PERSONS CITED IN TEXT - EXCLUDING
AL-‘ABBƒS ibn ‘Abd al-Mu¥¥alib (d. 32 [652/3])-61, 63, 69. The uncle of the Prophet, before whom he was born, it is sometimes said, by two years. An important personality at Mecca, he held the ancient office of providing water (siq…ya) to the pilgrims. While always tolerant of his nephew’s cause, he joined it only upon the conquest of Mecca in 8 AH. (EI2, I. 8-9 [W. Montgomery Watt]; I¡…ba, II. 263.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN ‘ABBƒS-77. See 'Ibn ‘Abb…s'.
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN ‘AMR IBN AL ‘ƒø (d. c 65 [684/5])-128, 131, 243, 256. A Companion of the Prophet, and an authority on the Tradition. He was celebrated for his austere lifestyle, which he was enjoined by the Prophet to temper. (Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 361-2.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN MAS‘•D-243. See 'Ibn Mas‘™d'.
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN AL-MUBƒRAK ibn W…ÿi| al-ðan©al† (d. 181 [797/8])-89, 164. An influential saint and scholar of the Law. Originally of Merv in Central Asia, he travelled to study with M…lik ibn Anas in Medina and al-Awz…‘† in Syria before he died in combat against the Byzantines. His works on renunciation and the Holy War have been published and are still popular. (GALS, I. 256; øafad†, XVII. 419-20; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 162-91; ‘A¥¥…r, 124-8.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN RAWƒ›A al-Khazraj† (d. 8 )-131. An early Medinese convert chiefly remembered for his heroism at the battle of Mu’ta, where, after assuming the command after the deaths of Zayd ibn ›…ritha and Ja‘far ibn Ab† ¦…lib, he too joined the ranks of the martyrs. (EI2, I. 50-1 [A. Schaade]; I¡…ba, II. 298-9.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN SALƒM ibn al-›…rith al-Qaynuq…‘† (d. 43 [663/4])-81. Said to have been a rabbi of aristocratic stock before converting to Islam, he is credited with a large corpus of Judaic tales, many of which are to be found in al-¦abar†’s commentary on the Qur’…n. He participated in the conquest of Syria and Palestine, but died in Medina. (EI2, I. 52 [J. Horovitz]; I¡…ba, II. 312-3.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN SUMAY¦ (d. 181 [797/8])-21. A respected traditionist of Basra. (Zab†d†, X. 242.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN THA‘LABA al-‘Udhr† (d. c 87 [705/6])-23. A Follower (t…bi‘†), and a 'weeper' (bakk…’), whose tears are said to have left permanent marks on his cheeks. A pupil of Ibn ‘Umar and Ab™ Hurayra in |ad†th, he left a number of sayings on the subject of death. (K…shif, II. 68; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 245-6; Ÿafad†, XVII. 99.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN ‘UBAYD IBN ‘UMAYR al-Layth† (d. 113 [731/2])-135. An early ascetic and renowned preacher of Mecca, as well as a highly-regarded traditionist who studied under Ibn ‘Abb…s. (Mash…h†r, 83; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 354-9; Ÿafad†, XVII. 304-5.)
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN ‘UMAR-15, 29, 79, 182, 245. See 'Ibn ‘Umar'.
‘ABD ALLƒH IBN ZAM‘A ibn al-Aswad ibn al-Mu¥¥alib al-Qurash† (d. c 35 [655/6])-64, 65. A Companion, and a prolific narrator of Traditions. His father is said to have died with the idolators at the battle of Badr. (I¡…ba, II. 303-4; Ist†‘…b, II. 298-300.)
‘ABD ALLƒH AL-ZARRƒD-159. Possibly ‘Abd All…h ibn Ab…n al-Zarr…d, a traditionist who died in 287 (900/1) at Baghdad. (T…r†kh Baghd…d, IX. 421.)
‘ABD AL-MALIK IBN MARWƒN (regn. 65-86 [685-705])-86-7. The fifth Umayyad caliph, remembered for administrative reforms and a number of successful campaigns against the Kh…rijite rebels and Byzantine encroachment.
‘ABD AL-RA›MƒN IBN AL-‘ALƒ’ IBN AL-LAJLƒJ-117. A traditionist of Aleppo, whose father was also a respected scholar. (K…shif, II. 160.)
‘ABD AL-RA›MƒN ibn Ab† Bakr al-Qurash† (d. c 54 [673/4])-61, 112. The elder son of Ab™ Bakr, he participated in his father’s campaign in the Yam…ma, where he acquired some fame as an archer. (I¡…ba, II. 399-401; Ist†‘…b, II. 391-4.)
‘ABD AL-RA›MƒN IBN ‘AWF al-Qurash† (d. 31 )-77, 80. One of the first to respond to the Prophet’s call in Mecca, he took part in the migration to Abyssinia. A wealthy merchant, he donated huge sums in charity, and was one of the council of six nominated by ‘Umar to choose his successor, as well as being one of the ten men assured of Heaven by the Prophet while they still lived. (EI2, I. 84 [M.Th. Houtsma-W. Montgomery Watt]; I¡…ba, II. 408-10.)
‘ABD AL-RA›MƒN IBN Y•SUF-22. Unidentified: many figures with this name are recorded.
‘ABD AL-Wƒ›ID IBN ZAYD (d. c 177 [793/4])-157. A companion of al-›asan al-Ba¡r† and al-D…r…n† chiefly remembered for the importance which he attached to solitude. According to Ab™ Nu‘aym, he was partially paralysed, from which affliction he was released only at the time of prayer. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 155-65; Bid…ya, X. 171; Massignon, Essai, 194.)
ABU’L-‘ABBƒS IBN ‘A¦ƒ’ (d. c 309 [921/2])-93. A Sufi of Baghdad and a companion of al-Junayd. He is said to have written a number of works, but these are now lost. (Sulam†, 260-8.)
ABU’L-‘ABBƒS AL-D‡NAWAR‡ (d. c 340 [951/2])-91. A Sufi who preached at N†s…b™r and Samarqand. He was a companion of al Jurayr† and Ab™ Sa‘†d al-Kharr…z. (Sulam†, 500-4; Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 383.)
AB• ‘AL‡ AL-R•DHBƒR‡ (d. 322 [933/4])-91. The well known Sufi of Baghdad, who also spent time in Egypt. He was associated with the circle of al-Junayd and al-N™r†. He was also a |ad†th scholar and a jurist who studied under Ibr…h†m al-›arb†. (Qushayr†, I. 185-6; Sulam†, 362-9; T…r†kh Baghd…d, I. 329-33.)
AB• ‘AMR IBN AL-‘ALƒ’ ibn ‘Amm…r al-M…zin† (d. 154 [770/1])-98. A traditionist of Basra, who was also an authority on Arabic grammar. (Mash…h†r, 153-4.)
AB• ASH‘ATH-11. Identified by Zab†d† (X. 231) as a traditionist by the name of Ibn ‘Abd al- M…lik al-›amr…n†.
AB• AYY•B AL-ANŸƒR‡, Kh…lid ibn Zayd al-Najj…r† (d. c 52 )-132. One of the first Medinese Muslims, present at the first 'Pledge of al-‘Aqaba' and host to the Prophet before the construction of the latter’s house. In later years he was the caliph ‘Al†’s governor over Medina, and died during a seige of Constantinople. His tomb remains to this day the spiritual hub of Istanbul. (EI2, I. 108-9 [E. Lévi-Provençal et al.]; I¡…ba, I. 404-5.)
AB• BAKR AL-KATTƒN‡-162. See 'al-Katt…n†.'
AB• BAKR IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH AL-MAZAN‡-114. A mistake for Bakr ibn ‘Abd All…h al-Mazan†, for whom see s.v.
AB• BAKR IBN AB‡ MARYAM al-Ghass…n† (d. 256 [868/9])-167. A prolific narrator of Tradition sometimes cited by al-Tirmidh†, although generally considered to be unreliable (ÿa‘†f). A well-known ascetic, who lived and taught at ›im¡ (Syria). (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 88-91; þu‘af…’, 262; Ÿafad†, X. 230.)
AB• BAKR AL-RASH‡D‡-166. A jurist of N†s…b™r. (Zab†d†, X. 438.)
AB• BAKR AL-øIDD‡Q ibn Ab† Qu|…fa al-Taym† (d. 13 )-24, 60, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71-3, 74-7, 81, 82, 114, 158, 159, 163, 185, 237, 243. A small businessman of Mecca who personally accompanied the Prophet on his emigration to Medina, Ab™ Bakr became the Prophet’s closest advisor, and after his death became the first caliph. His short reign (11/632-13/634) saw the quelling of an uprising in Central Arabia and the beginnings of the conquest of Iraq and Palestine. (EI2, I. 109-111 [W. Montgomery Watt].)
AB• BURDA ibn Ab† M™s… al-Ash‘ar† (d. 104 [722/3])-260. A traditionist and chief judge of K™fa in the reign of ‘Abd al-M…lik, from which post he was dismissed by al-ðajj…j. (Mash…h†r, 104; Bid…ya, IX. 231; EI2 I. 693-4 [J. Schacht].)
ABU’L-DARDƒ’, ‘Uwaymir al-Khazraj† (d. 32 [652/3])-14, 102, 128, 131, 225, 243, 260. A celebrated Companion of the Prophet who joined Islam sometime after the battle of Badr, whereupon he is said to have given up commerce in order to occupy himself with worship with the ahl a1-øuffa. He was one of those who gathered together the text of the Qur’…n during the Prophet’s lifetime. He died in Damascus, where he was buried, and is venerated in particular by the Sufis (EI2, I. 113-4 [A. Jeffery]; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 208-27.)
AB• DHARR, Jundub ibn Jun…da al-Ghif…r† (d. c 32 [652/3])-102, 112, 200, 218, 259. One of the earliest Muslims, his shyness and devout temperament made him the protagonist of a rich variety of legendary material. He also transmitted a large number of Traditions: al-Bukh…r† and Muslim between them include thirty-one of these. (EI2, I. 114-5 [J. Robson]; Massignon, Essai, 158-9; Ist†‘…b, IV. 62-5.)
AB• HƒSHIM AL-RUMMƒN‡-19. Possibly to be identified with Ab™ H…shim Ya|y… al-Zumm…n†, a highly-regarded traditionist of W…si¥, who died in 122 (739/40). (Zab†d†, X. 241; K…shif, III. 341.)
AB• ›ƒTIM AL-RƒZ‡, Mu|ammad ibn Idr†s al-›an©al† (d. 277 [890/1])-164. A respected scholar with a fine memory who taught Ibr…h†m al-›arb† and Ibn Abi’l-Duny… in Baghdad. (Bid…ya, XI. 59; T…r†kh Baghd…d, II. 73-8.)
AB• ›ƒZIM, Salama ibn D†n…r al-Madan† (d. 140 [757/8])-86. An ascetic who became an important figure for the early Sufis. 'Everything which does not bring you to God', he said, 'can only bring you to destruction'. (GAS, I. 634-5; Mash…h†r, 79; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 229--59.)
AB• HURAYRA al-Daws† al-Yam…n† (d. c 58 [677/8])-32, 43, 46, 48, 97, 114, 120, 127, 131, 137, 138, 144, 146, 179, 180, 191, 199, 200, 212, 222, 224, 226, 234, 240, 249. One of the most copious narrators of Tradition, and also a model of poverty and the fear of God’s chastisement. He is said to have joined Islam during the Khaybar expedition (7/629); after which he became one of the ahl a1-øuffa. After the Prophet’s death he was appointed governor of Ba|rayn by ‘Umar. (Azami, 35-7; EI2, I. 129 [J. Robson]; I¡…ba, IV. 200-8.)
AB• JA‘FAR-73. See 'Mu|ammad ibn ‘Al†.'
