad, who also spent time in Egypt. He was associated with the circle of al-Junayd and al-Nr. He was also a |adth scholar and a jurist who studied under Ibrhm al-arb. (Qushayr, I. 185-6; Sulam, 362-9; Trkh Baghdd, I. 329-33.)

AB AMR IBN AL-AL ibn Ammr al-Mzin (d. 154 [770/1])-98. A traditionist of Basra, who was also an authority on Arabic grammar. (Mashhr, 153-4.)

AB ASHATH-11. Identified by Zabd (X. 231) as a traditionist by the name of Ibn Abd al- Mlik al-amrn.

AB AYYB AL-ANŸR, Khlid ibn Zayd al-Najjr (d. c 52 [672])-132. One of the first Medinese Muslims, present at the first 'Pledge of al-Aqaba' and host to the Prophet before the construction of the latters house. In later years he was the caliph Als governor over Medina, and died during a seige of Constantinople. His tomb remains to this day the spiritual hub of Istanbul. (EI2, I. 108-9 [E. Lvi-Provenal et al.]; I¡ba, I. 404-5.)

AB BAKR AL-KATTN-162. See 'al-Kattn.'

AB BAKR IBN ABD ALLH AL-MAZAN-114. A mistake for Bakr ibn Abd Allh al-Mazan, for whom see s.v.

AB BAKR IBN AB MARYAM al-Ghassn (d. 256 [868/9])-167. A prolific narrator of Tradition sometimes cited by al-Tirmidh, although generally considered to be unreliable (ÿaf). A well-known ascetic, who lived and taught at im¡ (Syria). (Ab Nuaym, VI. 88-91; þuaf, 262; Ÿafad, X. 230.)

AB BAKR AL-RASHD-166. A jurist of Nsbr. (Zabd, X. 438.)

AB BAKR AL-øIDDQ ibn Ab Qu|fa al-Taym (d. 13 [634])-24, 60, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71-3, 74-7, 81, 82, 114, 158, 159, 163, 185, 237, 243. A small businessman of Mecca who personally accompanied the Prophet on his emigration to Medina, Ab Bakr became the Prophets closest advisor, and after his death became the first caliph. His short reign (11/632-13/634) saw the quelling of an uprising in Central Arabia and the beginnings of the conquest of Iraq and Palestine. (EI2, I. 109-111 [W. Montgomery Watt].)

AB BURDA ibn Ab Ms al-Ashar (d. 104 [722/3])-260. A traditionist and chief judge of Kfa in the reign of Abd al-Mlik, from which post he was dismissed by al-ðajjj. (Mashhr, 104; Bidya, IX. 231; EI2 I. 693-4 [J. Schacht].)

ABUL-DARD, Uwaymir al-Khazraj (d. 32 [652/3])-14, 102, 128, 131, 225, 243, 260. A celebrated Companion of the Prophet who joined Islam sometime after the battle of Badr, whereupon he is said to have given up commerce in order to occupy himself with worship with the ahl a1-øuffa. He was one of those who gathered together the text of the Qurn during the Prophets lifetime. He died in Damascus, where he was buried, and is venerated in particular by the Sufis (EI2, I. 113-4 [A. Jeffery]; Ab Nuaym, I. 208-27.)

AB DHARR, Jundub ibn Junda al-Ghifr (d. c 32 [652/3])-102, 112, 200, 218, 259. One of the earliest Muslims, his shyness and devout temperament made him the protagonist of a rich variety of legendary material. He also transmitted a large number of Traditions: al-Bukhr and Muslim between them include thirty-one of these. (EI2, I. 114-5 [J. Robson]; Massignon, Essai, 158-9; Istb, IV. 62-5.)

AB HSHIM AL-RUMMN-19. Possibly to be identified with Ab Hshim Ya|y al-Zummn, a highly-regarded traditionist of Wsi, who died in 122 (739/40). (Zabd, X. 241; Kshif, III. 341.)

AB TIM AL-RZ, Mu|ammad ibn Idrs al-anal (d. 277 [890/1])-164. A respected scholar with a fine memory who taught Ibrhm al-arb and Ibn Abil-Duny in Baghdad. (Bidya, XI. 59; Trkh Baghdd, II. 73-8.)

AB ZIM, Salama ibn Dnr al-Madan (d. 140 [757/8])-86. An ascetic who became an important figure for the early Sufis. 'Everything which does not bring you to God', he said, 'can only bring you to destruction'. (GAS, I. 634-5; Mashhr, 79; Ab Nuaym, III. 229--59.)

AB HURAYRA al-Daws al-Yamn (d. c 58 [677/8])-32, 43, 46, 48, 97, 114, 120, 127, 131, 137, 138, 144, 146, 179, 180, 191, 199, 200, 212, 222, 224, 226, 234, 240, 249. One of the most copious narrators of Tradition, and also a model of poverty and the fear of Gods chastisement. He is said to have joined Islam during the Khaybar expedition (7/629); after which he became one of the ahl a1-øuffa. After the Prophets death he was appointed governor of Ba|rayn by Umar. (Azami, 35-7; EI2, I. 129 [J. Robson]; I¡ba, IV. 200-8.)

AB JAFAR-73. See 'Mu|ammad ibn Al.'

AB JAFAR AL-øAYDALN-160. A Sufi of Baghdad, a companion of al-Sarrj and a spiritual instructor of Ibn al Arb. He spent many years in Mecca. (Trkh Baghdd, XIV. 416.)

AB LAHAB, Abd al-Uzz ibn Abd al-Mualib (d. 2 [623/ 4])-157. A patrician of Mecca who became one of the leading persecutors of the Prophet when he made his mission public. His sons, Utba and Muattib eventually joined Islam. (EI2, I. 136-7 [W. Montgomery Watt].)

AB LULUA (d. 23 [644]-77. A slave who killed the Caliph Umar, whom, he believed, had failed to rectify a tax grievance. (Cf, e.g., Ibn Atham, II. 83-6.)

AB MUAMMAD IBN AL-23. Unidentified.

AB MS AL-ASHAR, Abd Allh ibn Qays (d. c 42 [662/3])-34, 260. Ab Ms joined Islam during the Khaybar campaign. During the caliphate of Umar he was responsible for the conquest of Khzistn, and was made governor of Basra. Later he became Als representative at the arbitration following the battle of øiffn (37/657), after which he took no further part in public life. (EI2, I. 695-6 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

AB MS AL-TAMM-105. A traditionist of Basra. (Zabd, X. 355.)

AB QAYS, Abd al-Ra|mn ibn Thbit (d. 54 [673/4])-127. A mawl of Amr ibn al-¡, he transmitted Traditions from Amr and Umm Salama; he is also reported to have been well versed in fiqh. (Kshif, III. 326.)

AB QILBA-118. Probably Abd Allh ibn Zayd al-Jarm, (d. 104 [722/3]), a traditionist of Basra, who is said to have fled to Syria to escape being made a judge. He is said to have known the caliph Umar II and Anbasa ibn Sad. (øafad, XVII. 185; Azami, 63; Mashhr, 89.)

AB SAD AL-KHARRZ, A|mad ibn s (d. 277 [890/1])-90, 91, 143, 163. An important Sufi who, according to Hujwr, was 'the first to explain the doctrine of annihilation (fan) and subsistence (baq).' He was a close companion of Dhul-Nn, Bishr al-f, and al-Sar al-Saqa, and was renowned for the emphasis he placed on ishq, the passionate love of God, and upon the scrupulous observance of the Law. (Sulam, 223-8; Hujwr, 143, Qushayr, I. 140; GAS, I. 646.)

AB SAD AL-KHUDR, Sad ibn Mlik al-Khazraj (d. c 64 [683/4] or 74 [693/4])-15, 48, 132, 207, 224, 237, 242, 244, 247, 257. A Companion who was considered too young to participate in the battle of U|ud, in which his father was killed. He related a large corpus of |adths to Ibn Abbs and Sad ibn al-Musayyib, and was buried in Medina. (I¡ba, II. 32-3; Nawaw, Tahdhb, 723-4.)

AB SAD AL-ŸAFFR-166. Unidentified.

AB SAD AL-SHAððM-166. A Sufi of the circle of al-Qushayr (who died 465 [1072]). (Zabd, X. 438.)

AB SINN, þirr ibn Murra al-Shaybn (d. 132 [749-50])-110. One of the 'weepers' (bakkn), who is recorded as having achieved sanctity through serving his family. A respected traditionist of Kfa. (Ab Nuaym, V. 91-4; Mashhr, 164; Kshif, II. 34.)

AB SULAYMN AL-DRN, Abd al-Ra|mn (d. 205 [820/1] or 215 [830/1])-12, 92, 162. Well-known to the Sufis for his piety and renunciation, he was responsible for characteristic maxims such as 'The heart is ruined when fear departs from it even for one moment', and 'The sign of perdition is the drying-up of tears'. (Qushayr, I. 96-8; Sulam, 68-73; Hujwr, 112-3; Ab Nuaym, IX. 254-80.)

AB UBAYDA AL-NJ, Bakr ibn al-Aswad (d. c 170 [786/7])-35. An ascetic, and a traditionist usually considered to be unreliable. (Ÿafad, X. 202; þuaf, 261.)

AB UMMA, Asad ibn Sahl ibn anf al-Najjr (d. 100 [718/9])-114. An early Muslim who is sometimes held to have been a Companion of the Prophet. (I¡ba, IV. 10; Mashhr, 28.)

AB UMMA AL-BHIL, Ÿudayy ibn Ajln (d. 81 [700/1] or 86 [705/6])-116, 226, 239, 246. A companion of the Prophet who related a large number of Traditions. He was sent to certain of the desert tribes, and won many converts with the aid of miracles. He later removed to im¡; according to Ibn Uyayna he was the last Companion of the Prophet to die in Syria. (I¡ba, II. 175-6; Istb, IV. 4; Mashhr, 50.)

AB UMAR ŸIB AL-SUQY-130. Unidentified.

AB YAY AL-MAZAN-95. Unidentified.

AB YAQB AL-QRI AL-DAQQ-167. Unidentified.

AB ZAKARY AL-TAYM, Ya|y (d. 200 [815/6])-21. Born in Kfa, this traditionist and Qurnic exegete travelled to Basra, Egypt and North Africa, dying in Mecca on pilgrimage. (GAS, I. 39.)

AMAD IBN ABIL-AWR, Abul-asan (d. c 230 [844/5])-162. An early Syrian exponent of Sufism, a disciple of al-Drn and a companion of Ibn Uyayna. He. is said to have thrown away his books and lived the life of a wandering ascetic. (Hujwr, 118-9; Qushayr, I. 117; Sulam, 88-92.)