AB• JA‘FAR AL-øAYDALƒN‡-160. A Sufi of Baghdad, a companion of al-Sarr…j and a spiritual instructor of Ibn al A‘r…b†. He spent many years in Mecca. (T…r†kh Baghd…d, XIV. 416.)
AB• LAHAB, ‘Abd al-‘Uzz… ibn ‘Abd al-Mu¥¥alib (d. 2 [623/ 4])-157. A patrician of Mecca who became one of the leading persecutors of the Prophet when he made his mission public. His sons, ‘Utba and Mu‘attib eventually joined Islam. (EI2, I. 136-7 [W. Montgomery Watt].)
AB• LU’LU’A (d. 23 -77. A slave who killed the Caliph ‘Umar, whom, he believed, had failed to rectify a tax grievance. (Cf, e.g., Ibn A‘tham, II. 83-6.)
AB• MU›AMMAD IBN ‘AL‡-23. Unidentified.
AB• M•Sƒ AL-ASH‘AR‡, ‘Abd All…h ibn Qays (d. c 42 [662/3])-34, 260. Ab™ M™s… joined Islam during the Khaybar campaign. During the caliphate of ‘Umar he was responsible for the conquest of Kh™zist…n, and was made governor of Basra. Later he became ‘Al†’s representative at the arbitration following the battle of øiff†n (37/657), after which he took no further part in public life. (EI2, I. 695-6 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
AB• M•Sƒ AL-TAM‡M‡-105. A traditionist of Basra. (Zab†d†, X. 355.)
AB• QAYS, ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n ibn Th…bit (d. 54 [673/4])-127. A mawl… of ‘Amr ibn al-‘ƒ¡, he transmitted Traditions from ‘Amr and Umm Salama; he is also reported to have been well versed in fiqh. (K…shif, III. 326.)
AB• QILƒBA-118. Probably ‘Abd All…h ibn Zayd al-Jarm†, (d. 104 [722/3]), a traditionist of Basra, who is said to have fled to Syria to escape being made a judge. He is said to have known the caliph ‘Umar II and ‘Anbasa ibn Sa‘†d. (øafad†, XVII. 185; Azami, 63; Mash…h†r, 89.)
AB• SA‘‡D AL-KHARRƒZ, A|mad ibn ‘‡s… (d. 277 [890/1])-90, 91, 143, 163. An important Sufi who, according to Hujw†r†, was 'the first to explain the doctrine of annihilation (fan…’) and subsistence (baq…’).' He was a close companion of Dhu’l-N™n, Bishr al-›…f†, and al-Sar† al-Saqa¥†, and was renowned for the emphasis he placed on ‘ishq, the passionate love of God, and upon the scrupulous observance of the Law. (Sulam†, 223-8; Hujw†r†, 143, Qushayr†, I. 140; GAS, I. 646.)
AB• SA‘‡D AL-KHUDR‡, Sa‘d ibn M…lik al-Khazraj† (d. c 64 [683/4] or 74 [693/4])-15, 48, 132, 207, 224, 237, 242, 244, 247, 257. A Companion who was considered too young to participate in the battle of U|ud, in which his father was killed. He related a large corpus of |ad†ths to Ibn ‘Abb…s and Sa‘†d ibn al-Musayyib, and was buried in Medina. (I¡…ba, II. 32-3; Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 723-4.)
AB• SA‘‡D AL-ŸAFFƒR-166. Unidentified.
AB• SA‘‡D AL-SHAððƒM-166. A Sufi of the circle of al-Qushayr† (who died 465 ). (Zab†d†, X. 438.)
AB• SINƒN, þir…r ibn Murra al-Shayb…n† (d. 132 [749-50])-110. One of the 'weepers' (bakk…’™n), who is recorded as having achieved sanctity through serving his family. A respected traditionist of K™fa. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, V. 91-4; Mash…h†r, 164; K…shif, II. 34.)
AB• SULAYMƒN AL-DƒRƒN‡, ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n (d. 205 [820/1] or 215 [830/1])-12, 92, 162. Well-known to the Sufis for his piety and renunciation, he was responsible for characteristic maxims such as 'The heart is ruined when fear departs from it even for one moment', and 'The sign of perdition is the drying-up of tears'. (Qushayr†, I. 96-8; Sulam†, 68-73; Hujw†r†, 112-3; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IX. 254-80.)
AB• ‘UBAYDA AL-NƒJ‡, Bakr ibn al-Aswad (d. c 170 [786/7])-35. An ascetic, and a traditionist usually considered to be unreliable. (Ÿafad†, X. 202; þu‘af…’, 261.)
AB• UMƒMA, As‘ad ibn Sahl ibn ›an†f al-Najj…r† (d. 100 [718/9])-114. An early Muslim who is sometimes held to have been a Companion of the Prophet. (I¡…ba, IV. 10; Mash…h†r, 28.)
AB• UMƒMA AL-BƒHIL‡, Ÿudayy ibn ‘Ajl…n (d. 81 [700/1] or 86 [705/6])-116, 226, 239, 246. A companion of the Prophet who related a large number of Traditions. He was sent to certain of the desert tribes, and won many converts with the aid of miracles. He later removed to ›im¡; according to Ibn ‘Uyayna he was the last Companion of the Prophet to die in Syria. (I¡…ba, II. 175-6; Ist†‘…b, IV. 4; Mash…h†r, 50.)
AB• ‘UMAR Ÿƒ›IB AL-SUQYƒ-130. Unidentified.
AB• YA›Yƒ AL-MAZAN‡-95. Unidentified.
AB• YA‘Q•B AL-QƒRI’ AL-DAQ‡Q‡-167. Unidentified.
AB• ZAKAR‡Yƒ AL-TAYM‡, Ya|y… (d. 200 [815/6])-21. Born in K™fa, this traditionist and Qur’…nic exegete travelled to Basra, Egypt and North Africa, dying in Mecca on pilgrimage. (GAS, I. 39.)
A›MAD IBN ABI’L-›AWƒR‡, Abu’l-›asan (d. c 230 [844/5])-162. An early Syrian exponent of Sufism, a disciple of al-D…r…n† and a companion of Ibn ‘Uyayna. He. is said to have thrown away his books and lived the life of a wandering ascetic. (Hujw†r†, 118-9; Qushayr†, I. 117; Sulam†, 88-92.)
A›MAD IBN ›ANBAL (d. 241 )-117. The great |…d†th scholar after whom the ›anbal† school of law is named. He travelled extensively in search of Traditions, of which he is said to have committed over three hundred thousand to memory. A companion of Bishr al-›…f† and Ma‘r™f al-Karkh†, he was held in high regard by the Sufis, who attribute a number of miracles to him. His tomb became one of the most frequented centres of pilgrimage in Baghdad. (EI2, I. 272-7 [H. Laoust]; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IX. 161-234; Hujw†r†, 117-8.)
A›MAD IBN ›ARB al-Marwaz† (d. 234 [848/9])-104, 230. A traditionist who studied under Ibn ‘Uyayna and Ab™ D…™d al-¦ay…lis†, and who was sometimes accused of sympathy with the Murji’ite heresy. (T…r†kh Baghd…d, IV. 118-9; ‘A¥¥…r, 146-9.)
A›MAD IBN KHIþRAWAYHI (d. 240 [854/5])-95. A prominent Khur…s…n† Sufi, born in Balkh, who lived and taught at Merv, where he died at the age of 95. He was a disciple of ›…tim al-A¡amm and a companion of Ab™ Tur…b al-Nakhshab†. (Sulam†, 93-7; Qushayr†, I. 115-6; Ÿafad†, VI. 373.)
‘ƒ’ISHA bint Ab† Bakr (d. 58 )-9, 11, 40, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 73, 74, 79, 112, 119, 129, 146, 196. The third and most beloved wife of the Prophet. During his final illness he asked his other wives for leave to stay in her house, where he died. After his death she was involved in the revolt of ¦al|a and al-Zubayr against the caliph ‘Al†, after which she lived quietly at Medina until she died. She was well-versed in Arab history and in poetry, and some of her verses have been preserved. (EI2, I. 307-8 [W. Montgomery Watt].)
AL-‘ALƒ’ IBN ZIYƒD ibn Ma¥ar al-‘Adaw† (d. 94 [712/3])-160. An early ascetic of Basra, who remained solitary all his life, only going out to the mosque, or to funerals or to visit the sick. He had a vision in which the world appeared to him in the shape of a misshapen hag wearing fine jewellery. (Mash…h†r, 90; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 242-9; K…shif, II. 309.)
‘AL‡ IBN AB‡ ¦ƒLIB (d. 40 )-15, 41, 61, 68, 73, 80, 81, 83-4, 101, 112, 127, 157, 158, 222. The cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, having married his daughter F…¥ima. He was usually the Prophet’s standard-bearer on expeditions, and became the model of the Muslim knight for later generations. He lived a life of austerity and piety. Upon the death of ‘Uthm…n (35/656) he accepted, with some reluctance, the office of Caliph, which he held for five years disturbed by several rebellions, including that of Mu‘…wiya, the governor of Syria. He was assassinated at K™fa by a member of the extreme Kh…rijite sect, which repudiated him for having agreed to negotiate with Mu‘…wiya. (EI2, I. 381-6 [L. Veccia Vaglierij; Ist†‘…b, III. 26-67.)
‘AL‡ IBN ‘ƒŸIM ibn Ÿuhayb al-W…si¥† (d. 201 [816/7])-168. A traditionist who taught at Baghdad. Although considered unreliable by some authorities, a number of his |ad†ths are to be found in the Musnad of Ibn ›anbal. (Tar†kh Baghd…d, XI. 446-58; Azami, 119-20; Bid…ya, X. 248.)
‘AL‡ IBN M•Sƒ AL-›ADDƒD-117. Unidentified.
‘AL‡ AL-¦AL›‡-161. Unidentified.
‘ALQAMA ibn Qays al-Nakha‘† (d. c 62 [681/2])-127. A pupil of Ibn Mas‘™d, who called him the most erudite of his disciples. He also related traditions from ‘Al†, Sa‘d ibn Ab† Waqq…¡ and ‘Uthm…n. (Tar†kh Baghd…d), XII. 296; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 98-102; GAS, I. 398.)
AL-A‘MASH, Sulaym…n ibn Mihr…n al-Asad† (d. 147 [764/5])-55, 98, 226. A Qur’…n specialist of Persian origin who studied under Muj…hid at K™fa. One of the fourteen canonical readings of the Qur’…n bears his name. In addition, Sufy…n al-Thawr† and Ibn ‘Uyayna both studied |ad†th under him. (Azami, 101-2; Tar†kh Baghd…d, IX. 3-13; Mash…h†r, III. EI2, I. 431 [C. Brockelmann-[Ch. Pellat]].)
ƒMINA BINT WAHB al-Zuhr†ya (d. c 575 AD)-101, 157. The mother of the Prophet, she died when he was about six. She was probably buried at a place known as al-Abw…’ between Mecca and Medina. The historians record a number of miracles surrounding her pregnancy and the Prophet’s birth. (EI2, I. 438 [W. Montgomery Watt].)
‘ƒMIR IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-‘Aww…m (d. 121 [738/9])-33. An ascetic of Medina, who is recorded as having kept his hands raised in supplication between the night and morning prayers. He is said to have died in prayer. He also transmitted a number of Traditions which are recorded by both al-Bukh…r† and Muslim. (Ÿafad†, XVI. 589; K…shif, II. 51; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 166-8.)
‘ƒMIR IBN ‘ABD AL-QAYS (d. c 41-60 [661-80])-89. A t…bi‘† of Basra who died at Damascus, where he had become famous for his austere and eloquent sermons. A number of miracles are recorded of him-he is said to have lived in the desert where wild beasts came tamely to him. He was also known for his charity towards orphans. These and other aspects of his life are often cited by the Sufis. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 87-95; Ÿafad†, XVI. 585-6; Ibn Marthad, 37-8.)
‘AMR IBN AL-‘ƒŸ al-Sahm† (d. 42 [663/4])-88, 102, 211. A Companion of the Prophet and a politician and general of great skill. To him goes the credit for the conquest of Palestine (12 ) and Egypt (19-21 [640-2]), where he founded the city of Fus¥…¥, which was to grow into Cairo. He sided with Mu‘…wiya at the battle of Ÿiff†n, and represented him at the arbitration which followed. (EI2, I. 451 [A. J. Wensinck].)
‘AMR IBN D‡NƒR al-Juma|† (d. 126 [743/4])-130. A scholar of the Law in Mecca, where he learnt the recitation of the Qur’…n and a number of Traditions from Ibn ‘Abb…s. (Mash…h†r, 84; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 347-54; Gh…ya, I. 600-1.)
‘AMR IBN ðAZM AL-ANŸƒR‡ al-Khazraj† (d. 51 [671/2])-259. A Companion who distinguished himself in the 'Battle of the Trench', and who became the Prophet’s governor of Najr…n. A number of |ad†ths are related on his authority by al-Nas…’†. (I¡…ba, II. 525; K…shif, II. 282.)
‘AMR IBN MAYM•N al-Awd† (d. c 74 [693/4])-77. A 'Follower' who was present at the murder of ‘Umar, and who later moved to K™fa. He transmitted a number of |ad†ths which have been recorded by al-Bukh…r†, and was much given to devotional practices. (Mash…h†r, 99; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IV. 148-54; K…shif, II. 296.)
ANAS ibn M…lik ibn al-Naÿr (d. 91-3 [709/10-711/2])-10, 17, 114, 119, 127, 146, 192, 196, 202, 209, 215, 224, 228, 244, 246. A celebrated Companion of the Prophet, he had been presented to the Prophet by his mother at an early age in fulfilment of a vow. After the Prophet’s death he participated in the wars of conquest. One hundred and twenty eight Traditions on his authority are to be found in the collections of al- Bukh…r† and Muslim. (I¡…ba, I. 84-5; EI2, I. 482 [A. J. Wensinck- J. Robson].)
‘ANBASA ibn Sa‘†d (d. 100 [718/9])-12. A respected traditionist, originally of K™fa, who taught Ibn al-Mub…rak and was a judge at Rayy. (K…shif, II. 304; Zab†d†, X. 232.)
AL-AŸBAGH AL-ðAN®AL‡, ibn Nub…ta-83. An unreliable traditionist of K™fa accused of Sh†‘ite tendancies. (Zab†d†, X. 318; ‘Uqayl†, I. 129-30; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, I. 362-3.)
ASH‘ATH IBN ASLAM-50-I. Unidentified.
‘ƒŸIM IBN þAMRA (d. 174 [790/1])-235. A traditionist of K™fa, generally regarded as reliable. (K…shif, II. 45; Gh…ya, I. 349.)
‘ƒŸIM AL-AðWAL, ibn Sulaym…n (d. c 141 [758/9] A traditionist from Basra who became chief judge of al-Mad…’in. (Mash…h†r, 98; Bid…ya, X. 78; Ÿafad†, XVI. 568.)
‘ƒŸIM AL-JAðDAR‡, ibn al-‘Ajj…j (d. 129 [746/7])-114. An ascetic of Basra and an authority on the reading of the Qur’…n; he had his own reading which is considered one of the qir…’…t sh…dhdha. (Gh…ya, I. 349; Ÿafad†, XVI. 568; Mash…h†r, 94.)
AL-ASWAD-30. Possibly a reference to al-Aswad ibn Yaz†d al-Nakha‘† (d. c 80 [699/700]), an ascetic who is said to have performed the Pilgrimage eighty times, and to have slept only between the sunset and night prayers. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 102-5; K…shif, I. 80; Ibn Marthad, 53-5.)
‘A¦ƒ’ AL-KHURƒSƒN‡, ibn Ab† Muslim (d. 135 [752/3])-10. A traditionist who was a mawl… of al-Muhallab ibn Ab† Ÿufra; a number of his narratives are to be found in the Ÿa|†| of Muslim. (K…shif, II. 233; Bid…ya, X. 57; GAS, I. 33-4.)
‘A¦ƒ’ AL-SAL‡M‡ (d. 121 [738/9])-103, 160. An ascetic and traditionist of Basra. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 215-27; Mash…h†r, 152.)
‘A¦ƒ’ IBN YASƒR al-Hil…l† (d. c 103 [721/2])-54, 90, 145. A Follower who spent his life in Medina and Syria. He transmitted |ad†ths from Ab™ Dharr and Zayd ibn Th…bit, some of which are to be found in the collections of al-Bukh…r† and Muslim. (Mash…h†r, 69; K…shif, II. 233.)
AL-AWZƒ‘‡, ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n ibn ‘Amr, Ab™ ‘Amr (d. 157 )-41, 161, 245. The principal authority on the shar†‘a in Syria of his generation, who placed especial emphasis on the 'living tradition' of the Muslim community as an authoritative source of law. His madhhab also spread in North Africa and Spain, where it was then replaced by that of M…lik. His tomb near Beirut is still visited. (EI2, I. 772-3 [J. Schacht]; GALS, I. 308-9; Fihrist, 227.)
AYY•B AL-SAKHTIYƒN‡ ibn Ab† Tam†ma (d. 131 [748/9])-165. A pupil of Anas ibn M…lik, he was a reputable narrator of Traditions, and is recorded as having been particularly scrupulous about the sunna. A number of miracles are reported of him. (Mash…h†r, 150; Azami, 81; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 3-14; GAS, I. 87-8.)
BAKR IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH AL-MAZAN‡ (d. 106 [724/5] or 108 [726/7])-52. A 'Follower' of Basra, who, despite his considerable wealth, spent much time teaching and sitting with the poor. A prolific narrator of Tradition, he was known for the importance he attached to the fear of Hell. (Mash…h†r, 90; Ÿafad†, X. 207; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 224-32; K…shif, I. 108.)
BAKR AL-‘ƒBID, ibn ‘Amr al-N…j† (d. 108 [726/7])-103. A Follower who related |ad†ths from ‘ƒ’isha, in particular to Qat…da and ‘ƒ¡im al-A|wal; considered a sound authority. (K…shif, I. 108; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 101-2.)
BAKRƒN AL-D‡NAWAR‡-92. A Sufi of the circle of al-Shibl† (d. 334 [945/6]). (Qushayr†, I. 183.)
AL-BARƒ’ IBN ‘ƒZIB al-Aws† (d. c 72 [691/2])-135. A Companion of the Prophet, who is said to have taken part in all his expeditions save that of Badr, for which he was considered to be too young. Later he was set in charge of the armies which conquered Rayy and Qazw†n. (EI2, I. 1025 [K. V. Zetterstéen]; I¡…ba, I. 146-7.)
BASHSHƒR IBN GHƒLIB AL-NAJRƒN‡-116. Unidentified.
BILƒL ibn Rab…| (d. 17-21 [638/9-642/3])-64, 89. Usually held to have been the second adult convert to Islam, Bil…l was born in Mecca into slavery, and was tortured by his master Umayya ibn Khalaf when he refused to renounce his new faith. He was purchased by Abu Bakr, who set him free. He became the Prophet’s muezzin at Medina, and later moved to Syria, where he died. (EI2, I. 1215 [W. ‘Arafat].)
BISHR IBN AL-ðƒRITH 'al-ð…f†' (d. c 227 [841/2])-92, 162. One of the most celebrated figures of early Sufism, he was a companion of Fuÿayl ibn ‘Iy…ÿ. Formerly given to riotous living, his repentance is said to have come when, in a state of inebriation, he picked up a scrap of paper on which was written the name of God, which he perfumed and put in a clean place. That night he received a dream in which God told him that He would perfume his name as a reward for his act. Many other tales of his charismatic and devout life have found their way into the classical works on Sufism. (Qushayr†, I. 73-7; Hujw†r†, 105-6; Siyar, X. 469; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 336-60; Sulam†, 33-40; EI2, I. 1244-6 [F. Meier]; Dermenghem, 67-78.)
BISHR IBN MANŸ•R al-Azd† (d. 180 [796/7])-115. A Follower much given to devotional practices in private, who was a recognised authority on |ad†th. He lived in Basra, but is said to have spent some time in Syria. (Ÿafad†, X. 156; K…shif, I. 104; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 239-43.)
AL-þAððƒK ibn Muz…|im al-Hil…l† (d. 105 [7-23/4])-100, 115. A traditionist of Balkh (and later Merv) whose material was used by al-Bukh…r†, and who was particularly erudite in Qur’…nic exegesis. According to some authorities he met one or more of the Prophet’s Companions. (Mash…h†r, 194; Azami, 64; Gh…ya, I. 337.)
Dƒ•D AL-¦ƒ’‡, ibn Nu¡ayr (d. c 165 [781/2])-19, 23, 34, 105, 166. A companion of lbr…h†m ibn Adham, and an ascetic of whom many anecdotes are told in the early works on Sufism. He placed emphasis on poverty as an aid to the struggle against the lower self, gave all he had to the poor, and is said to have subsisted on a diet of barley bread and water. He was also an outstanding authority on the Law, which he studied under Ab™ ðan†fa. (Siyar, VII. 423; Tar†kh Baghd…d, VIII. 347-55; Qushayr†, I. 81; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VII. 335-367; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, III. 203.)
DHU’L-N•N al-Mi¡r†, Thawb…n (d. 245 [859/60])-91. Born in Upper Egypt, he travelled to Mecca and Damascus, and became a leading exponent of Sufism. It is said that he was the first to give a systematic explanation of the a|w…l ('states') and maq…m…t ('stations') encountered on the spiritual path. A number of miracles are attributed to him, as well as some fine poetry. (EI2, II. 242 [M. Smith]; Sulam†, 23-32; Qushayr†, I. 58-61; Hujw†r†, 100-3; Massignon, Essai, 206-13.)
AL-FAþL ibn al-‘Abb…s ibn ‘Abd al-Mu¥¥alib (d. 13 )-61. A Companion of the Prophet who died fighting the Byzantines at the battle of the Yarm™k at the age of 22. (Mash…h†r, 9.)
AL-FARAZDAQ, Ab™ Fir…s Tamm…m ibn Gh…lib, (d. c 110 [728/9])-105. A poet of Bedouin origin who wrote verse chiefly of a satirical and panegyric nature. Many of his poems are directed against his great rival Jar†r. (EI2, II. 788-9 [R. Blachère].)
Fƒ¦IMA (d. II )-42, 66, 84, 113. The youngest and bestloved of the daughters of the Prophet. He once told her that 'God is angry when you are angry, and glad when you are glad'. In the year 2 she married ‘Al† ibn Ab† ¦…lib in the union which was to produce al-ðasan and al-ðusayn. Her piety made her a figure greatly revered by later generations. (I¡…ba, IV. 365-8; EI2, II. 841-50 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
Fƒ¦IMA, Umm Salama bint A|mad-91. The sister of the famous Sufi Ab™ ‘Al† al-R™dhb…r†, of an aristocratic and wealthy family; she is remembered for her sanctity and devoutness. (Tar†kh Baghd…d, I. 330.)
Fƒ¦IMA BINT ‘ABD AL-MALIK-87, 218. The wife of the caliph ‘Umar II and the sister of his successor Yaz†d II. When ‘Umar assumed power he is said to have given away all his wealth, and asked her whether she still wished to remain with him: she chose to remain. She reported many of his secret prayers and devotions after his death. (Bid…ya, IX. 198-201.)