AMAD IBN ANBAL (d. 241 [855])-117. The great |dth scholar after whom the anbal school of law is named. He travelled extensively in search of Traditions, of which he is said to have committed over three hundred thousand to memory. A companion of Bishr al-f and Marf al-Karkh, he was held in high regard by the Sufis, who attribute a number of miracles to him. His tomb became one of the most frequented centres of pilgrimage in Baghdad. (EI2, I. 272-7 [H. Laoust]; Ab Nuaym, IX. 161-234; Hujwr, 117-8.)

AMAD IBN ARB al-Marwaz (d. 234 [848/9])-104, 230. A traditionist who studied under Ibn Uyayna and Ab Dd al-aylis, and who was sometimes accused of sympathy with the Murjiite heresy. (Trkh Baghdd, IV. 118-9; Ar, 146-9.)

AMAD IBN KHIþRAWAYHI (d. 240 [854/5])-95. A prominent Khursn Sufi, born in Balkh, who lived and taught at Merv, where he died at the age of 95. He was a disciple of tim al-A¡amm and a companion of Ab Turb al-Nakhshab. (Sulam, 93-7; Qushayr, I. 115-6; Ÿafad, VI. 373.)

ISHA bint Ab Bakr (d. 58 [678])-9, 11, 40, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 73, 74, 79, 112, 119, 129, 146, 196. The third and most beloved wife of the Prophet. During his final illness he asked his other wives for leave to stay in her house, where he died. After his death she was involved in the revolt of al|a and al-Zubayr against the caliph Al, after which she lived quietly at Medina until she died. She was well-versed in Arab history and in poetry, and some of her verses have been preserved. (EI2, I. 307-8 [W. Montgomery Watt].)

AL-AL IBN ZIYD ibn Maar al-Adaw (d. 94 [712/3])-160. An early ascetic of Basra, who remained solitary all his life, only going out to the mosque, or to funerals or to visit the sick. He had a vision in which the world appeared to him in the shape of a misshapen hag wearing fine jewellery. (Mashhr, 90; Ab Nuaym, II. 242-9; Kshif, II. 309.)

AL IBN AB LIB (d. 40 [660])-15, 41, 61, 68, 73, 80, 81, 83-4, 101, 112, 127, 157, 158, 222. The cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, having married his daughter Fima. He was usually the Prophets standard-bearer on expeditions, and became the model of the Muslim knight for later generations. He lived a life of austerity and piety. Upon the death of Uthmn (35/656) he accepted, with some reluctance, the office of Caliph, which he held for five years disturbed by several rebellions, including that of Muwiya, the governor of Syria. He was assassinated at Kfa by a member of the extreme Khrijite sect, which repudiated him for having agreed to negotiate with Muwiya. (EI2, I. 381-6 [L. Veccia Vaglierij; Istb, III. 26-67.)

AL IBN ŸIM ibn Ÿuhayb al-Wsi (d. 201 [816/7])-168. A traditionist who taught at Baghdad. Although considered unreliable by some authorities, a number of his |adths are to be found in the Musnad of Ibn anbal. (Tarkh Baghdd, XI. 446-58; Azami, 119-20; Bidya, X. 248.)

AL IBN MS AL-ADDD-117. Unidentified.

AL AL-AL-161. Unidentified.

ALQAMA ibn Qays al-Nakha (d. c 62 [681/2])-127. A pupil of Ibn Masd, who called him the most erudite of his disciples. He also related traditions from Al, Sad ibn Ab Waqq¡ and Uthmn. (Tarkh Baghdd), XII. 296; Ab Nuaym, II. 98-102; GAS, I. 398.)

AL-AMASH, Sulaymn ibn Mihrn al-Asad (d. 147 [764/5])-55, 98, 226. A Qurn specialist of Persian origin who studied under Mujhid at Kfa. One of the fourteen canonical readings of the Qurn bears his name. In addition, Sufyn al-Thawr and Ibn Uyayna both studied |adth under him. (Azami, 101-2; Tarkh Baghdd, IX. 3-13; Mashhr, III. EI2, I. 431 [C. Brockelmann-[Ch. Pellat]].)

MINA BINT WAHB al-Zuhrya (d. c 575 AD)-101, 157. The mother of the Prophet, she died when he was about six. She was probably buried at a place known as al-Abw between Mecca and Medina. The historians record a number of miracles surrounding her pregnancy and the Prophets birth. (EI2, I. 438 [W. Montgomery Watt].)

MIR IBN ABD ALLH ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwm (d. 121 [738/9])-33. An ascetic of Medina, who is recorded as having kept his hands raised in supplication between the night and morning prayers. He is said to have died in prayer. He also transmitted a number of Traditions which are recorded by both al-Bukhr and Muslim. (Ÿafad, XVI. 589; Kshif, II. 51; Ab Nuaym, III. 166-8.)

MIR IBN ABD AL-QAYS (d. c 41-60 [661-80])-89. A tbi of Basra who died at Damascus, where he had become famous for his austere and eloquent sermons. A number of miracles are recorded of him-he is said to have lived in the desert where wild beasts came tamely to him. He was also known for his charity towards orphans. These and other aspects of his life are often cited by the Sufis. (Ab Nuaym, II. 87-95; Ÿafad, XVI. 585-6; Ibn Marthad, 37-8.)

AMR IBN AL-Ÿ al-Sahm (d. 42 [663/4])-88, 102, 211. A Companion of the Prophet and a politician and general of great skill. To him goes the credit for the conquest of Palestine (12 [633]) and Egypt (19-21 [640-2]), where he founded the city of Fus, which was to grow into Cairo. He sided with Muwiya at the battle of Ÿiffn, and represented him at the arbitration which followed. (EI2, I. 451 [A. J. Wensinck].)

AMR IBN DNR al-Juma| (d. 126 [743/4])-130. A scholar of the Law in Mecca, where he learnt the recitation of the Qurn and a number of Traditions from Ibn Abbs. (Mashhr, 84; Ab Nuaym, III. 347-54; Ghya, I. 600-1.)

AMR IBN ðAZM AL-ANŸR al-Khazraj (d. 51 [671/2])-259. A Companion who distinguished himself in the 'Battle of the Trench', and who became the Prophets governor of Najrn. A number of |adths are related on his authority by al-Nas. (I¡ba, II. 525; Kshif, II. 282.)

AMR IBN MAYMN al-Awd (d. c 74 [693/4])-77. A 'Follower' who was present at the murder of Umar, and who later moved to Kfa. He transmitted a number of |adths which have been recorded by al-Bukhr, and was much given to devotional practices. (Mashhr, 99; Ab Nuaym, IV. 148-54; Kshif, II. 296.)

ANAS ibn Mlik ibn al-Naÿr (d. 91-3 [709/10-711/2])-10, 17, 114, 119, 127, 146, 192, 196, 202, 209, 215, 224, 228, 244, 246. A celebrated Companion of the Prophet, he had been presented to the Prophet by his mother at an early age in fulfilment of a vow. After the Prophets death he participated in the wars of conquest. One hundred and twenty eight Traditions on his authority are to be found in the collections of al- Bukhr and Muslim. (I¡ba, I. 84-5; EI2, I. 482 [A. J. Wensinck- J. Robson].)

ANBASA ibn Sad (d. 100 [718/9])-12. A respected traditionist, originally of Kfa, who taught Ibn al-Mubrak and was a judge at Rayy. (Kshif, II. 304; Zabd, X. 232.)

AL-AŸBAGH AL-ðANAL, ibn Nubta-83. An unreliable traditionist of Kfa accused of Shite tendancies. (Zabd, X. 318; Uqayl, I. 129-30; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I. 362-3.)

ASHATH IBN ASLAM-50-I. Unidentified.

ŸIM IBN þAMRA (d. 174 [790/1])-235. A traditionist of Kfa, generally regarded as reliable. (Kshif, II. 45; Ghya, I. 349.)

ŸIM AL-AðWAL, ibn Sulaymn (d. c 141 [758/9] A traditionist from Basra who became chief judge of al-Madin. (Mashhr, 98; Bidya, X. 78; Ÿafad, XVI. 568.)

ŸIM AL-JAðDAR, ibn al-Ajjj (d. 129 [746/7])-114. An ascetic of Basra and an authority on the reading of the Qurn; he had his own reading which is considered one of the qirt shdhdha. (Ghya, I. 349; Ÿafad, XVI. 568; Mashhr, 94.)

AL-ASWAD-30. Possibly a reference to al-Aswad ibn Yazd al-Nakha (d. c 80 [699/700]), an ascetic who is said to have performed the Pilgrimage eighty times, and to have slept only between the sunset and night prayers. (Ab Nuaym, II. 102-5; Kshif, I. 80; Ibn Marthad, 53-5.)

A AL-KHURSN, ibn Ab Muslim (d. 135 [752/3])-10. A traditionist who was a mawl of al-Muhallab ibn Ab Ÿufra; a number of his narratives are to be found in the Ÿa|| of Muslim. (Kshif, II. 233; Bidya, X. 57; GAS, I. 33-4.)

A AL-SALM (d. 121 [738/9])-103, 160. An ascetic and traditionist of Basra. (Ab Nuaym, VI. 215-27; Mashhr, 152.)

A IBN YASR al-Hill (d. c 103 [721/2])-54, 90, 145. A Follower who spent his life in Medina and Syria. He transmitted |adths from Ab Dharr and Zayd ibn Thbit, some of which are to be found in the collections of al-Bukhr and Muslim. (Mashhr, 69; Kshif, II. 233.)

AL-AWZ, Abd al-Ra|mn ibn Amr, Ab Amr (d. 157 [774])-41, 161, 245. The principal authority on the shara in Syria of his generation, who placed especial emphasis on the 'living tradition' of the Muslim community as an authoritative source of law. His madhhab also spread in North Africa and Spain, where it was then replaced by that of Mlik. His tomb near Beirut is still visited. (EI2, I. 772-3 [J. Schacht]; GALS, I. 308-9; Fihrist, 227.)

AYYB AL-SAKHTIYN ibn Ab Tamma (d. 131 [748/9])-165. A pupil of Anas ibn Mlik, he was a reputable narrator of Traditions, and is recorded as having been particularly scrupulous about the sunna. A number of miracles are reported of him. (Mashhr, 150; Azami, 81; Ab Nuaym, III. 3-14; GAS, I. 87-8.)