Fƒ¦IMA BINT AL-ðASAN-104. As Zab†d† points out, this is a mistake for F…¥ima bint al-Husayn, the granddaughter of the caliph ‘Al† and of ¦al|a ibn ‘Ubayd All…h. She married her cousin al-ðasan ibn al-ðasan, and related a number of |ad†ths. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, XII. 442-3.)
FUþAYL ibn ‘Iy…ÿ (d. 187 [803/4].)-89. A brigand who repented and became a pioneer of early Sufism. He studied |ad†th under Sufy…n al-Thawr† and Ab™ ðan†fa, and became wellknown for his sermons on the worthlessness of the world, which he likened to 'a madhouse, the people in which are lunatics wearing the shackles of desire and sin'. (Hujw†r†, 97-100; Sulam†, 7-12; Mash…h†r, 149; EI2, II. 936 [M. Smith]; GAS, I. 636; Dermenghem, 51-66.)
FUþAYL AL-RUQƒSH‡ (d. 95 [713/4])-36. A |ad†th scholar and ascetic of Basra, remembered for a number of fine sayings on the devotional life. (Mash…h†r, 98; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 102-3.)
ðAFøA bint ‘Umar ibn al-Kha¥¥…b (d. c 45 [665/6])-79. An early Muslim who married the Prophet in the year 3. After the death of her father she inherited the copy of the Qur’…n prepared by the Prophet’s secretary Zayd ibn Th…bit, which became the 'authorised version' approved by ‘Uthm…n. (I¡…ba, IV. 264; EI2, III. 63-5 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
AL-ðAJJƒJ ibn Y™suf al-Thaqaf† (d. 95 )-88. An Umayyad general notorious for his ruthlessness. Of humble origins, he was born near al-¦…’if, and became a policeman at Damascus. He attracted the attention of the caliph ‘Abd al-M…lik, who put him in charge of a campaign against Ibn al-Zubayr, whom he defeated and killed at Mecca. He also fought extensively against the Kh…rijites. (EI2, III. 39-43 [A. Dietrich].)
AL-ðAKAM IBN AL-MU¦¦ALIB al-Makhz™m†-94. An early traditionist of Manbij in northern Syria. (Zab†d†, X. 343.)
ðAMZA ibn ‘Abd al-Mu¥¥alib (d. 3 )-84, 113. The paternal uncle of the Prophet, he helped to arrange his first marriage. A brave warrior, his conversion greatly heartened the early Muslim community in Mecca. He was killed at the battle of U|ud by an Abyssinian slave who had been promised his freedom should he accomplish this deed. (EI2, III. 152-4 [G. M. Meredith-Owens].)
HƒR•N AL-RASH‡D (regn. 170-193 [786-809])-88. Perhaps the best-known ‘Abb…sid caliph, whose cultured and sumptuous court presided nevertheless over an empire troubled by rebellion and Byzantine encroachment.
AL-ðASAN IBN ‘AL‡ (d. c 50 [670/1])-84, 157. Grandson of the Prophet, and second Im…m of the Sh†‘a. Until the reign of ‘Al† he lived a secluded life at Medina, which was interrupted by a short period in which he claimed the Caliphate. (EI2, III. 240-3 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
AL-ðASAN al-Ba¡r† (d. 110 [728/9])-11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 34, 35, 41, 46, 54, 90, 105, 164, 167, 182, 196, 227, 229, 248. Perhaps the best known personality among the second generation of Muslims, he was born in Medina and took part in the conquest of eastern Iran. He then moved to Basra, where his sanctity and great eloquence attracted great numbers to his circle. He was also a judge and an authority on |ad†th. His tomb at Basra remains an important centre for devout visits. (Hujw†r†, 86-7; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 131-61; ‘A¥¥…r, 19-26; EI 2, III. 247-8 [H. Ritter].)
AL-ðASAN IBN AL-ðUSAYN-104. Probably a mistake for al-ðasan ibn al-ðasan (ibn ‘Al† ibn Ab† ¦…lib), a |ad†th scholar who died c 97 (715/6). (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, II. 263.)
AL-ðASAN IBN ŸƒLIð ibn ðuyayy al-Thawr† (d. 167 [783/4])-103. An ascetic of K™fa of Sh†‘ite leanings, who spent all of his nights in prayer. (Mash…h†r, 170; Bid…ya, X. 150; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VII. 327-35.)
ðƒTIM AL-AŸAMM al-Balkh† (d. 237 [851/2])-103. A disciple of the Khur…s…n† Sufi Shaq†q al-Balkh†, he was known as the 'Luqm…n of this nation' for his wise sayings. (Hujw†r†, 115; Ÿafad†, XI. 233-4; Sulam†, 80-7; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 73-84.)
ðUDHAYFA ibn al-Yam…n al-‘Abas† (d. 36 [656/7])-8, 33, 46, 48, 146, 243. One of the earliest converts to Islam, whose father was martyred at the battle of U|ud. He is particularly revered by the Sufis. He related a considerable number of |ad†ths, particularly those relating to eschatology: according to the sources he said that 'the Prophet told me all that would occur from the present until the Day of Judgement'. (I¡…ba, I. 316-7; Massignon, Essai, 159-61; Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 199-201; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 270-83.)
AL-ðUSAYN IBN ‘AL‡ ibn Ab† ¦…lib (d. 61 )-84, 159, 229. A grandson of the Prophet, who, although he acquiesced in the caliphate of Mu‘…wiya, refused to recognise his son al-Yaz†d upon his accession in 60 AH (680 AD). Against the advice of Ibn ‘Abb…s and ‘Abd All…h ibn ‘Umar, al-ðusayn marched with a handful of supporters to K™fa, where he believed that he could muster support; the K™fans, however, intimidated by Yaz†d’s governor, met him in battle at nearby Karbal…’, where he was slain. (EI2, III. 607-15 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
IBN ‘ABBƒS, ‘Abd All…h (d. 68 [687/8])-16, 31, 44, 72, 81, 156, 158, 178, 212, 216, 225, 241, 256, 258. A cousin and close companion of the Prophet respected for his piety and commonly acknowledged as the greatest scholar of the first generation of Muslims, a narrator of |ad†th and the founder of the science of Qur’…nic exegesis. He fought alongside ‘Al† at øiff†n, and died at al-¦…’if, where the site of his grave is still visited. (Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 351-4; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 314-29; Mash…h†r, 9; I¡…ba, II. 322-6; EI2, I. 40-1 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
IBN AB‡ MULAYKA, ‘Abd All…h ibn ‘Ubayd All…h (d. 117 [735/6])-112, 113. A prominent Follower (t…bi‘†) of Mecca who joined the revolt of Ibn al-Zubayr, who made him a judge. He is said to have met eighty Companions of the Prophet. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, V. 306; Mash…h†r, 82-3.)
IBN MAS‘•D, ‘Abd All…h al-Hudhal† (d. 32-3 [652/3-653/4])-14, 17, 33, 35, 46, 59, 63, 194, 201, 208, 243. Of Bedouin origin, Ibn Mas‘™d is said to have been either the third or the sixth convert to Islam; he became one of the most erudite Companions. He was particularly well versed in the recitation and interpretation of the Qur’…n, and was an expert in matters of law. In addition, he related a number of the most important eschatological |ad†ths. (EI2, III. 873-5 [J.-C. Vadet]; I¡…ba, II. 360-62; Ist†‘…b, II. 308-16.)
IBN AL-MUBƒRAK-90, 166. See '‘Abd All…h ibn al-Mub…rak'.
IBN MULJAM, ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n al-Mur…d† (d. 40 )-83, 157. The Kh…rijite assassin of the caliph ‘Al†, he was caught and put to death after carrying out his mission. (EI2. III. 887-90 [L. Veccia Vaglieri].)
IBN AL-MUNKADIR, Mu|ammad al-Taym† (d. 130 [747/8])-89. A prominent Follower and reciter of the Qur’…n, who transmitted a number of |ad†ths. (Mash…h†r, 65; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 146-58.)
IBN MU¦‡‘-14. Possibly ‘Abd All…h ibn Mu¥†‘ al-‘Adaw† (d. 73 ), one of the leaders of the Medinese insurrection against Yazid I. Defeated at the battle of the ðarra in 63 (683) he became governor of K™fa for Ibn al-Zubayr, with whom he was killed at Mecca. (EI2, I. 50 [K. V. Zetterstéen-Ch. Pellat].)
IBN RƒSHID, Mu|ammad, al-Mak|™l† (d. c 170 [786/7])-166. A respected traditionist of Damascus, who later moved to Basra. A number of his |ad†ths are cited by Ab™ D…™d, al-Nas…’† and al-Tirmidh†. (K…shif, III. 37; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, IX. 158-60.)
IBN AL-SAMMƒK, Mu|ammad ibn Ÿab†| (d. 183 [799/800])-107. A traditionist and preacher of Baghdad who delivered a famous sermon before H…r™n al-Rash†d, and who wrote to the wealthy urging them to renounce their riches in favour of poverty and the religious life. He was a disciple of Sufy…n al-Thawr† in |ad†th, and taught Ibn ðanbal. (Siyar, VIII. 291-3; Tar†kh Baghd…d, V. 368-73; Ta‘j†l, 364-5.)
IBN S‡R‡N, Mu|ammad, al-An¡…r† (d. 110 [728/9])-11, 113, 153. Born during the caliphate of ‘Uthm…n, his father was clerk to Anas ibn M…lik. He moved to Basra, where he preached in the marketplaces and where he became known as an authority on law. He is also remembered as a master interpreter of dreams, and a book on the subject is attributed to him. (Mash…h†r, 88; Azami, 94-5; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 263-82; EI2, III. 947-8 [T. Fahd]; GAS, I. 633-4.)
IBN AL-TAYYƒð-83. Unidentified.
IBN ‘UMAR, ‘Abd All…h (d. 73 [693/4])-10, 32, 70, 113, 114, 117, 130, 180, 192, 218. A Companion of the Prophet who, at the age of fourteen asked to be permitted to fight at U|ud, which permission was denied. Possessed of high moral qualities he commanded universal deference and respect. Although it is said that he was offered the caliphate on three separate occasions he kept himself aloof from politics and occupied himself instead with study and instruction. (EI2, I. 53-4 [L. Veccia Vaglieri]; I¡…ba, II. 338-41; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 292-314.)
IBN ‘UYAYNA, Sufy…n al-Hil…l† (d. c 198 [813/4])-161, 163. An influential |ad†th specialist born in K™fa and reared in Mecca, who studied under Ibn Shih…b al-Zuhr†. 'But for M…lik and Ibn ‘Uyayna’, al-Sh…fi‘† is represented as saying, 'the knowledge of the ðij…z would have been lost'. He is a principal source of |ad†th in the Musnad of al-ðumayd†. (Mash…h†r, 149; GAS, I. 139; Azami, 169-70.)
IBRƒH‡M IBN ISðƒQ AL-ðARB‡ (d. 285 [898/9])-161. A grammarian, historian and traditionist of Baghdad, an important disciple of Ibn ðanbal, and an admirer of Bishr al-ð…f†. His book on the Pilgrimage has recently been published. (Ÿafad†, V. 320-4; Bid…ya, X. 297; Zab†d†, X. 434.)
IBRƒH‡M AL-NAKHA‘‡, ibn Yaz†d (d. c 96 [714/5])-89. A devout and learned scholar of K™fa who opposed the writing of |ad†th as an unjustified innovation. He studied under al-ðasan al-Ba¡r† and Anas ibn M…lik, and taught Ab™ ðanifa, who may have been influenced by his extensive use of personal judgement (ra’y) in matters of jurisprudence. (Mash…h†r, 101; Azami, 65-6; Gh…ya, I. 29.)