BAKR IBN ABD ALLH AL-MAZAN (d. 106 [724/5] or 108 [726/7])-52. A 'Follower' of Basra, who, despite his considerable wealth, spent much time teaching and sitting with the poor. A prolific narrator of Tradition, he was known for the importance he attached to the fear of Hell. (Mashhr, 90; Ÿafad, X. 207; Ab Nuaym, II. 224-32; Kshif, I. 108.)

BAKR AL-BID, ibn Amr al-Nj (d. 108 [726/7])-103. A Follower who related |adths from isha, in particular to Qatda and ¡im al-A|wal; considered a sound authority. (Kshif, I. 108; Ab Nuaym, III. 101-2.)

BAKRN AL-DNAWAR-92. A Sufi of the circle of al-Shibl (d. 334 [945/6]). (Qushayr, I. 183.)

AL-BAR IBN ZIB al-Aws (d. c 72 [691/2])-135. A Companion of the Prophet, who is said to have taken part in all his expeditions save that of Badr, for which he was considered to be too young. Later he was set in charge of the armies which conquered Rayy and Qazwn. (EI2, I. 1025 [K. V. Zettersten]; I¡ba, I. 146-7.)


BILL ibn Rab| (d. 17-21 [638/9-642/3])-64, 89. Usually held to have been the second adult convert to Islam, Bill was born in Mecca into slavery, and was tortured by his master Umayya ibn Khalaf when he refused to renounce his new faith. He was purchased by Abu Bakr, who set him free. He became the Prophets muezzin at Medina, and later moved to Syria, where he died. (EI2, I. 1215 [W. Arafat].)

BISHR IBN AL-ðRITH 'al-ðf' (d. c 227 [841/2])-92, 162. One of the most celebrated figures of early Sufism, he was a companion of Fuÿayl ibn Iyÿ. Formerly given to riotous living, his repentance is said to have come when, in a state of inebriation, he picked up a scrap of paper on which was written the name of God, which he perfumed and put in a clean place. That night he received a dream in which God told him that He would perfume his name as a reward for his act. Many other tales of his charismatic and devout life have found their way into the classical works on Sufism. (Qushayr, I. 73-7; Hujwr, 105-6; Siyar, X. 469; Ab Nuaym, VIII. 336-60; Sulam, 33-40; EI2, I. 1244-6 [F. Meier]; Dermenghem, 67-78.)

BISHR IBN MAR al-Azd (d. 180 [796/7])-115. A Follower much given to devotional practices in private, who was a recognised authority on |adth. He lived in Basra, but is said to have spent some time in Syria. (Ÿafad, X. 156; Kshif, I. 104; Ab Nuaym, VI. 239-43.)

AL-þAððK ibn Muz|im al-Hill (d. 105 [7-23/4])-100, 115. A traditionist of Balkh (and later Merv) whose material was used by al-Bukhr, and who was particularly erudite in Qurnic exegesis. According to some authorities he met one or more of the Prophets Companions. (Mashhr, 194; Azami, 64; Ghya, I. 337.)

DD AL-, ibn Nu¡ayr (d. c 165 [781/2])-19, 23, 34, 105, 166. A companion of lbrhm ibn Adham, and an ascetic of whom many anecdotes are told in the early works on Sufism. He placed emphasis on poverty as an aid to the struggle against the lower self, gave all he had to the poor, and is said to have subsisted on a diet of barley bread and water. He was also an outstanding authority on the Law, which he studied under Ab ðanfa. (Siyar, VII. 423; Tarkh Baghdd, VIII. 347-55; Qushayr, I. 81; Ab Nuaym, VII. 335-367; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, III. 203.)

DHUL-NN al-Mi¡r, Thawbn (d. 245 [859/60])-91. Born in Upper Egypt, he travelled to Mecca and Damascus, and became a leading exponent of Sufism. It is said that he was the first to give a systematic explanation of the a|wl ('states') and maqmt ('stations') encountered on the spiritual path. A number of miracles are attributed to him, as well as some fine poetry. (EI2, II. 242 [M. Smith]; Sulam, 23-32; Qushayr, I. 58-61; Hujwr, 100-3; Massignon, Essai, 206-13.)

AL-FAþL ibn al-Abbs ibn Abd al-Mualib (d. 13 [634])-61. A Companion of the Prophet who died fighting the Byzantines at the battle of the Yarmk at the age of 22. (Mashhr, 9.)

AL-FARAZDAQ, Ab Firs Tammm ibn Ghlib, (d. c 110 [728/9])-105. A poet of Bedouin origin who wrote verse chiefly of a satirical and panegyric nature. Many of his poems are directed against his great rival Jarr. (EI2, II. 788-9 [R. Blachre].)

FIMA (d. II [632])-42, 66, 84, 113. The youngest and bestloved of the daughters of the Prophet. He once told her that 'God is angry when you are angry, and glad when you are glad'. In the year 2 she married Al ibn Ab lib in the union which was to produce al-ðasan and al-ðusayn. Her piety made her a figure greatly revered by later generations. (I¡ba, IV. 365-8; EI2, II. 841-50 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

FIMA, Umm Salama bint A|mad-91. The sister of the famous Sufi Ab Al al-Rdhbr, of an aristocratic and wealthy family; she is remembered for her sanctity and devoutness. (Tarkh Baghdd, I. 330.)

FIMA BINT ABD AL-MALIK-87, 218. The wife of the caliph Umar II and the sister of his successor Yazd II. When Umar assumed power he is said to have given away all his wealth, and asked her whether she still wished to remain with him: she chose to remain. She reported many of his secret prayers and devotions after his death. (Bidya, IX. 198-201.)

FIMA BINT AL-ðASAN-104. As Zabd points out, this is a mistake for Fima bint al-Husayn, the granddaughter of the caliph Al and of al|a ibn Ubayd Allh. She married her cousin al-ðasan ibn al-ðasan, and related a number of |adths. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, XII. 442-3.)

FUþAYL ibn Iyÿ (d. 187 [803/4].)-89. A brigand who repented and became a pioneer of early Sufism. He studied |adth under Sufyn al-Thawr and Ab ðanfa, and became wellknown for his sermons on the worthlessness of the world, which he likened to 'a madhouse, the people in which are lunatics wearing the shackles of desire and sin'. (Hujwr, 97-100; Sulam, 7-12; Mashhr, 149; EI2, II. 936 [M. Smith]; GAS, I. 636; Dermenghem, 51-66.)

FUþAYL AL-RUQSH (d. 95 [713/4])-36. A |adth scholar and ascetic of Basra, remembered for a number of fine sayings on the devotional life. (Mashhr, 98; Ab Nuaym, III. 102-3.)

ðAFøA bint Umar ibn al-Khab (d. c 45 [665/6])-79. An early Muslim who married the Prophet in the year 3. After the death of her father she inherited the copy of the Qurn prepared by the Prophets secretary Zayd ibn Thbit, which became the 'authorised version' approved by Uthmn. (I¡ba, IV. 264; EI2, III. 63-5 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

AL-ðAJJJ ibn Ysuf al-Thaqaf (d. 95 [714])-88. An Umayyad general notorious for his ruthlessness. Of humble origins, he was born near al-if, and became a policeman at Damascus. He attracted the attention of the caliph Abd al-Mlik, who put him in charge of a campaign against Ibn al-Zubayr, whom he defeated and killed at Mecca. He also fought extensively against the Khrijites. (EI2, III. 39-43 [A. Dietrich].)

AL-ðAKAM IBN AL-MUALIB al-Makhzm-94. An early traditionist of Manbij in northern Syria. (Zabd, X. 343.)

ðAMZA ibn Abd al-Mualib (d. 3 [625])-84, 113. The paternal uncle of the Prophet, he helped to arrange his first marriage. A brave warrior, his conversion greatly heartened the early Muslim community in Mecca. He was killed at the battle of U|ud by an Abyssinian slave who had been promised his freedom should he accomplish this deed. (EI2, III. 152-4 [G. M. Meredith-Owens].)

HRN AL-RASHD (regn. 170-193 [786-809])-88. Perhaps the best-known Abbsid caliph, whose cultured and sumptuous court presided nevertheless over an empire troubled by rebellion and Byzantine encroachment.

AL-ðASAN IBN AL (d. c 50 [670/1])-84, 157. Grandson of the Prophet, and second Imm of the Sha. Until the reign of Al he lived a secluded life at Medina, which was interrupted by a short period in which he claimed the Caliphate. (EI2, III. 240-3 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

AL-ðASAN al-Ba¡r (d. 110 [728/9])-11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 34, 35, 41, 46, 54, 90, 105, 164, 167, 182, 196, 227, 229, 248. Perhaps the best known personality among the second generation of Muslims, he was born in Medina and took part in the conquest of eastern Iran. He then moved to Basra, where his sanctity and great eloquence attracted great numbers to his circle. He was also a judge and an authority on |adth. His tomb at Basra remains an important centre for devout visits. (Hujwr, 86-7; Ab Nuaym, II. 131-61; Ar, 19-26; EI 2, III. 247-8 [H. Ritter].)

AL-ðASAN IBN AL-ðUSAYN-104. Probably a mistake for al-ðasan ibn al-ðasan (ibn Al ibn Ab lib), a |adth scholar who died c 97 (715/6). (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, II. 263.)

AL-ðASAN IBN ŸLIð ibn ðuyayy al-Thawr (d. 167 [783/4])-103. An ascetic of Kfa of Shite leanings, who spent all of his nights in prayer. (Mashhr, 170; Bidya, X. 150; Ab Nuaym, VII. 327-35.)

ðTIM AL-AŸAMM al-Balkh (d. 237 [851/2])-103. A disciple of the Khursn Sufi Shaqq al-Balkh, he was known as the 'Luqmn of this nation' for his wise sayings. (Hujwr, 115; Ÿafad, XI. 233-4; Sulam, 80-7; Ab Nuaym, VIII. 73-84.)

ðUDHAYFA ibn al-Yamn al-Abas (d. 36 [656/7])-8, 33, 46, 48, 146, 243. One of the earliest converts to Islam, whose father was martyred at the battle of U|ud. He is particularly revered by the Sufis. He related a considerable number of |adths, particularly those relating to eschatology: according to the sources he said that 'the Prophet told me all that would occur from the present until the Day of Judgement'. (I¡ba, I. 316-7; Massignon, Essai, 159-61; Nawaw, Tahdhb, 199-201; Ab Nuaym, I. 270-83.)

ðUDHAYFA-94. Unidentified.

AL-ðUSAYN IBN AL ibn Ab lib (d. 61 [680])-84, 159, 229. A grandson of the Prophet, who, although he acquiesced in the caliphate of Muwiya, refused to recognise his son al-Yazd upon his accession in 60 AH (680 AD). Against the advice of Ibn Abbs and Abd Allh ibn Umar, al-ðusayn marched with a handful of supporters to Kfa, where he believed that he could muster support; the Kfans, however, intimidated by Yazds governor, met him in battle at nearby Karbal, where he was slain. (EI2, III. 607-15 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

IBN ABBS, Abd Allh (d. 68 [687/8])-16, 31, 44, 72, 81, 156, 158, 178, 212, 216, 225, 241, 256, 258. A cousin and close companion of the Prophet respected for his piety and commonly acknowledged as the greatest scholar of the first generation of Muslims, a narrator of |adth and the founder of the science of Qurnic exegesis. He fought alongside Al at øiffn, and died at al-if, where the site of his grave is still visited. (Nawaw, Tahdhb, 351-4; Ab Nuaym, I. 314-29; Mashhr, 9; I¡ba, II. 322-6; EI2, I. 40-1 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

IBN AB MULAYKA, Abd Allh ibn Ubayd Allh (d. 117 [735/6])-112, 113. A prominent Follower (tbi) of Mecca who joined the revolt of Ibn al-Zubayr, who made him a judge. He is said to have met eighty Companions of the Prophet. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, V. 306; Mashhr, 82-3.)

IBN MASD, Abd Allh al-Hudhal (d. 32-3 [652/3-653/4])-14, 17, 33, 35, 46, 59, 63, 194, 201, 208, 243. Of Bedouin origin, Ibn Masd is said to have been either the third or the sixth convert to Islam; he became one of the most erudite Companions. He was particularly well versed in the recitation and interpretation of the Qurn, and was an expert in matters of law. In addition, he related a number of the most important eschatological |adths. (EI2, III. 873-5 [J.-C. Vadet]; I¡ba, II. 360-62; Istb, II. 308-16.)

IBN AL-MUBRAK-90, 166. See 'Abd Allh ibn al-Mubrak'.

IBN MULJAM, Abd al-Ra|mn al-Murd (d. 40 [661])-83, 157. The Khrijite assassin of the caliph Al, he was caught and put to death after carrying out his mission. (EI2. III. 887-90 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)

IBN AL-MUNKADIR, Mu|ammad al-Taym (d. 130 [747/8])-89. A prominent Follower and reciter of the Qurn, who transmitted a number of |adths. (Mashhr, 65; Ab Nuaym, III. 146-58.)

IBN MU-14. Possibly Abd Allh ibn Mu al-Adaw (d. 73 [692]), one of the leaders of the Medinese insurrection against Yazid I. Defeated at the battle of the ðarra in 63 (683) he became governor of Kfa for Ibn al-Zubayr, with whom he was killed at Mecca. (EI2, I. 50 [K. V. Zettersten-Ch. Pellat].)

IBN RSHID, Mu|ammad, al-Mak|l (d. c 170 [786/7])-166. A respected traditionist of Damascus, who later moved to Basra. A number of his |adths are cited by Ab Dd, al-Nas and al-Tirmidh. (Kshif, III. 37; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX. 158-60.)

IBN AL-SAMMK, Mu|ammad ibn Ÿab| (d. 183 [799/800])-107. A traditionist and preacher of Baghdad who delivered a famous sermon before Hrn al-Rashd, and who wrote to the wealthy urging them to renounce their riches in favour of poverty and the religious life. He was a disciple of Sufyn al-Thawr in |adth, and taught Ibn ðanbal. (Siyar, VIII. 291-3; Tarkh Baghdd, V. 368-73; Tajl, 364-5.)

IBN SRN, Mu|ammad, al-An¡r (d. 110 [728/9])-11, 113, 153. Born during the caliphate of Uthmn, his father was clerk to Anas ibn Mlik. He moved to Basra, where he preached in the marketplaces and where he became known as an authority on law. He is also remembered as a master interpreter of dreams, and a book on the subject is attributed to him. (Mashhr, 88; Azami, 94-5; Ab Nuaym, II. 263-82; EI2, III. 947-8 [T. Fahd]; GAS, I. 633-4.)

IBN AL-TAYYð-83. Unidentified.

IBN UMAR, Abd Allh (d. 73 [693/4])-10, 32, 70, 113, 114, 117, 130, 180, 192, 218. A Companion of the Prophet who, at the age of fourteen asked to be permitted to fight at U|ud, which permission was denied. Possessed of high moral qualities he commanded universal deference and respect. Although it is said that he was offered the caliphate on three separate occasions he kept himself aloof from politics and occupied himself instead with study and instruction. (EI2, I. 53-4 [L. Veccia Vaglieri]; I¡ba, II. 338-41; Ab Nuaym, I. 292-314.)

IBN UYAYNA, Sufyn al-Hill (d. c 198 [813/4])-161, 163. An influential |adth specialist born in Kfa and reared in Mecca, who studied under Ibn Shihb al-Zuhr. 'But for Mlik and Ibn Uyayna, al-Shfi is represented as saying, 'the knowledge of the ðijz would have been lost'. He is a principal source of |adth in the Musnad of al-ðumayd. (Mashhr, 149; GAS, I. 139; Azami, 169-70.)

IBRHM IBN ISðQ AL-ðARB (d. 285 [898/9])-161. A grammarian, historian and traditionist of Baghdad, an important disciple of Ibn ðanbal, and an admirer of Bishr al-ðf. His book on the Pilgrimage has recently been published. (Ÿafad, V. 320-4; Bidya, X. 297; Zabd, X. 434.)

IBRHM AL-NAKHA, ibn Yazd (d. c 96 [714/5])-89. A devout and learned scholar of Kfa who opposed the writing of |adth as an unjustified innovation. He studied under al-ðasan al-Ba¡r and Anas ibn Mlik, and taught Ab ðanifa, who may have been influenced by his extensive use of personal judgement (ray) in matters of jurisprudence. (Mashhr, 101; Azami, 65-6; Ghya, I. 29.)

IBRHM AL-TAYM, ibn Yazd (d. c 93 [711/2])-11. An ascetic of Kfa who is said to have placed great emphasis on 'short hopes' (qi¡ar al-amal). He figures in many hortatory tales with his father, Yazd ibn Shark. A respected traditionist, he taught al-Amash, and use is made of his |adths by al-Bukhr and Muslim. (Ab Nuaym, IV. 210-19; Mashhr, 101; Kshif, I. 50)

IBRHM AL-ZAYYT-98. Unidentified.

IKRIMA, mawl Ibn Abbs (d. c 105 [723-4])-44. Said to have been of Berber origin, he was a manumitted slave of Ibn Abbs, whose exegesis of the Qurn he passed on to Mujhid. Although accused of Khrijite sympathies, he is regarded as a reliable authority on |adth. (Azami, 66-7; Ghya, I. 515; EI2, III. 1081-2 [J. Schacht]; Ab Nuaym, III. 326-47.)

JBIR ibn Abd Allh al-Khazraj al-An¡r (d. 68-78 [687/8-697/8])-32, 129, 150, 157, 237. A Companion of the Prophet whose father died at the battle of U|ud. He participated in nineteen of the expeditions of the Prophet, and related a sizeable number of Traditions. (I¡ba, I. 214-5; Nawaw, Tahdhb, 184-6; Mashhr, II.)

JBIR IBN WADA-50. Unidentified.

JBIR IBN ZAYD al-Azd (d. 93 [711/21)-46. Usually known as Abul-Shath. A Basran authority on the shara and the interpretation of the Qurn, and a leader of the Ibÿ branch of the Khrijite movement. He was a pupil of Ibn Abbs, and related |adths to Qatda. (Kshif, I. 121; Ab Nuaym, III. 85-92; Mashhr, 89.)

JAFAR ibn Ab lib (d. 8 [629])-84. A cousin of the Prophet and the elder brother of Al. It was he that led the emigration to Abyssinia, whence he returned in time for the Khaybar expedition (7/628). He was known as 'Abul-Maskn' because of his concern for the poor. (EI2, II. 372 [L. Veccia Vaglieri]; Istb, I. 211-4.)

JAFAR IBN MUðAMMAD ibn Al ibn al-ðusayn, 'al-Ÿdiq' (d. 148 [765])-102, 113. A major authority on law and |adths, he taught both Ab ðanifa and Mlik. His austere and saintly life made him an important ideal for the Sufis, who gathered large numbers of sayings attributed to him. He was later made into the seventh Imm of the Sha: the Jafarya sect is named after him. (EI2, II. 374-5 [M.G.S. Hodgson]; Mashhr, 127; Ab Nuaym, III. 192-206; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, II. 104.)

JAFAR IBN NUŸAYR al-Khuld (d. 348 [959/60])-92. (Correct name: Jafar ibn Mu|ammad ibn Nu¡ayr al-Khuld.) A major Sufi of Baghdad, a companion of Ruwaym, al Junayd and al-Nr, who spent much of his life engaged in extensive travels. He left a number of aphorisms which are much quoted in the classical works on Sufism. (GAS, I. 661; Qushayr, I. 178; Hujwr, 156-7; Tarkh Baghdd, VII. 226-31; Ab Nuaym, X. 381.)

JAFAR IBN SAD-132. As Zabd remarks (X. 394) this is probably an error for 'Jafar an Sad' (ibn al-Musayyib), a reference to Jafar ibn Sulaymn (d. 178 [794/5]), a Shite traditionist and ascetic of Basra. (Kshif, I. 129; Bidya, X. 173; Mashhr, 159.)

AL-JðI (d. 255 [868/9])-165. One of the finest Arabic prose stylists, he left a wealth of elegant and witty books, such as the Animals and the Misers which have furnished much information about early Islamic society. Although originally of Basra he wrote principally in Baghdad. In addition to his literary tastes he was a theologian of the Mutazilite school. (C. Pellat, Le Milieu basrien et la formation de ß|i.)

JARR IBN ABD ALLH al-Bajal (d. 51 [671/2])-240, 250, 255. A Companion of the Prophet. Of an aristocratic family, he was renowned for his handsomeness. A number of |adths were related by him. (Mashhr, 44; Kshif, I. 126.)

JARR ibn Aya al-Khaaf (d. 110 [728-9])-98. With al-Farazdaq and al-Akhal, Jarr represents the last flowering of the Bedouin poetic tradition. His work is composed primarily of panegyrics, and ruthless broadsides directed against his rival al Farazdaq. (GALS, II. 53-5.)