IBRƒH‡M AL-TAYM‡, ibn Yaz†d (d. c 93 [711/2])-11. An ascetic of K™fa who is said to have placed great emphasis on 'short hopes' (qi¡ar al-amal). He figures in many hortatory tales with his father, Yaz†d ibn Shar†k. A respected traditionist, he taught al-A‘mash, and use is made of his |ad†ths by al-Bukh…r† and Muslim. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, IV. 210-19; Mash…h†r, 101; K…shif, I. 50)
IBRƒH‡M AL-ZAYYƒT-98. Unidentified.
‘IKRIMA, mawl… Ibn ‘Abb…s (d. c 105 [723-4])-44. Said to have been of Berber origin, he was a manumitted slave of Ibn ‘Abb…s, whose exegesis of the Qur’…n he passed on to Muj…hid. Although accused of Kh…rijite sympathies, he is regarded as a reliable authority on |ad†th. (Azami, 66-7; Gh…ya, I. 515; EI2, III. 1081-2 [J. Schacht]; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 326-47.)
JƒBIR ibn ‘Abd All…h al-Khazraj† al-An¡…r† (d. 68-78 [687/8-697/8])-32, 129, 150, 157, 237. A Companion of the Prophet whose father died at the battle of U|ud. He participated in nineteen of the expeditions of the Prophet, and related a sizeable number of Traditions. (I¡…ba, I. 214-5; Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 184-6; Mash…h†r, II.)
JƒBIR IBN WADƒ‘A-50. Unidentified.
JƒBIR IBN ZAYD al-Azd† (d. 93 [711/21)-46. Usually known as Abu’l-Sha‘th…’. A Basran authority on the shar†‘a and the interpretation of the Qur’…n, and a leader of the Ib…ÿ† branch of the Kh…rijite movement. He was a pupil of Ibn ‘Abb…s, and related |ad†ths to Qat…da. (K…shif, I. 121; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 85-92; Mash…h†r, 89.)
JA‘FAR ibn Ab† ¦…lib (d. 8 )-84. A cousin of the Prophet and the elder brother of ‘Al†. It was he that led the emigration to Abyssinia, whence he returned in time for the Khaybar expedition (7/628). He was known as 'Abu’l-Mas…k†n' because of his concern for the poor. (EI2, II. 372 [L. Veccia Vaglieri]; Ist†‘…b, I. 211-4.)
JA‘FAR IBN MUðAMMAD ibn ‘Al† ibn al-ðusayn, 'al-Ÿ…diq' (d. 148 )-102, 113. A major authority on law and |ad†ths, he taught both Ab™ ðanifa and M…lik. His austere and saintly life made him an important ideal for the Sufis, who gathered large numbers of sayings attributed to him. He was later made into the seventh Im…m of the Sh†‘a: the Ja‘far†ya sect is named after him. (EI2, II. 374-5 [M.G.S. Hodgson]; Mash…h†r, 127; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 192-206; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, II. 104.)
JA‘FAR IBN NUŸAYR al-Khuld† (d. 348 [959/60])-92. (Correct name: Ja‘far ibn Mu|ammad ibn Nu¡ayr al-Khuld†.) A major Sufi of Baghdad, a companion of Ruwaym, al Junayd and al-N™r†, who spent much of his life engaged in extensive travels. He left a number of aphorisms which are much quoted in the classical works on Sufism. (GAS, I. 661; Qushayr†, I. 178; Hujw†r†, 156-7; Tar†kh Baghd…d, VII. 226-31; Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 381.)
JA‘FAR IBN SA‘‡D-132. As Zab†d† remarks (X. 394) this is probably an error for 'Ja‘far ‘an Sa‘†d' (ibn al-Musayyib), a reference to Ja‘far ibn Sulaym…n (d. 178 [794/5]), a Sh†‘ite traditionist and ascetic of Basra. (K…shif, I. 129; Bid…ya, X. 173; Mash…h†r, 159.)
AL-JƒðI® (d. 255 [868/9])-165. One of the finest Arabic prose stylists, he left a wealth of elegant and witty books, such as the Animals and the Misers which have furnished much information about early Islamic society. Although originally of Basra he wrote principally in Baghdad. In addition to his literary tastes he was a theologian of the Mu‘tazilite school. (C. Pellat, Le Milieu basrien et la formation de ß…|i©.)
JAR‡R IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH al-Bajal† (d. 51 [671/2])-240, 250, 255. A Companion of the Prophet. Of an aristocratic family, he was renowned for his handsomeness. A number of |ad†ths were related by him. (Mash…h†r, 44; K…shif, I. 126.)
JAR‡R ibn ‘A¥†ya al-Kha¥af† (d. 110 [728-9])-98. With al-Farazdaq and al-Akh¥al, Jar†r represents the last flowering of the Bedouin poetic tradition. His work is composed primarily of panegyrics, and ruthless broadsides directed against his rival al Farazdaq. (GALS, II. 53-5.)
AL-JUNAYD, Abu’l-Q…sim ibn Mu|ammad (d. 298 [910/11])-90, 91, 92, 93, 160, 162, 165. The best known of the Sufis of Baghdad. A nephew and disciple of al-Sar† al-Saqa¥†, he vowed that would not teach during the latter’s lifetime out of deference to his preceptor; however he received a vision of the Prophet, who told him that 'God shall make your words the salvation of a multitude of mankind'; he then began to teach. His gatherings 'were attended by jurists and philosophers (attracted by his precise reasoning), theologians (drawn by his orthodoxy) and Sufis (for his discoursing upon the Truth)'. In addition, he was an authority on theology and law, in which he followed the school of Ab™ Thawr†. (Sulam†, 141-50; GAS, I. 647-50; EI2, II. 600 [A. J. Arberry]; A. H. Abdel-Kader, The Life, Personality and Writings of al-Junayd.)
AL-JURAYR‡ (d. 311 [923/4])-90. A companion of Junayd, sometimes said to have been his successor. He was also a theologian and a jurist. (Hujw†r†, 148; Qushayr†, I. 166-7; Sulam†, 253-9; Tar†kh Baghd…d, IV. 430-4.)
KA‘B al-A|b…r, ibn M…ti‘ al-ðimyar† (d. 32 [652/3] or 34 [654/5])-11, 42, 113, 129, 134, 182, 248. A rabbi from the Yemen who converted to Islam during the caliphate of ‘Umar. (EI2, IV. 316-7 [M. Schmitz]; Mash…h†r, 118.)
AL-KATTAN‡, Mu|ammad ibn ‘Al† (d. 322 [933/4]-94, 162. A Baghdad Sufi of the circle of al Junayd and al-Kharr…z; he spent much of his life in Mecca, where he died. (Sulam†, 386-91; Tar†kh Baghd…d, III. 74-6; Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 357-8; ‘A¥¥…r, 253-6.)
KHAD‡JA BINT KHUWAYLID (d. 3 BH )-84. The first wife of the Prophet. She was a businesswoman of Mecca, and married him after having been impressed with his efficiency and honesty in the matter of a caravan to Syria which he had supervised for her. (EI2, IV. 898-9 [W. Montgomery Watt].)
KHAYTHAMA ibn ‘Abd al-Ra|man al-K™f† (d. c 80 [699/700])-55. A traditionist who studied under ‘Abd All…h ibn ‘Amr and ‘Al†. A wealthy man, he is said to have given lavish banquets for the poor. (Mash…h†r, 103; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IV. 113-126.)
LUQMƒN-37. A sage of pre-Islamic Arabia who figures prominently in Arab legend and proverbs. He is shown in the Qur’…n as a monotheist giving advice to his son. (EI2, V. 811-3 [B. Heller-[N. A. Stillman]].)
AL-MAGHƒZIL‡-94. Possibly a reference to Ban…n ibn Ya|y… al-Magh…zili (d. 264 [877/8]), a traditionist. (Tar†kh Baghd…d, VII. 99-100.)
MAJN•N-164. The protagonist of a Bedouin love story. A shepherd, he falls in love with the girl Layl…. When he loses her he turns mad, wandering in the desert and communing with wild beasts. The tale was later turned into a symbol of the Sufi love of God. (EI2, V. 1102-7 [C. Pellat et al.].)
MAK›•L, Ab™ ‘Abd All…h al-Dimashq† (d. 112 [730/1])-42, 97. A prisoner of war taken at Kabul and given to an Egyptian woman, who set him free. He later became one of the more prominent jurists of Damascus, where he influenced al-Awz…‘†. (K…shif, III. 152; Fihrist, 227; Mash…h†r, 114.)
MƒLIK IBN ANAS al-A¡ba|† (d. 179 [795/6])-131, 164, 229. The founder of one of the four main schools of Islamic law. Born into a family of |ad†th scholars at Medina, he studied the recitation of the Qur’…n with N…fi‘ and heard |ad†ths from al-Zuhr† and Ibn al-Munkadir. He taught al-Sh…fi‘†, al-Thawr† and Ibn al-Mub…rak. His book, the Muwa¥¥a’, is the earliest surviving work of Muslim law, and places great emphasis on the actual practice of Islam in Medina in M…lik’s time. (SEI, 320-4 [J. Schacht].)
MƒLIK IBN D‡NƒR al-N…j† (d. 131 [748/9]-34, 98, 106. An ascetic of Basra who made a living by copying the Qur’…n. A companion of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†, he was credited with a number of miracles, including the ability to walk on water. (Mash…h†r, 90; Hujw†r†, 89-90; Gh…ya, II. 36; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 357-88.)
AL-MA’M•N (regn. 198-218 [813-833])-88. The caliph who presided over the zenith of Abbasid civilisation. He led a number of successful campaigns against the Byzantines and provincial rebels. His adoption of Mu‘tazilite theology may have been an attempt to reconcile both the Sh†‘a and the emerging Sunni orthodoxy to the ruling dynasty.
MANŸ•R IBN ISMƒ‘‡L al-Maghrib†-159. A Sufi who taught al- Qushayr†. (Zab†d†, X. 433.)
MA‘R•F AL-KARKH‡, ibn F†r™z (d. 200-1 [815/6-816/7])-24. One of the major early Sufis. His parents are said to have been Christians. He was a major influence on al-Sar† al-Saqa¥†, but also instructed Ibn ›anbal in |ad†ths. His grave, restored in 1312 AH, is an important focus of the religious life of Baghdad, and many miraculous cures are said to be worked there. (Hujw†r†, 113-5; Sulam†, 74-9; Qushayr†, I. 65-8; Ibn al-Jawz†, Man…qib Ma‘r™f al-Karkh† wa-akhb…ruhu.)
MARWƒN ibn al-›akam (regn. 64-5 [684-5])-46. An Umayyad caliph whose reign stands out only for his defeat of the forces of the rebel Ibn al-Zubayr at the battle of Marj R…hi¥.
MASR•Q ibn al-Ajda‘ (d. 63 [682/3])-127. Chiefly resident in K™fa, he was a respected traditionist and 'Follower' who taught Ibr…h†m al-Nakha‘†. He is said to have fought on the side of ‘Al† against the Kh…rijites. (Mash…h†r, 101; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XIII. 232-5; K…shif, III. 120.)
AL-MAS•›‡, al-ðasan ibn ‘Al†-163. A Sufi who was a follower of Bishr al-ð…f† and who taught al-Jurayr†. It is said that he was the first to give lessons on Sufism in Baghdad. Having no house, he slept in the portico of a mosque. (Tar†kh Baghd…d, VII. 366-67; Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 322.)
MAYM•N IBN MIHRƒN al-Jazar† (d. c 117 [735/6])-104. An ascetic of Raqqa on the upper Euphrates, he was a pupil of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r† and a traditionist who became secretary to the caliph ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Az†z. (Mash…h†r, 117; Bid…ya, IX. 314; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IV. 82-97.)