AL-JUNAYD, Abul-Qsim ibn Mu|ammad (d. 298 [910/11])-90, 91, 92, 93, 160, 162, 165. The best known of the Sufis of Baghdad. A nephew and disciple of al-Sar al-Saqa, he vowed that would not teach during the latters lifetime out of deference to his preceptor; however he received a vision of the Prophet, who told him that 'God shall make your words the salvation of a multitude of mankind'; he then began to teach. His gatherings 'were attended by jurists and philosophers (attracted by his precise reasoning), theologians (drawn by his orthodoxy) and Sufis (for his discoursing upon the Truth)'. In addition, he was an authority on theology and law, in which he followed the school of Ab Thawr. (Sulam, 141-50; GAS, I. 647-50; EI2, II. 600 [A. J. Arberry]; A. H. Abdel-Kader, The Life, Personality and Writings of al-Junayd.)

AL-JURAYR (d. 311 [923/4])-90. A companion of Junayd, sometimes said to have been his successor. He was also a theologian and a jurist. (Hujwr, 148; Qushayr, I. 166-7; Sulam, 253-9; Tarkh Baghdd, IV. 430-4.)

KAB al-A|br, ibn Mti al-ðimyar (d. 32 [652/3] or 34 [654/5])-11, 42, 113, 129, 134, 182, 248. A rabbi from the Yemen who converted to Islam during the caliphate of Umar. (EI2, IV. 316-7 [M. Schmitz]; Mashhr, 118.)

AL-KATTAN, Mu|ammad ibn Al (d. 322 [933/4]-94, 162. A Baghdad Sufi of the circle of al Junayd and al-Kharrz; he spent much of his life in Mecca, where he died. (Sulam, 386-91; Tarkh Baghdd, III. 74-6; Ab Nuaym, X. 357-8; Ar, 253-6.)

KHADJA BINT KHUWAYLID (d. 3 BH [619])-84. The first wife of the Prophet. She was a businesswoman of Mecca, and married him after having been impressed with his efficiency and honesty in the matter of a caravan to Syria which he had supervised for her. (EI2, IV. 898-9 [W. Montgomery Watt].)

KHAYTHAMA ibn Abd al-Ra|man al-Kf (d. c 80 [699/700])-55. A traditionist who studied under Abd Allh ibn Amr and Al. A wealthy man, he is said to have given lavish banquets for the poor. (Mashhr, 103; Ab Nuaym, IV. 113-126.)

LUQMN-37. A sage of pre-Islamic Arabia who figures prominently in Arab legend and proverbs. He is shown in the Qurn as a monotheist giving advice to his son. (EI2, V. 811-3 [B. Heller-[N. A. Stillman]].)

AL-MAGHZIL-94. Possibly a reference to Bann ibn Ya|y al-Maghzili (d. 264 [877/8]), a traditionist. (Tarkh Baghdd, VII. 99-100.)

MAJNN-164. The protagonist of a Bedouin love story. A shepherd, he falls in love with the girl Layl. When he loses her he turns mad, wandering in the desert and communing with wild beasts. The tale was later turned into a symbol of the Sufi love of God. (EI2, V. 1102-7 [C. Pellat et al.].)

MAKL, Ab Abd Allh al-Dimashq (d. 112 [730/1])-42, 97. A prisoner of war taken at Kabul and given to an Egyptian woman, who set him free. He later became one of the more prominent jurists of Damascus, where he influenced al-Awz. (Kshif, III. 152; Fihrist, 227; Mashhr, 114.)

MLIK IBN ANAS al-A¡ba| (d. 179 [795/6])-131, 164, 229. The founder of one of the four main schools of Islamic law. Born into a family of |adth scholars at Medina, he studied the recitation of the Qurn with Nfi and heard |adths from al-Zuhr and Ibn al-Munkadir. He taught al-Shfi, al-Thawr and Ibn al-Mubrak. His book, the Muwaa, is the earliest surviving work of Muslim law, and places great emphasis on the actual practice of Islam in Medina in Mliks time. (SEI, 320-4 [J. Schacht].)

MLIK IBN DNR al-Nj (d. 131 [748/9]-34, 98, 106. An ascetic of Basra who made a living by copying the Qurn. A companion of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r, he was credited with a number of miracles, including the ability to walk on water. (Mashhr, 90; Hujwr, 89-90; Ghya, II. 36; Ab Nuaym, II. 357-88.)

AL-MAMN (regn. 198-218 [813-833])-88. The caliph who presided over the zenith of Abbasid civilisation. He led a number of successful campaigns against the Byzantines and provincial rebels. His adoption of Mutazilite theology may have been an attempt to reconcile both the Sha and the emerging Sunni orthodoxy to the ruling dynasty.

MANŸR IBN ISML al-Maghrib-159. A Sufi who taught al- Qushayr. (Zabd, X. 433.)

MARF AL-KARKH, ibn Frz (d. 200-1 [815/6-816/7])-24. One of the major early Sufis. His parents are said to have been Christians. He was a major influence on al-Sar al-Saqa, but also instructed Ibn anbal in |adths. His grave, restored in 1312 AH, is an important focus of the religious life of Baghdad, and many miraculous cures are said to be worked there. (Hujwr, 113-5; Sulam, 74-9; Qushayr, I. 65-8; Ibn al-Jawz, Manqib Marf al-Karkh wa-akhbruhu.)

MARWN ibn al-akam (regn. 64-5 [684-5])-46. An Umayyad caliph whose reign stands out only for his defeat of the forces of the rebel Ibn al-Zubayr at the battle of Marj Rhi.

MASRQ ibn al-Ajda (d. 63 [682/3])-127. Chiefly resident in Kfa, he was a respected traditionist and 'Follower' who taught Ibrhm al-Nakha. He is said to have fought on the side of Al against the Khrijites. (Mashhr, 101; Tarkh Baghdd, XIII. 232-5; Kshif, III. 120.)

AL-MAS, al-ðasan ibn Al-163. A Sufi who was a follower of Bishr al-ðf and who taught al-Jurayr. It is said that he was the first to give lessons on Sufism in Baghdad. Having no house, he slept in the portico of a mosque. (Tarkh Baghdd, VII. 366-67; Ab Nuaym, X. 322.)

MAYMN IBN MIHRN al-Jazar (d. c 117 [735/6])-104. An ascetic of Raqqa on the upper Euphrates, he was a pupil of alasan al-Ba¡r and a traditionist who became secretary to the caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Azz. (Mashhr, 117; Bidya, IX. 314; Ab Nuaym, IV. 82-97.)

MUDH IBN JABAL al-Khazraj (d. c 18 [639/401)-29, 88. An early convert to Islam, he became well versed in fiqh in a short space of time. He was the Prophets governor of the Yemen, and died in Syria. (I¡ba, III. 406-7; Mashhr, 5.)

MUWIYA IBN AB SUFYN ibn ðarb ibn Umayya (regn. 40-60 [661-80])-85, 86, 158. The first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, able and astute, he continued the conquests of his predecessors.

MUBASHSHIR IBN ISML AL-ðALAB (d. 200 [815/6])-117. A traditionist of Aleppo who studied under al-Awz and taught a number of Iraq scholars. He is usually accounted a reliable authority. (Kshif, III. 104; Bidya, X. 247.)

AL-MUFAþþAL IBN FAþLA (d. 181 [797/8])-19. A somewhat unreliable traditionist of Basra, remembered for his love of prayer. (Ab Nuaym, VIII. 321-3; Kshif, III. 150; þuaf, 226.)

AL-MUGHRA IBN SHUBA al-Thaqaf (d. 50 [670/1])-78. A Companion of the Prophet. He took part in a number of the early conquests, and lost an eye at the battle of Yarmk. The caliph Umar made him governor of Basra and then of Kfa; he subsequently retired from politics until it became clear that Muwiya had won, when he again assumed the governorship of the latter city. (I¡ba, III. 432-3.)

MUðAMMAD IBN AB TAWBA-24. Unidentified.

MUðAMMAD IBN AðMAD AL-MARWAZ-117. Probably a reference to a certain Shfiite jurist and ascetic of this name who died at Merv in 371 (981/2). (Tarkh Baghdd, I. 314.)

MUðAMMAD IBN AL ibn al-ðusayn ibn Al ibn Ab 1ib, 'al-Bqir'. (d. c 114 [732/3])-84, 137. The father of the traditionist Jafar al-Ÿdiq, he taught al-Zuhr and al-Awz. He was later made into the fifth Imam of the Sha. (Mashhr, 62; Kshif, III. 71.)

MUðAMMAD IBN AL-ðUSAYN-84. Unidentified.

MUðAMMAD IBN KAB AL-QURA (d. 108 [726/7] or 118 [736/7])-138, 228. A Follower (tbi) of Kfa (later of Medina) much given to worship and the recitation of the Qurn. He related a number of |adths to Ibn al-Munkadir. (Ab Nuaym, III. 212-21; Mashhr, 65; Ghya, II. 233.)

MUðAMMAD IBN AL-MUNKADIR-145, 157. See 'Ibn alMunkadir'.

MUðAMMAD IBN QUDMA AL-JAWHAR (d. 237 [851/21])-117. A traditionist of Baghdad who studied under Ibn Uyayna. His reliability is sometimes questioned. (Zabd, X. 370; Kshif, III. 80.)

MUðAMMAD IBN ŸABð-133. See 'Ibn al-Sammk'.

MUðAMMAD IBN SULAYMN ibn Al ibn Abd Allh ibn Abbs (d. 173 [789/90])-110. A traditionist of doubtful reliability who was governor of Basra for a period. (Bidya, X. 103, 162-3; Uqayl, IV. 73.)

MUðAMMAD AL-S, ibn Aslam (d. 242 [856/7])-166. A traditionist said to have been one of the first to write on the subject of weak |adths. He was known for the sermons he preached against the Murjiite heresy. (Ÿafad, II. 204; Ab Nuaym, IX. 237-54; Bidya, X. 344.)

MUðAMMAD IBN WSI al-Azd (d. 127 [744/5])-47, 115, 160. An early |adth scholar noted for his asceticism. His statement, 'I never saw anything without seeing God therein' was much discussed by later Sufis. He fought under Qutayba ibn Muslim during the conquest of Transoxiana, and later became a judge. (Hujwr, 91-2; Ab Nuaym, II. 345-57; Ghya, II. 274; Mashhr, 151.)

MUðAMMAD IBN UQBA-86. A qÿ and traditionist. (Zabd; X. 322; Kshif, III. 70; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IX. 347.)

MUðAMMAD IBN YSUF-22. Possibly a reference to Mu|ammad ibn Ysuf ibn Yaqb, a chief judge of Baghdad (d. 320 [932/3]), known for his retiring disposition and friendship with the traditionist Ibn Man. (Ÿafad, V. 245-6; Bidya, XI. 76.)