MU‘ƒDH IBN JABAL al-Khazraj† (d. c 18 [639/401)-29, 88. An early convert to Islam, he became well versed in fiqh in a short space of time. He was the Prophet’s governor of the Yemen, and died in Syria. (I¡…ba, III. 406-7; Mash…h†r, 5.)
MU‘ƒWIYA IBN AB‡ SUFYƒN ibn ðarb ibn Umayya (regn. 40-60 [661-80])-85, 86, 158. The first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, able and astute, he continued the conquests of his predecessors.
MUBASHSHIR IBN ISMƒ‘‡L AL-ðALAB‡ (d. 200 [815/6])-117. A traditionist of Aleppo who studied under al-Awz…‘† and taught a number of ‘Iraq† scholars. He is usually accounted a reliable authority. (K…shif, III. 104; Bid…ya, X. 247.)
AL-MUFAþþAL IBN FAþƒLA (d. 181 [797/8])-19. A somewhat unreliable traditionist of Basra, remembered for his love of prayer. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 321-3; K…shif, III. 150; þu‘af…’, 226.)
AL-MUGH‡RA IBN SHU‘BA al-Thaqaf† (d. 50 [670/1])-78. A Companion of the Prophet. He took part in a number of the early conquests, and lost an eye at the battle of Yarm™k. The caliph ‘Umar made him governor of Basra and then of K™fa; he subsequently retired from politics until it became clear that Mu‘…wiya had won, when he again assumed the governorship of the latter city. (I¡…ba, III. 432-3.)
MUðAMMAD IBN AB‡ TAWBA-24. Unidentified.
MUðAMMAD IBN AðMAD AL-MARWAZ‡-117. Probably a reference to a certain Sh…fi‘ite jurist and ascetic of this name who died at Merv in 371 (981/2). (Tar†kh Baghd…d, I. 314.)
MUðAMMAD IBN ‘AL‡ ibn al-ðusayn ibn ‘Al† ibn Ab† ¦…1ib, 'al-B…qir'. (d. c 114 [732/3])-84, 137. The father of the traditionist Ja‘far al-Ÿ…diq, he taught al-Zuhr† and al-Awz…‘†. He was later made into the fifth Imam of the Sh†‘a. (Mash…h†r, 62; K…shif, III. 71.)
MUðAMMAD IBN AL-ðUSAYN-84. Unidentified.
MUðAMMAD IBN KA‘B AL-QURA®‡ (d. 108 [726/7] or 118 [736/7])-138, 228. A Follower (t…bi‘†) of K™fa (later of Medina) much given to worship and the recitation of the Qur’…n. He related a number of |ad†ths to Ibn al-Munkadir. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 212-21; Mash…h†r, 65; Gh…ya, II. 233.)
MUðAMMAD IBN AL-MUNKADIR-145, 157. See 'Ibn alMunkadir'.
MUðAMMAD IBN QUDƒMA AL-JAWHAR‡ (d. 237 [851/21])-117. A traditionist of Baghdad who studied under Ibn ‘Uyayna. His reliability is sometimes questioned. (Zab†d†, X. 370; K…shif, III. 80.)
MUðAMMAD IBN ŸAB‡ð-133. See 'Ibn al-Samm…k'.
MUðAMMAD IBN SULAYMƒN ibn ‘Al† ibn ‘Abd All…h ibn ‘Abb…s (d. 173 [789/90])-110. A traditionist of doubtful reliability who was governor of Basra for a period. (Bid…ya, X. 103, 162-3; ‘Uqayl†, IV. 73.)
MUðAMMAD AL-¦•S‡, ibn Aslam (d. 242 [856/7])-166. A traditionist said to have been one of the first to write on the subject of weak |ad†ths. He was known for the sermons he preached against the Murji’ite heresy. (Ÿafad†, II. 204; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IX. 237-54; Bid…ya, X. 344.)
MUðAMMAD IBN WƒSI‘ al-Azd† (d. 127 [744/5])-47, 115, 160. An early |ad†th scholar noted for his asceticism. His statement, 'I never saw anything without seeing God therein' was much discussed by later Sufis. He fought under Qutayba ibn Muslim during the conquest of Transoxiana, and later became a judge. (Hujw†r†, 91-2; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 345-57; Gh…ya, II. 274; Mash…h†r, 151.)
MUðAMMAD IBN ‘UQBA-86. A q…ÿ† and traditionist. (Zab†d†; X. 322; K…shif, III. 70; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, IX. 347.)
MUðAMMAD IBN Y•SUF-22. Possibly a reference to Mu|ammad ibn Y™suf ibn Ya‘q™b, a chief judge of Baghdad (d. 320 [932/3]), known for his retiring disposition and friendship with the traditionist Ibn Man†‘. (Ÿafad†, V. 245-6; Bid…ya, XI. 76.)
MUJƒHID ibn Jabr al-Makk† (d. 104 [722/3])-40, 102, 132, 194, 245, 249. Sometimes considered the most learned authority among the 'Followers' (t…bi‘™n) on the exegesis of the Qur’…n, which he learnt from Ibn ‘Abb…s, he was particularly concerned to establish the circumstances under which each verse had been revealed. He was also respected for his austere and pious lifestyle. (Mash…h†r, 82; Fihrist, 33; Gh…ya, II. 41-2; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 279-310.)
MUJAMMI‘ ibn Ÿamgh…n al-Taym†-160. An ascetic of K™fa who associated with Sufy…n al-Thawr†. He is recorded as having been a person of simplicity and generosity, who would unhesitatingly allow strangers lodging in his house. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, V. 89-91.)
MUMSHƒD AL-D‡NAWAR‡ (d. 299 [911/2])-91, 94. A Sufi of the circle of lbn al Jall…’. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 252-4; Sulam†, 318-20.)
AL-MUNDHIR ibn M…lik al-‘Abd† (d. 108 [726/61)-34. A respected traditionist of Basra, who was present at the death of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 97-101; K…shif, III. 154.)
AL-MUNTAŸIR ibn al-Mutawakkil (regn. 247-8 [861-2])-88. An Abbasid caliph, who came to power after inducing the Turkish palace guards to assassinate his father.
MUQƒTIL ibn Sulaym…n al-Azd† (d. 150 [767/8])-175. A theologian and exegete from Balkh in Cental Asia who taught principally in Baghdad. He knew a large amount of Jewish lore, and compiled a commentary on the Qur’…n. (GAS, I. 60; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XIII. 160-9; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, X. 284.)
M•Sƒ IBN ðAMMƒD-168. Unidentified.
AL-MU‘TAMIR IBN SULAYMƒN al-Taym† (d. 187 [802/3])-50, 94. An ascetic and a reliable traditionist of Basra who associated with al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†. His father, Sulaym…n ibn Tarkh…n (d. 143 [760/1]) was also a |ad†th scholar. (Mash…h†r, 161; Ibn Qutayba, Ma‘…rif, 240.)
MUTAMMIM AL-DAWRAQ‡-159. Unidentified.
MU¦ARRIF IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH IBN AL-SHIKHKH‡R al-‘ƒmir† (d. c 87 [806/7])-12, 18. An ascetic and a traditionist of Basra. Many miracles and famous prayers are attributed to him. (Mash…h†r, 88; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 198-212; K…shif, III. 132.)
MU¦ARRIF ibn Ma‘qil al-Tam†m†-11. A traditionist who studied under Ibn S†r†n. (Zab†d†, X. 231.)
MU¦ARRIF IBN AB‡ BAKR AL-HUDHAL‡-118. An early ascetic of Basra. (Zab†d†, X. 373; Massignon, Essai, 164.)
AL-MU‘TAŸIM (regn. 218-27 [833-42])-88. An Abbasid caliph, remembered for his victory over the Byzantines at Amorium and his regularising of the use of Turkish palace guards.
NƒFI‘, mawla ibn ‘Umar. (d. 119 )-113, 114. An important |ad†th scholar of Medina, who studied under Ibn ‘Umar and Ab™ Hurayra, and who taught M…lik ibn Anas and al-Layth ibn Sa‘d. (Mash…h†r, 80; K…shif, III. 174.)
NAŸR ibn ¦ar†f al-B…hil†-90. An unreliable traditionist accused by Ibn al-Mub…rak of 'Qadarite' leanings. (‘Uqayl†, IV. 296-8.)
AL-NAŸRABADH‡, Ibr…h†m ibn Mu|ammad (d. c 367 [977/8]) -165. A Sufi of Khur…s…n, who associated with al-Shibl† and Ab™ ‘Al† al-R™dhb…r†. He was also a prolific traditionist. (Qushayr†, I. 222-3; Sulam†, 511-5; GAS, I. 663; Hujw†r†, 159-60.)
AL-NU‘MƒN IBN BASH‡R al-Khazraj† (d. c 74 [693/4])-131. A Companion of the Prophet who became governor of ðim¡ for Yaz†d I. He was killed by the populace of the latter city when he tried to raise support for the rebellion of Ibn al-Zubayr. (I¡…ba, III. 529-30; EI, III. 952-3 [K. V. Zetterstéen].)
AL-N•R‡, Abu’l-ðusayn (d. 295 [907/8])-95. An important Sufi of the Baghdad school. A companion of al-Junayd, he left a number of poems on Divine love. (Sulam†, 151-8; GAS, I. 650; Tar†kh Baghd…d, V. 130; ‘A¥¥…r, 221-30; Ernst, 97-101.)
QAB‡ŸA IBN ‘UQBA al-K™f† (d. 215 [830/1])-164. A traditionist and exegete who studied under Sufy…n al-Thawr† and taught Ibn ðanbal and Ibn Ab† Shayba. A number of |ad†ths related on his authority are given by al-Bukh…r†. (GAS, I. 40-1; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XII. 473-6; Bid…ya, X. 269.)
AL-QA‘Qƒ‘ IBN ‘AMR al-Tam†m†-71. A noted warrior who distinguished himself at the battle of al-Q…dis†ya. The story of his presence at the Prophet’s death is usually regarded as a fiction. (Ist†‘…b, III. 252; I¡…ba, III. 230.)
AL-QA‘Qƒ‘ IBN ðAK‡M al-Kin…n†-23. A pious and highlyregarded traditionist of the second generation of Muslims, who related |ad†ths from Ab™ Hurayra and Ibn ‘Umar. (Mash…h†r, 77; K…shif, II. 346; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, VIII. 383.)
QATƒDA ibn Di‘…ma al-Ba¡r† (d. 117 [735/6]-182. Although blind from birth, he became an authority on the exegesis of the Qur’…n. He was an associate of al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†, and is sometimes accused of Mu‘tazilite sympathies. (Fihrist, 34; Mash…h†r, 96; GAS, I. 31-2; Massignon, Essai, 200.)
RƒBI‘A AL-‘ADAW‡YA, bint Ism…‘†l (d. 185 [801/2])-116. The most famous woman Sufi. It is said that she was stolen as a child and sold into slavery, but was released on account of her piety. She lived for a time in the desert, where she was fed miraculously by God. She later moved to Basra, where she taught Sufy…n al-Thawr† and Shaq†q al-Balkh†, emphasising the importance of divine love. She left a number of fine prayers. (M. Smith, Rabi‘a the Mystic and her Fellow-Saints in Islam.)
AL-RAB‡‘ IBN KHUTHAYM (or'KHAYTHAM'), al-Thawr† (d. c 63 [682/3])-11, 12, 103. A pupil of Ibn ‘Abb…s and a famous ascetic of K™fa. Constantly ill with a form of palsy, he became for later generations a symbol of endurance in the face of suffering. He emphasised the importance of silence, scrupulousness in religious observance, and the fear of Hell. Many traditions in the collection of al-Bukh…r† are given on his authority. (Mash…h†r, 99-100; Gh…ya, I. 283; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 105-19; K…shif, I. 235; Ibn Marthad 41-3.)
AL-RAB‡‘ IBN SULAYMƒN al-Mur…d† (d. c 270 [883/4])-166. A pupil of al-Sh…fi‘†, and his messenger to Ibn ðanbal when this latter had been incarcerated by al-Ma’m™n. He was also the muezzin of the mosque of ‘Amr in Egypt. (K…shif, I. 236; Bid…ya, X. 162, 331.)
RUWAYM ibn A|mad al-Baghd…d† (d. 303 [915/6]-90, 94. A Sufi of the circle of al-Junayd, who stressed the importance of tajr†d (divestment from worldly attachments). He is said to have written books on Sufism. Additionally, he was a noted expert on the exegesis of the Qur’…n, and an adherent of the literalist ®…h†ri school of law. (Hujw†r†, 135-6; Qushayr†, I. 144-6; Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 296-302.)
SA‘D ibn Ab† Waqq…¡ al-Murr† (d. 50 [670/1] or 55 [674-5])-80. One of the ten Companions assured of Heaven by the Prophet, he distinguished himself particularly as a brilliant politician and soldier. To him goes the credit for the defeat of the Persians at al-Q…dis†ya (16/637), one of history’s most decisive battles, and the subsequent founding of K™fa as a military base. He remained governor of that city until the year 20 [640/1] when he was recalled to Medina following allegations, not credited by the Caliph, of misrule. ‘Umar later made him one of the six men who were to choose the new caliph. (SEI, 482 [K. V. Zetterstéen].)
SA‘D IBN BILƒL-255. According to Zab†d† this is a mistake for Bil…l ibn Sa‘d (d. c 120 [737/8], an ascetic and preacher of Damascus who was also regarded as the greatest Syrian authority on the readings of the Qur’…n at that time. (Ÿafad†, X. 277; K…shif, I. 111; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, I. 503.)
SA‘D IBN MU‘ƒDH al-Aws† (d. 5 )-146, 150. The head of an important clan at Medina, he was an early and enthusiastic convert. During the Battle of the Trench he was wounded, and after the fighting had subsided was asked by the Prophet to pass judgement on the Jewish clan of Quray©a, which had been accused of dealing secretly with the enemy. He found them guilty, and sentenced their menfolk to death and their women and children to slavery. He himself died shortly afterwards. (SEI, 482-3 [K. V. Zetterstéen]); Ist†‘…b, II. 25-30.)
øAF‡YA bint ðuyayy ibn Akh¥ab (d. 50 [670/1] or 52 [672/3])-11. A Jewish woman who joined Islam and married the Prophet following the Khaybar expedition. She became particularly close to his daughter F…¥ima and showed great devotion to the Prophet, particularly during his final illness. (SEI, 487-8 [V. Vacca].)
SAHL AL-øU‘L•K‡ ibn Mu|ammad (d. 404 [1013/4])-166. A prominent Sh…fi‘† jurist of N†s…b™r, whose classes were regularly attended by over five hundred students, among whom was the great traditionist al-ð…kim. He is said to have written on theology and literature. (Subk†, IV. 393; Ÿafad†, XVI. 12-13; Zab†d†, X. 438.)
SA‘‡D IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH ibn Jurayj-61. A traditionist who taught al-A‘mash. (K…shif, I. 289; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, IV. 51.)
SA‘‡D IBN ‘ABD ALLƒH AL-AWD‡-116. Unidentified.
SA‘‡D IBN ‘ABD AL-RAðMƒN al Juma|† (d. 176 [792/3])18. A respected traditionist who became H…r™n al-Rash†d’s chief judge at Baghdad. A number of traditions in the Ÿa|†| of Muslim are given on his authority. (Ÿafad†, XV. 237; K…shif, I. 290; Gh…ya, I. 306.)
SA‘‡D IBN AL-MUSAYYIB al-Makhz™m† (d. 93-4 [711/2-712/3])-75, 249. A major genealogist and legal expert of Medina, held by some to have been the most erudite of the second Muslim generation. He refused to marry his devout and learned daughter to the caliph al-Wal†d ibn ‘Abd al-M…lik, for which he was flogged. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 161-76; Hujw†r†, 87; Mash…h†r, 63.)
ŸƒLIð IBN BASH‡R al-Murr† (d. c 172 [788/9])-160. A 'weak' traditionist of Basra who studied under Ibn S†r†n and Yaz†d al-Ruq…sh†. Famed for his sermons, he was invited to Baghdad to preach before the caliph al-Mahd†. (Ÿafad†, XVI. 252; Bid…ya, X. 170; þu‘af…’, 136; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 165-77.)
ŸƒLIð AL-MURR‡-132. See previous notice.
ŸƒLIð IBN MISMƒR al-Marwaz† (d. 246 [860/1])-92. A traditionist who learnt |ad†ths from Ibn ‘Uyayna; some of his material is incorporated in the Ÿa|†| of Muslim. (K…shif, II. 22.)
SALMƒN AL-FƒRIS‡ (d. 36 [656/7])-19, 74, 89, 240. 'Salm…n the Good.' A Persian convert to Islam who became one of the most celebrated Companions of the Prophet. It was upon his counsel that the famous 'Fosse' was dug to defend the city from the Meccan army. Later he participated in the conquest of Iraq. His asceticism and devotion to the Prophet made him an ideal for later generations, and in particular the Sufis, to whom he is held to have transmitted much of the Prophet’s esoteric knowledge. (I¡…ba, II. 60-1; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 185-208; SEI, 500-1 [G. Levi della Vida].)
SAMURA ibn Jundub al-Faz…r† (d. 51-60 [671/2-679/80])-219. A Companion of the Prophet who transmitted a number of Traditions used by al-Bukh…r† and Muslim. He served as governor of Basra and then of K™fa for a short period. (GAS, I. 84-5; Mash…h†r, 38.)
AL-SAR‡ AL-SAQA¦‡, ibn al-Mughallis (d. c 251 [865/6])-93. The maternal uncle of al Junayd, and one of the first to present Sufism in a systematised fashion. According to Hujw†r†, his conversion to Sufism was instigated by the Baghdad saint ðab†b al-R…‘†, who, upon being given a crust of bread by al-Sar†, said, 'May God reward you!' 'From that time on', al-Saqa¥† later remarked, 'my worldly affairs never prospered again'. He was perhaps the most influential disciple of Ma‘r™f al-Karkh†. (EI, IV. 171 [L. Massignon]; Tar†kh Baghd…d, IX. 187-62; J. al-Mur…bi¥, al-Sar† al-Saqa¥†; Dermenghem, 115-28.)
SAWDA bint Zam‘a al-Qurash†ya (d. 54 [673/4])-178. The second wife of the Prophet, she was one of the earliest converts to Islam. She is remembered for her charitable and amiable temperament. (SEI, 503-4 [V. Vacca].)
SHADDƒD IBN AWS (d. 58 [677/8])-41. A Medinese companion of the Prophet whose father died at the battle of Badr. He narrated a number of |ad†ths, and is buried at Jerusalem. (I¡…ba, II. 138; Nawaw†, Tahdh†b, 312; Mash…h†r, 50.)
AL-SHƒFI‘‡, Mu|ammad ibn Idr†s al-Qurash† (d. 204 )-95, 166, 168. The founder of the Sh…fi‘ite school of Islamic law. Although born in Gaza he was brought up with a Bedouin tribe, which gave him a good grounding in poetry and the Arabic language. He later studied fiqh with Sufy…n ibn ‘Uyayna and M…lik ibn Anas, developing a legal theory that stood halfway between literalism and personal opinion. He travelled extensively in Iraq and Egypt, where he died; his tomb is today one of the centres of Cairene religious life. (GAS, I. 484-90; Tar†kh Baghd…d, II. 56-73; SEI, 512-5 [W. Heffening].)
SHAQ‡Q AL-BALKH‡, al-Azd† (d. 194 [809/10])-19. One of the founders of the Khur…s…n† school of Sufism, he was the disciple of the ascetic Ibr…h†m ibn Adham. He was known for his discourses on the nearness of the Resurrection and the importance of reliance (tawakkul) upon God. He was also a noted scholar of the shar†‘a. (Qushayr†, I. 85-7; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 58-73; Sulam†, 54-9; Hujw†r†, 111-2.)
AL-SHIBL‡, ibn Ja|dar (d. 334 [945/6])-92, 93, 164. Formerly a chamberlain at the Caliph’s palace, he converted to Sufism and became a follower of al-Junayd, whose teachings he later communicated to al-Na¡r…b…dh†. Well-known for his acts of asceticism and renunciation, it is said that he put salt in his eyes to stay awake for his nocturnal devotions. He was also an authority on the M…likite school of law. His tomb at Baghdad is still venerated. (Qushayr†, I. 159-60; Sulam†, 340-55; Hujw†r†, 155-6; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XIV. 389-97; EI, IV.. 360-1 [L. Massignon]; Dermenghem, 201-30.)
ŸILA IBN ASHYAM al-‘Adaw† (d. 76 [695/6])-100. A Follower (t…bi‘†) of Basra who fought in the conquest of Sijist…n and Ghazna, where he was killed. He was known for his gentle sermons and advice. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 237-42; Mash…h†r, 89; Bid…ya, IX. 15.)
AL-SUDD‡-33. Two men with this nisba are commonly recorded: (i) Ism…‘†l ibn ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n, 'al-Sudd† al-Kab†r' (d. 127 [744/5], an exegete of K™fa (Mash…h†r, III; Siyar, V. 264: GAS. I. 32-3); (ii) Mu|ammad ibn Marw…n, 'al-Sudd† al-Ÿagh†r' an early traditionist of K™fa who lived in Baghdad and taught al-A¡ma‘†. (Tar†kh Baghd…d, III. 291-3; Siyar, V. 265.)
SUFYƒN-103, 146. See next notice.
SUFYƒN AL-THAWR‡, ibn Sa‘†d (d. 161 [777/8])-162, 163, 164, 166, 168. A scholar and well-known saint of K™fa, of whom a great number of anecdotes are recorded. He was one of the 'Eight Ascetics,' who included (usual list) ‘ƒmir ibn ‘Abd Qays, Ab™ Muslim al-Khawl…n†, Uways al-Qaran†, al-Rab†‘ ibn Khuthaym, al-Aswad ibn Yaz†d, Masr™q, and al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†. It is said that he was offered high office under the Umayyads but consistently declined. (Fihrist, 225; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 356-93, VH. 3-144; EI, IV. 500-2 [M. Plessner].)
SUFYƒN IBN ‘UYAYNA-157. See 'Ibn ‘Uyayna'.
ŸUHAYB ibn Sin…n, 'al-R™m†' (d. c 38 [658/9]-251. An Arab from the Mosul region captured and enslaved as a child by Byzantine raiders. He was brought up in the Byzantine empire, and then taken to Mecca and sold. Here he joined the new Muslim community at the house of al-Arqam, and was persecuted for his faith until he made the Emigration to Medina in the company of ‘Al†. (Ÿafad†, XVI. 335-8; I¡…ba, II. 188-9; Ab™ Nu‘aym, I. 151-6.)
SUðAYM-33. Possibly a reference to Su|aym al-Madan†, a reputable traditionist who studied under Ab™ Hurayra and taught Ibn Shih…b al-Zuhr†. (K…shif, I. 274; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, III. 454.)
SULAYMƒN IBN ‘ABD AL-MALIK (regn. 97-99 [715-7])-21. An Umayyad caliph remembered for his gluttony and licentiousness.
SULAYMƒN IBN SUðAYM al-Madan†-114. A traditionist who taught Ibn ‘Uyayna; some of his |ad†ths are to be found in the collection of Muslim. He died during the reign of al-Man¡™r. (K…shif, I. 314; T…bi‘†n, I. 95; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, IV. 193.)