MUJHID ibn Jabr al-Makk (d. 104 [722/3])-40, 102, 132, 194, 245, 249. Sometimes considered the most learned authority among the 'Followers' (tbin) on the exegesis of the Qurn, which he learnt from Ibn Abbs, he was particularly concerned to establish the circumstances under which each verse had been revealed. He was also respected for his austere and pious lifestyle. (Mashhr, 82; Fihrist, 33; Ghya, II. 41-2; Ab Nuaym, III. 279-310.)

MUJAMMI ibn Ÿamghn al-Taym-160. An ascetic of Kfa who associated with Sufyn al-Thawr. He is recorded as having been a person of simplicity and generosity, who would unhesitatingly allow strangers lodging in his house. (Ab Nuaym, V. 89-91.)

MUMSHD AL-DNAWAR (d. 299 [911/2])-91, 94. A Sufi of the circle of lbn al Jall. (Ab Nuaym, X. 252-4; Sulam, 318-20.)

AL-MUNDHIR ibn Mlik al-Abd (d. 108 [726/61)-34. A respected traditionist of Basra, who was present at the death of alasan al-Ba¡r. (Ab Nuaym, III. 97-101; Kshif, III. 154.)

AL-MUNTAŸIR ibn al-Mutawakkil (regn. 247-8 [861-2])-88. An Abbasid caliph, who came to power after inducing the Turkish palace guards to assassinate his father.

MUQTIL ibn Sulaymn al-Azd (d. 150 [767/8])-175. A theologian and exegete from Balkh in Cental Asia who taught principally in Baghdad. He knew a large amount of Jewish lore, and compiled a commentary on the Qurn. (GAS, I. 60; Tarkh Baghdd, XIII. 160-9; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, X. 284.)

MS IBN ðAMMD-168. Unidentified.

AL-MUTAMIR IBN SULAYMN al-Taym (d. 187 [802/3])-50, 94. An ascetic and a reliable traditionist of Basra who associated with al-ðasan al-Ba¡r. His father, Sulaymn ibn Tarkhn (d. 143 [760/1]) was also a |adth scholar. (Mashhr, 161; Ibn Qutayba, Marif, 240.)

MUTAMMIM AL-DAWRAQ-159. Unidentified.

MUARRIF IBN ABD ALLH IBN AL-SHIKHKHR al-mir (d. c 87 [806/7])-12, 18. An ascetic and a traditionist of Basra. Many miracles and famous prayers are attributed to him. (Mashhr, 88; Ab Nuaym, II. 198-212; Kshif, III. 132.)

MUARRIF ibn Maqil al-Tamm-11. A traditionist who studied under Ibn Srn. (Zabd, X. 231.)

MUARRIF IBN AB BAKR AL-HUDHAL-118. An early ascetic of Basra. (Zabd, X. 373; Massignon, Essai, 164.)

AL-MUTAŸIM (regn. 218-27 [833-42])-88. An Abbasid caliph, remembered for his victory over the Byzantines at Amorium and his regularising of the use of Turkish palace guards.

NFI, mawla ibn Umar. (d. 119 [737])-113, 114. An important |adth scholar of Medina, who studied under Ibn Umar and Ab Hurayra, and who taught Mlik ibn Anas and al-Layth ibn Sad. (Mashhr, 80; Kshif, III. 174.)

NAŸR ibn arf al-Bhil-90. An unreliable traditionist accused by Ibn al-Mubrak of 'Qadarite' leanings. (Uqayl, IV. 296-8.)

AL-NAŸRABADH, Ibrhm ibn Mu|ammad (d. c 367 [977/8]) -165. A Sufi of Khursn, who associated with al-Shibl and Ab Al al-Rdhbr. He was also a prolific traditionist. (Qushayr, I. 222-3; Sulam, 511-5; GAS, I. 663; Hujwr, 159-60.)

AL-NUMN IBN BASHR al-Khazraj (d. c 74 [693/4])-131. A Companion of the Prophet who became governor of ðim¡ for Yazd I. He was killed by the populace of the latter city when he tried to raise support for the rebellion of Ibn al-Zubayr. (I¡ba, III. 529-30; EI, III. 952-3 [K. V. Zettersten].)

AL-NR, Abul-ðusayn (d. 295 [907/8])-95. An important Sufi of the Baghdad school. A companion of al-Junayd, he left a number of poems on Divine love. (Sulam, 151-8; GAS, I. 650; Tarkh Baghdd, V. 130; Ar, 221-30; Ernst, 97-101.)

QABŸA IBN UQBA al-Kf (d. 215 [830/1])-164. A traditionist and exegete who studied under Sufyn al-Thawr and taught Ibn ðanbal and Ibn Ab Shayba. A number of |adths related on his authority are given by al-Bukhr. (GAS, I. 40-1; Tarkh Baghdd, XII. 473-6; Bidya, X. 269.)

AL-QAQ IBN AMR al-Tamm-71. A noted warrior who distinguished himself at the battle of al-Qdisya. The story of his presence at the Prophets death is usually regarded as a fiction. (Istb, III. 252; I¡ba, III. 230.)

AL-QAQ IBN ðAKM al-Kinn-23. A pious and highlyregarded traditionist of the second generation of Muslims, who related |adths from Ab Hurayra and Ibn Umar. (Mashhr, 77; Kshif, II. 346; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VIII. 383.)

QATDA ibn Dima al-Ba¡r (d. 117 [735/6]-182. Although blind from birth, he became an authority on the exegesis of the Qurn. He was an associate of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r, and is sometimes accused of Mutazilite sympathies. (Fihrist, 34; Mashhr, 96; GAS, I. 31-2; Massignon, Essai, 200.)

RBIA AL-ADAWYA, bint Isml (d. 185 [801/2])-116. The most famous woman Sufi. It is said that she was stolen as a child and sold into slavery, but was released on account of her piety. She lived for a time in the desert, where she was fed miraculously by God. She later moved to Basra, where she taught Sufyn al-Thawr and Shaqq al-Balkh, emphasising the importance of divine love. She left a number of fine prayers. (M. Smith, Rabia the Mystic and her Fellow-Saints in Islam.)

AL-RAB IBN KHUTHAYM (or'KHAYTHAM'), al-Thawr (d. c 63 [682/3])-11, 12, 103. A pupil of Ibn Abbs and a famous ascetic of Kfa. Constantly ill with a form of palsy, he became for later generations a symbol of endurance in the face of suffering. He emphasised the importance of silence, scrupulousness in religious observance, and the fear of Hell. Many traditions in the collection of al-Bukhr are given on his authority. (Mashhr, 99-100; Ghya, I. 283; Ab Nuaym, II. 105-19; Kshif, I. 235; Ibn Marthad 41-3.)

AL-RAB IBN SULAYMN al-Murd (d. c 270 [883/4])-166. A pupil of al-Shfi, and his messenger to Ibn ðanbal when this latter had been incarcerated by al-Mamn. He was also the muezzin of the mosque of Amr in Egypt. (Kshif, I. 236; Bidya, X. 162, 331.)

RUWAYM ibn A|mad al-Baghdd (d. 303 [915/6]-90, 94. A Sufi of the circle of al-Junayd, who stressed the importance of tajrd (divestment from worldly attachments). He is said to have written books on Sufism. Additionally, he was a noted expert on the exegesis of the Qurn, and an adherent of the literalist hri school of law. (Hujwr, 135-6; Qushayr, I. 144-6; Ab Nuaym, X. 296-302.)

SAD ibn Ab Waqq¡ al-Murr (d. 50 [670/1] or 55 [674-5])-80. One of the ten Companions assured of Heaven by the Prophet, he distinguished himself particularly as a brilliant politician and soldier. To him goes the credit for the defeat of the Persians at al-Qdisya (16/637), one of historys most decisive battles, and the subsequent founding of Kfa as a military base. He remained governor of that city until the year 20 [640/1] when he was recalled to Medina following allegations, not credited by the Caliph, of misrule. Umar later made him one of the six men who were to choose the new caliph. (SEI, 482 [K. V. Zettersten].)

SAD IBN BILL-255. According to Zabd this is a mistake for Bill ibn Sad (d. c 120 [737/8], an ascetic and preacher of Damascus who was also regarded as the greatest Syrian authority on the readings of the Qurn at that time. (Ÿafad, X. 277; Kshif, I. 111; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, I. 503.)

SAD IBN MUDH al-Aws (d. 5 [626])-146, 150. The head of an important clan at Medina, he was an early and enthusiastic convert. During the Battle of the Trench he was wounded, and after the fighting had subsided was asked by the Prophet to pass judgement on the Jewish clan of Quraya, which had been accused of dealing secretly with the enemy. He found them guilty, and sentenced their menfolk to death and their women and children to slavery. He himself died shortly afterwards. (SEI, 482-3 [K. V. Zettersten]); Istb, II. 25-30.)

øAFYA bint ðuyayy ibn Akhab (d. 50 [670/1] or 52 [672/3])-11. A Jewish woman who joined Islam and married the Prophet following the Khaybar expedition. She became particularly close to his daughter Fima and showed great devotion to the Prophet, particularly during his final illness. (SEI, 487-8 [V. Vacca].)

SAHL AL-øULK ibn Mu|ammad (d. 404 [1013/4])-166. A prominent Shfi jurist of Nsbr, whose classes were regularly attended by over five hundred students, among whom was the great traditionist al-ðkim. He is said to have written on theology and literature. (Subk, IV. 393; Ÿafad, XVI. 12-13; Zabd, X. 438.)

SAD IBN ABD ALLH ibn Jurayj-61. A traditionist who taught al-Amash. (Kshif, I. 289; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IV. 51.)

SAD IBN ABD ALLH AL-AWD-116. Unidentified.

SAD IBN ABD AL-RAðMN al Juma| (d. 176 [792/3])18. A respected traditionist who became Hrn al-Rashds chief judge at Baghdad. A number of traditions in the Ÿa|| of Muslim are given on his authority. (Ÿafad, XV. 237; Kshif, I. 290; Ghya, I. 306.)

SAD IBN AL-MUSAYYIB al-Makhzm (d. 93-4 [711/2-712/3])-75, 249. A major genealogist and legal expert of Medina, held by some to have been the most erudite of the second Muslim generation. He refused to marry his devout and learned daughter to the caliph al-Wald ibn Abd al-Mlik, for which he was flogged. (Ab Nuaym, II. 161-76; Hujwr, 87; Mashhr, 63.)

ŸLIð IBN BASHR al-Murr (d. c 172 [788/9])-160. A 'weak' traditionist of Basra who studied under Ibn Srn and Yazd al-Ruqsh. Famed for his sermons, he was invited to Baghdad to preach before the caliph al-Mahd. (Ÿafad, XVI. 252; Bidya, X. 170; þuaf, 136; Ab Nuaym, VI. 165-77.)

ŸLIð AL-MURR-132. See previous notice.

ŸLIð IBN MISMR al-Marwaz (d. 246 [860/1])-92. A traditionist who learnt |adths from Ibn Uyayna; some of his material is incorporated in the Ÿa|| of Muslim. (Kshif, II. 22.)

SALMN AL-FRIS (d. 36 [656/7])-19, 74, 89, 240. 'Salmn the Good.' A Persian convert to Islam who became one of the most celebrated Companions of the Prophet. It was upon his counsel that the famous 'Fosse' was dug to defend the city from the Meccan army. Later he participated in the conquest of Iraq. His asceticism and devotion to the Prophet made him an ideal for later generations, and in particular the Sufis, to whom he is held to have transmitted much of the Prophets esoteric knowledge. (I¡ba, II. 60-1; Ab Nuaym, I. 185-208; SEI, 500-1 [G. Levi della Vida].)

SAMURA ibn Jundub al-Fazr (d. 51-60 [671/2-679/80])-219. A Companion of the Prophet who transmitted a number of Traditions used by al-Bukhr and Muslim. He served as governor of Basra and then of Kfa for a short period. (GAS, I. 84-5; Mashhr, 38.)

AL-SAR AL-SAQA, ibn al-Mughallis (d. c 251 [865/6])-93. The maternal uncle of al Junayd, and one of the first to present Sufism in a systematised fashion. According to Hujwr, his conversion to Sufism was instigated by the Baghdad saint ðabb al-R, who, upon being given a crust of bread by al-Sar, said, 'May God reward you!' 'From that time on', al-Saqa later remarked, 'my worldly affairs never prospered again'. He was perhaps the most influential disciple of Marf al-Karkh. (EI, IV. 171 [L. Massignon]; Tarkh Baghdd, IX. 187-62; J. al-Murbi, al-Sar al-Saqa; Dermenghem, 115-28.)

SAWDA bint Zama al-Qurashya (d. 54 [673/4])-178. The second wife of the Prophet, she was one of the earliest converts to Islam. She is remembered for her charitable and amiable temperament. (SEI, 503-4 [V. Vacca].)

SHADDD IBN AWS (d. 58 [677/8])-41. A Medinese companion of the Prophet whose father died at the battle of Badr. He narrated a number of |adths, and is buried at Jerusalem. (I¡ba, II. 138; Nawaw, Tahdhb, 312; Mashhr, 50.)

AL-SHFI, Mu|ammad ibn Idrs al-Qurash (d. 204 [820])-95, 166, 168. The founder of the Shfiite school of Islamic law. Although born in Gaza he was brought up with a Bedouin tribe, which gave him a good grounding in poetry and the Arabic language. He later studied fiqh with Sufyn ibn Uyayna and Mlik ibn Anas, developing a legal theory that stood halfway between literalism and personal opinion. He travelled extensively in Iraq and Egypt, where he died; his tomb is today one of the centres of Cairene religious life. (GAS, I. 484-90; Tarkh Baghdd, II. 56-73; SEI, 512-5 [W. Heffening].)

SHAQQ AL-BALKH, al-Azd (d. 194 [809/10])-19. One of the founders of the Khursn school of Sufism, he was the disciple of the ascetic Ibrhm ibn Adham. He was known for his discourses on the nearness of the Resurrection and the importance of reliance (tawakkul) upon God. He was also a noted scholar of the shara. (Qushayr, I. 85-7; Ab Nuaym, VIII. 58-73; Sulam, 54-9; Hujwr, 111-2.)

AL-SHIBL, ibn Ja|dar (d. 334 [945/6])-92, 93, 164. Formerly a chamberlain at the Caliphs palace, he converted to Sufism and became a follower of al-Junayd, whose teachings he later communicated to al-Na¡rbdh. Well-known for his acts of asceticism and renunciation, it is said that he put salt in his eyes to stay awake for his nocturnal devotions. He was also an authority on the Mlikite school of law. His tomb at Baghdad is still venerated. (Qushayr, I. 159-60; Sulam, 340-55; Hujwr, 155-6; Tarkh Baghdd, XIV. 389-97; EI, IV.. 360-1 [L. Massignon]; Dermenghem, 201-30.)

ŸILA IBN ASHYAM al-Adaw (d. 76 [695/6])-100. A Follower (tbi) of Basra who fought in the conquest of Sijistn and Ghazna, where he was killed. He was known for his gentle sermons and advice. (Ab Nuaym, II. 237-42; Mashhr, 89; Bidya, IX. 15.)

AL-SUDD-33. Two men with this nisba are commonly recorded: (i) Isml ibn Abd al-Ra|mn, 'al-Sudd al-Kabr' (d. 127 [744/5], an exegete of Kfa (Mashhr, III; Siyar, V. 264: GAS. I. 32-3); (ii) Mu|ammad ibn Marwn, 'al-Sudd al-Ÿaghr' an early traditionist of Kfa who lived in Baghdad and taught al-A¡ma. (Tarkh Baghdd, III. 291-3; Siyar, V. 265.)

SUFYN-103, 146. See next notice.

SUFYN AL-THAWR, ibn Sad (d. 161 [777/8])-162, 163, 164, 166, 168. A scholar and well-known saint of Kfa, of whom a great number of anecdotes are recorded. He was one of the 'Eight Ascetics,' who included (usual list) mir ibn Abd Qays, Ab Muslim al-Khawln, Uways al-Qaran, al-Rab ibn Khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yazd, Masrq, and al-ðasan al-Ba¡r. It is said that he was offered high office under the Umayyads but consistently declined. (Fihrist, 225; Ab Nuaym, VI. 356-93, VH. 3-144; EI, IV. 500-2 [M. Plessner].)

SUFYN IBN UYAYNA-157. See 'Ibn Uyayna'.

ŸUHAYB ibn Sinn, 'al-Rm' (d. c 38 [658/9]-251. An Arab from the Mosul region captured and enslaved as a child by Byzantine raiders. He was brought up in the Byzantine empire, and then taken to Mecca and sold. Here he joined the new Muslim community at the house of al-Arqam, and was persecuted for his faith until he made the Emigration to Medina in the company of Al. (Ÿafad, XVI. 335-8; I¡ba, II. 188-9; Ab Nuaym, I. 151-6.)

SUðAYM-33. Possibly a reference to Su|aym al-Madan, a reputable traditionist who studied under Ab Hurayra and taught Ibn Shihb al-Zuhr. (Kshif, I. 274; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, III. 454.)

SULAYMN IBN ABD AL-MALIK (regn. 97-99 [715-7])-21. An Umayyad caliph remembered for his gluttony and licentiousness.

SULAYMN IBN SUðAYM al-Madan-114. A traditionist who taught Ibn Uyayna; some of his |adths are to be found in the collection of Muslim. He died during the reign of al-Man¡r. (Kshif, I. 314; Tbin, I. 95; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, IV. 193.)

AL-ŸUNBIð, Abd al-Ra|mn al-Murd (d. 70-80 [689/90699/700])-256. A Yemenite who went to Medina to meet the Prophet but who arrived five days after his death. He later moved to Syria, where he gained the confidence and respect of the caliph Abd al-Mlik. (Mashhr, III; Ab Nuaym, V. 129-31; Kshif, II. 157.)

ALðA ibn Ubayd Allh al-Qurash (d. 36 [656-7])-80. One of the ten Companions assured of Paradise by the Prophet; called 'one of the pillars of Islam' by Umar. He distinguished himself at the Battle of U|ud, where he personally defended the Prophet. One of the six men chosen to elect Umars successor, he was killed at the Battle of the Camel at the age of 64. His grave is still visited at Basra. (I¡ba, II. 220-2; Mashhr, 7.)

THBIT AL-BUNN, ibn Aslam (d. 127 [744/5])-49, 98, 104. A Follower (tbi) of Basra who kept the company of Anas ibn Mlik for forty years. One of the 'Weepers', he was much given to prayer and other devotional acts. A number of |adths are related on his authority. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, II. 2-4; Mashhr, 89; Ab Nuaym, II. 318-33.)

THAWBN ibn Yu|dad (d. 54 [673/4])-218, 242. A slave purchased and freed by the Prophet, whom he served until the latters death. He later removed to ðim¡, where he died. The |adth collection of Muslim contains material given on his authority. (I¡ba, I. 205; Mashhr, 50; Kshif, I. 119.)

AL-THAWR-18, 19, 23, 164. See 'Sufyn al-Thawr.'

THUMMA IBN ðAZN AL-QUSHAYR-82. A companion of the caliph Umar, from whom he related a number of |adths; later he moved to Basra. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, II. 27; Ÿafad, XI. 18; Mashhr, 92.)

UBDA IBN AL-ŸMIT al-Khazraj (d. c 34 [654/5])-256. An early convert who took part in the battle of Badr. In later years he participated in the conquest of Egypt, and was made the first qÿ of Palestine by the caliph Umar. (I¡ba, II. 260-1; Mashhr, 51.)

UBAYD ALLH-48. Unidentified.

UBAYD IBN UMAYR al-Layth (d. 74 [693/4])-132,133. A respected traditionist of Mecca who taught the exegesis of the Qurn to Mujhid. He is said to have been unusually thin as a consequence of much fasting and self-denial. (Mashhr, 82; Ab Nuaym, III. 266-279; Ghya, I. 496-7.)

UKSHA (or UKKSHA) ibn Mi|¡an al-Asad (d. 12 [633])-259. An early convert who fought at Badr. He was killed in the ridda wars during the caliphate of Ab Bakr. (I¡ba, II. 487-8; Ab Nuaym, II. 12-13; Mashhr, 16.)

UMAR IBN ABD AL-AZZ ibn Marwn (regn. 99-101 [717-20])-11, 12, 14, 20, 22, 24, 87-8, 102, 104, 118, 158, 218, 260. Sometimes called 'the fifth rightly-guided Caliph' for his piety, he was concerned to implement the shara in a number of neglected areas, such as the equal treatment of converts; he also ended the public cursing of Al from the pulpits. A large body of sermons and anecdotes connected with him soon found its way into religious literature.

UMAR IBN DHARR al-Hamadhn (d. c 156 [772/3])-99, 110. A respected traditionist of Kfa, and a companion of Sufyn ibn Uyayna. A number of fine prayers for forgiveness are ascribed to him. He is said to have been a member of the Murjiite sect. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, VII. 444; Ab Nuaym, V. 108-19; Kshif, II. 269.)

UMAR IBN AL-KHAB (regn. 13-23 [634-44])-34, 42, 48, 64, 68, 72, 77-81, 101, 145, 156, 163, 218, 237. At first an enemy of the Prophets mission, he became one of its staunchest defenders. His daughter ðaf¡a married the Prophet after the Emigration. When he succeeded Ab Bakr as caliph, he showed considerable brilliance in the face of the new circumstances arising as a result of the conquests, regulating the status of minorities, arranging a military pensions system and founding a number of garrison towns (am¡r). He was universally respected for his integrity and uncompromising devotion to the faith. (I¡ba, II. 511-2; Istb, II. 450-66; SEI, 600-1 [G. Levi della Vida].)

UMM KULTHM bint Al-68, 83. The daughter of Al and Fima, she was born during the lifetime of the Prophet. She was married first to Umar ibn al-Khab, and later on to a son of Jafar ibn Ab lib. (I¡ba, IV. 468-9; Istb, IV. 467-9.)

UMM HRN-12. Unidentified; said by Zabd (X. 232) to have been a Sufi.

UMM AL-MUNDHIR bint Qays al-An¡rya-15. A Muslim woman of Medina and a Companion of the Prophet. A number of |adths are given on her authority in the collections of Ab Dd and al-Tirmidh. (Kshif, III. 444; I¡ba, IV. 477.)

UQBA IBN MIR al-Juhan (d. 58 [677/8])-181. A Companion who led a campaign for the Prophet and was present at the battle of Tabk. He later became governor of Egypt, where he is said to be buried. (Mashhr, 55; Kshif, II. 237.)

USMA IBN ZAYD ibn ðritha (d. 54 [673/4])-16, 246. Described by the Prophet as the most beloved of his Companions, he was set in charge of an expedition to Syria, preparations for which began during the Prophets final illness. He later moved to Damascus. (Mashhr, II; Kshif, I. 57; I¡ba, I. 46.)

USAYD IBN ðUþAYR al-Ashhal (d. c 20 [640/1])-97. One of the seven Medinese Muslims present at the first Aqaba pledge, he was severely wounded at the battle of U|ud. A number of |adths on his authority are extant. (I¡ba, I. 64; Kshif, I. 82.)

UTBA AL-GHULM, ibn Abn (d. c 153 [770/1])-165, 167. An ascetic of Basra, where he associated with al-ðasan al-Ba¡r. It is said that he received a dream in which he was told that he would gain martyrdom; he later travelled to northern Syria where he was attached to the garrison of a frontier fortress, and shortly afterwards was killed in a cavalry sortie near Adana. (Bidya, X. 150; Ab Nuaym, VI. 226-38.)

UTHMN ibn Affn ibn Abi'l ¡ ibn Umayya (regn. 23-35 [644-56])-48, 68, 69, 80, 81-3, 101, 164. A wealthy merchant who became a Muslim before the Emigration. He became known as 'Dhul-Nrayn'-'the man of the two lights' because he married two of the Prophets daughters: firstly Ruqayya, and then, after her death, Umm Kulthm. During the latter years of his caliphate he was accused of nepotism, a charge which brought about his murder by a group of dissidents from Egypt, who beseiged his house, it is said, for forty-nine days, and then stormed it and stabbed him to death while he was reading the Qurn. (SEI, 615-7 [G. Levi della Vida]; Mashhr, 5-6; I¡ba, II. 455-6.)

UWAYS AL-QARAN, ibn mir al-Murd (d. 37? [657?])-167. A Yemeni, who although he never met the Prophet, was mentioned and praised by him, and was promised that he would exercise a special intercession for the believers on the Day of Judgement. Ÿafad tells us that 'most of his discourses concern the remembrance of death'. (Ÿafad, IX. 456-7; Ab Nuaym, II. 7987; Mashhr, 100; lbn Marthad, 71-4.)

WAHB IBN MUNABBIH, ibn Kmil (d. c 110 [728/9])-21, 51. A Yemeni sage possibly of Persian origin, who is said to have prayed all night for forty consecutive years. A number of sermons are ascribed to him, which make considerable use of Jewish lore. He was made a judge during the reign of Umar II. (Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, XI. 166; Ab Nuaym, IV. 23-82; Mashhr, 122-3.)

WARAQ IBN BISHR AL-HAþRAM-167. Unidentified.

AL-WSI, Mu|ammad ibn Ms (d. c 320 [932])-92. A Sufi who associated with al Junayd and al-Nr at Baghdad, and who later moved to Merv, where he died. He was also an authority on fiqh. (Qushayr, I. 151-2; Sulam, 302-7.)

WTHILA IBN AL-ASQA al-Layth (d. c 85 [704])-49. A Companion of the Prophet, and one of the ahl al-øuffa. He took part in the Tabk expedition and in due course moved to Syria, where he narrated |adths to Mak|l. (Ghya, II. 358; Kshif, III. 204; Mashhr, 51; Ab Nuaym, II. 21-3.)

WUHAYB ibn al-Ward al-Makk (d. c 153 [770/1])-45. A |adth scholar who spent his life in mortification and worship, and to whom a number of miracles are attributed. He taught Ibn Uyayna and Ibn al-Mubrak, and a few |adths are given on his authority by Muslim and al-Tirmidh. (Ab Nuaym, VIII. 140-62; Mashhr, 148; Massignon, Essai, 169; Kshif, III. 216.)

YAðY IBN AB KATHR (d. 129 [746/7])-246. A mawl of ayyi; an ascetic and a traditionist of the Yemen. (Kshif, III. 233; Ab Nuaym, III. 66-75; Bidya, X. 34.)

YAðY IBN MUDH al-Rz (d. 258 [871/2])-103, 249. A Sufi who taught in Central Asia. One of the first to teach Sufism in mosques, he left a number of books and sayings. Despite the emphasis he placed on raj: the hope for Paradise and for Gods forgiveness, he was renowned for his perseverence in worship and his great scrupulousness in matters of religion. (Ab Nuaym, X. 51-70; Sulam, 98-104; Fihrist, 184; GAS, I. 644; Hujwr, 122-3; Massignon, Essai, 268-72.)

YAL IBN AL-WALD-128. Unidentified.

YAZD ibn Muwiya (regn. 60-3 [680-3])-86. The second caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, he sent the army which killed the Prophets grandson al-ðusayn.

YAZD IBN MADHR-161. Unidentified.

YAZD IBN NAMA al-þabb-167. A Follower (tbi) who studied |adth under Anas ibn Mlik. (Kshif, III. 251; Zabd, X. 439)

YAZD AL-RUQSH, ibn Abn (d. c 115 [733/4])-54, 103, 134. A traditionist and judge who taught øli| al-Murr. One of the 'Weepers', he abandoned his studies to devote himself to worship. (Kshif, III. 240; þuaf, 253; Ab Nuaym, III. 50-5; Tahdhb al-Tahdhb, XI. 309.)

YSUF IBN ASB al-Shaybn (d. 196 [811/2])-94. Dominated by the fear of God and of the Judgement, he influenced Bishr al-f. He also related a number of |adths from al-Thawr. (Ab Nuaym, VIII. 237-53; Zabd, X. 343.)

YSUF IBN AL-ðUSAYN al-Rz (d. 304 [916/7])-159. A disciple of Dhul-Nn al-Mi¡r and an associate of al-Kharrz, he is remembered for the emphasis he laid upon sincerity: 'That I should meet God with every sin', he is represented as saying, 'would be preferable to me than to meet him with an atoms weight of affectation'. (Qushayr, I. 158; Sulam, 175-82; Tarkh Baghdd, XIV. 314-9; Hujwr, 136.)

ZAYD IBN ARQAM al-Khazraj (d. c 65 [684/5])-243. A Companion of the Prophet and a close associate of Al, for whom he fought at øiffn. Thirteen of his |adths are to be found in the collections of al-Bukhr and Muslim. (I¡ba, I. 542; Mashhr, 47.)

ZAYD IBN ASLAM al-Adaw al-s (d. 136 [753/4])-41, 110, 229. A respected traditionist and jurist who is said to have taught Mlik ibn Anas. A number of sayings on raj, hope for Gods forgiveness, are ascribed to him. (Mashhr, 80; Ab Nuaym, III. 221-9; Ghya, I. 296.)

ZAYD IBN ðRITHA al-Kab (d. 8[629])-248. A very early convert to Islam, given as a slave by Khadja to the Prophet, who set him free. So close was he to him that he was called 'Zayd ibn Mu|ammad.' He died leading the Muslim army at Muta. (I¡ba, I. 545-6.)

ZAYD IBN THBIT al-Khazraj (d. 45 [665/6])-16. A Companion who joined Islam at the age of eleven. He was one of those that wrote down the verses of the Qurn as these were revealed. (I¡ba, I. 543-4; Mashhr, 10.)

ZAYNAB bint Mu|ammad (d. 8 [629/30])-146, 150. The eldest of the Prophets daughters, she was married to her cousin Abul-¡[] ibn al-Rab, and came to Medina after the battle of Badr. Her daughter Umma married Al after the death of Fima. (SEI, 653 [V. Vacca]; I¡ba, IV. 306; Istb, 304-5.)

ZUBAYDA bint Jafar ibn Man¡r (d. 216 [831/2])-161. Married to Hrn al-Rashd in 165 AH, she became the best known of the Abbasid princesses. It is said that her palace 'sounded like a beehive' because she employed as maids a hundred women who had memorised the Qurn. She is particularly remembered for the donations she made to the ulema and to the poor, and for the improvements she effected to the road from Iraq to Mecca and Medina, which was renamed the 'Zubayda Road' in her honour. (Ÿafad, XIV. 176-8; Tarkh Baghdd, XIV. 433-4; Bidya, X. 271.)

AL-ZUBAYR ibn al-Awwm (d. 35 [655/6])-80, 202. One of the ten Companions who were guaranteed salvation. Perhaps the fifth convert to Islam, he was a cousin of the Prophet, who called him his 'apostle' (|war). His grave is said to be in the vicinity of Basra. (I¡ba, I. 526-8; SEI, 660-1 [A. Wensinck].)

ZURRA IBN AB AWF al-mir (d. 93 [711/2])-19, 161. A judge at Basra and a respected traditionist. He was renowned for his fear of Hell and the Resurrection: it is said that he once acted as Imam for the dawn prayer at Basra, and that when he reached the verse When the Trumpet shall sound he fell dead from fright. (Mashhr, 95; Ab Nuaym, II. 258-61; Kshif, I. 250.)