AL-ŸUNƒBIð‡, ‘Abd al-Ra|m…n al-Mur…d† (d. 70-80 [689/90699/700])-256. A Yemenite who went to Medina to meet the Prophet but who arrived five days after his death. He later moved to Syria, where he gained the confidence and respect of the caliph ‘Abd al-M…lik. (Mash…h†r, III; Ab™ Nu‘aym, V. 129-31; K…shif, II. 157.)
¦ALðA ibn ‘Ubayd All…h al-Qurash† (d. 36 [656-7])-80. One of the ten Companions assured of Paradise by the Prophet; called 'one of the pillars of Islam' by ‘Umar. He distinguished himself at the Battle of U|ud, where he personally defended the Prophet. One of the six men chosen to elect ‘Umar’s successor, he was killed at the Battle of the Camel at the age of 64. His grave is still visited at Basra. (I¡…ba, II. 220-2; Mash…h†r, 7.)
THƒBIT AL-BUNƒN‡, ibn Aslam (d. 127 [744/5])-49, 98, 104. A Follower (t…bi‘†) of Basra who kept the company of Anas ibn M…lik for forty years. One of the 'Weepers', he was much given to prayer and other devotional acts. A number of |ad†ths are related on his authority. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, II. 2-4; Mash…h†r, 89; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 318-33.)
THAWBƒN ibn Yu|dad (d. 54 [673/4])-218, 242. A slave purchased and freed by the Prophet, whom he served until the latter’s death. He later removed to ðim¡, where he died. The |ad†th collection of Muslim contains material given on his authority. (I¡…ba, I. 205; Mash…h†r, 50; K…shif, I. 119.)
AL-THAWR‡-18, 19, 23, 164. See 'Sufy…n al-Thawr†.'
THUMƒMA IBN ðAZN AL-QUSHAYR‡-82. A companion of the caliph ‘Umar, from whom he related a number of |ad†ths; later he moved to Basra. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, II. 27; Ÿafad†, XI. 18; Mash…h†r, 92.)
‘UBƒDA IBN AL-ŸƒMIT al-Khazraj† (d. c 34 [654/5])-256. An early convert who took part in the battle of Badr. In later years he participated in the conquest of Egypt, and was made the first q…ÿ† of Palestine by the caliph ‘Umar. (I¡…ba, II. 260-1; Mash…h†r, 51.)
‘UBAYD ALLƒH-48. Unidentified.
‘UBAYD IBN ‘UMAYR al-Layth† (d. 74 [693/4])-132,133. A respected traditionist of Mecca who taught the exegesis of the Qur’…n to Muj…hid. He is said to have been unusually thin as a consequence of much fasting and self-denial. (Mash…h†r, 82; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 266-279; Gh…ya, I. 496-7.)
‘UKƒSHA (or ‘UKKƒSHA) ibn Mi|¡an al-Asad† (d. 12 )-259. An early convert who fought at Badr. He was killed in the ridda wars during the caliphate of Ab™ Bakr. (I¡…ba, II. 487-8; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 12-13; Mash…h†r, 16.)
‘UMAR IBN ‘ABD AL-‘AZ‡Z ibn Marw…n (regn. 99-101 [717-20])-11, 12, 14, 20, 22, 24, 87-8, 102, 104, 118, 158, 218, 260. Sometimes called 'the fifth rightly-guided Caliph' for his piety, he was concerned to implement the shar†‘a in a number of neglected areas, such as the equal treatment of converts; he also ended the public cursing of ‘Al† from the pulpits. A large body of sermons and anecdotes connected with him soon found its way into religious literature.
‘UMAR IBN DHARR al-Hamadh…n† (d. c 156 [772/3])-99, 110. A respected traditionist of K™fa, and a companion of Sufy…n ibn ‘Uyayna. A number of fine prayers for forgiveness are ascribed to him. He is said to have been a member of the Murji’ite sect. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, VII. 444; Ab™ Nu‘aym, V. 108-19; K…shif, II. 269.)
‘UMAR IBN AL-KHA¦¦ƒB (regn. 13-23 [634-44])-34, 42, 48, 64, 68, 72, 77-81, 101, 145, 156, 163, 218, 237. At first an enemy of the Prophet’s mission, he became one of its staunchest defenders. His daughter ðaf¡a married the Prophet after the Emigration. When he succeeded Ab™ Bakr as caliph, he showed considerable brilliance in the face of the new circumstances arising as a result of the conquests, regulating the status of minorities, arranging a military pensions system and founding a number of garrison towns (am¡…r). He was universally respected for his integrity and uncompromising devotion to the faith. (I¡…ba, II. 511-2; Ist†‘…b, II. 450-66; SEI, 600-1 [G. Levi della Vida].)
UMM KULTH•M bint ‘Al†-68, 83. The daughter of ‘Al† and F…¥ima, she was born during the lifetime of the Prophet. She was married first to ‘Umar ibn al-Kha¥¥…b, and later on to a son of Ja‘far ibn Ab† ¦…lib. (I¡…ba, IV. 468-9; Ist†‘…b, IV. 467-9.)
UMM HƒR•N-12. Unidentified; said by Zab†d† (X. 232) to have been a Sufi.
UMM AL-MUNDHIR bint Qays al-An¡…r†ya-15. A Muslim woman of Medina and a Companion of the Prophet. A number of |ad†ths are given on her authority in the collections of Ab™ D…™d and al-Tirmidh†. (K…shif, III. 444; I¡…ba, IV. 477.)
‘UQBA IBN ‘ƒMIR al-Juhan† (d. 58 [677/8])-181. A Companion who led a campaign for the Prophet and was present at the battle of Tab™k. He later became governor of Egypt, where he is said to be buried. (Mash…h†r, 55; K…shif, II. 237.)
USƒMA IBN ZAYD ibn ð…ritha (d. 54 [673/4])-16, 246. Described by the Prophet as the most beloved of his Companions, he was set in charge of an expedition to Syria, preparations for which began during the Prophet’s final illness. He later moved to Damascus. (Mash…h†r, II; K…shif, I. 57; I¡…ba, I. 46.)
USAYD IBN ðUþAYR al-Ashhal† (d. c 20 [640/1])-97. One of the seven Medinese Muslims present at the first ‘Aqaba pledge, he was severely wounded at the battle of U|ud. A number of |ad†ths on his authority are extant. (I¡…ba, I. 64; K…shif, I. 82.)
‘UTBA AL-GHULƒM, ibn Ab…n (d. c 153 [770/1])-165, 167. An ascetic of Basra, where he associated with al-ðasan al-Ba¡r†. It is said that he received a dream in which he was told that he would gain martyrdom; he later travelled to northern Syria where he was attached to the garrison of a frontier fortress, and shortly afterwards was killed in a cavalry sortie near Adana. (Bid…ya, X. 150; Ab™ Nu‘aym, VI. 226-38.)
‘UTHMƒN ibn ‘Aff…n ibn Abi'l ‘ƒ¡ ibn Umayya (regn. 23-35 [644-56])-48, 68, 69, 80, 81-3, 101, 164. A wealthy merchant who became a Muslim before the Emigration. He became known as 'Dhu’l-N™rayn'-'the man of the two lights' because he married two of the Prophet’s daughters: firstly Ruqayya, and then, after her death, Umm Kulth™m. During the latter years of his caliphate he was accused of nepotism, a charge which brought about his murder by a group of dissidents from Egypt, who beseiged his house, it is said, for forty-nine days, and then stormed it and stabbed him to death while he was reading the Qur’…n. (SEI, 615-7 [G. Levi della Vida]; Mash…h†r, 5-6; I¡…ba, II. 455-6.)
UWAYS AL-QARAN‡, ibn ‘ƒmir al-Mur…d† (d. 37? [657?])-167. A Yemeni, who although he never met the Prophet, was mentioned and praised by him, and was promised that he would exercise a special intercession for the believers on the Day of Judgement. Ÿafad† tells us that 'most of his discourses concern the remembrance of death'. (Ÿafad†, IX. 456-7; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 7987; Mash…h†r, 100; lbn Marthad, 71-4.)
WAHB IBN MUNABBIH, ibn K…mil (d. c 110 [728/9])-21, 51. A Yemeni sage possibly of Persian origin, who is said to have prayed all night for forty consecutive years. A number of sermons are ascribed to him, which make considerable use of Jewish lore. He was made a judge during the reign of ‘Umar II. (Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, XI. 166; Ab™ Nu‘aym, IV. 23-82; Mash…h†r, 122-3.)
WARAQƒ’ IBN BISHR AL-HAþRAM‡-167. Unidentified.
AL-WƒSI¦‡, Mu|ammad ibn M™s… (d. c 320 )-92. A Sufi who associated with al Junayd and al-N™r† at Baghdad, and who later moved to Merv, where he died. He was also an authority on fiqh. (Qushayr†, I. 151-2; Sulam†, 302-7.)
WƒTHILA IBN AL-ASQA‘ al-Layth† (d. c 85 )-49. A Companion of the Prophet, and one of the ahl al-øuffa. He took part in the Tab™k expedition and in due course moved to Syria, where he narrated |ad†ths to Mak|™l. (Gh…ya, II. 358; K…shif, III. 204; Mash…h†r, 51; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 21-3.)
WUHAYB ibn al-Ward al-Makk† (d. c 153 [770/1])-45. A |ad†th scholar who spent his life in mortification and worship, and to whom a number of miracles are attributed. He taught Ibn ‘Uyayna and Ibn al-Mub…rak, and a few |ad†ths are given on his authority by Muslim and al-Tirmidh†. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 140-62; Mash…h†r, 148; Massignon, Essai, 169; K…shif, III. 216.)
YAðYƒ IBN AB‡ KATH‡R (d. 129 [746/7])-246. A mawl… of ¦ayyi’; an ascetic and a traditionist of the Yemen. (K…shif, III. 233; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 66-75; Bid…ya, X. 34.)
YAðYƒ IBN MU‘ƒDH al-R…z† (d. 258 [871/2])-103, 249. A Sufi who taught in Central Asia. One of the first to teach Sufism in mosques, he left a number of books and sayings. Despite the emphasis he placed on raj…’: the hope for Paradise and for God’s forgiveness, he was renowned for his perseverence in worship and his great scrupulousness in matters of religion. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, X. 51-70; Sulam†, 98-104; Fihrist, 184; GAS, I. 644; Hujw†r†, 122-3; Massignon, Essai, 268-72.)
YA‘Lƒ IBN AL-WAL‡D-128. Unidentified.
YAZ‡D ibn Mu‘…wiya (regn. 60-3 [680-3])-86. The second caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, he sent the army which killed the Prophet’s grandson al-ðusayn.
YAZ‡D IBN MADH‘•R-161. Unidentified.
YAZ‡D IBN NA‘ƒMA al-þabb†-167. A Follower (t…bi‘†) who studied |ad†th under Anas ibn M…lik. (K…shif, III. 251; Zab†d†, X. 439)
YAZ‡D AL-RUQƒSH‡, ibn Ab…n (d. c 115 [733/4])-54, 103, 134. A traditionist and judge who taught ø…li| al-Murr†. One of the 'Weepers', he abandoned his studies to devote himself to worship. (K…shif, III. 240; þu‘af…’, 253; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 50-5; Tahdh†b al-Tahdh†b, XI. 309.)
Y•SUF IBN ASBƒ¦ al-Shayb…n† (d. 196 [811/2])-94. Dominated by the fear of God and of the Judgement, he influenced Bishr al-›…f†. He also related a number of |ad†ths from al-Thawr†. (Ab™ Nu‘aym, VIII. 237-53; Zab†d†, X. 343.)
Y•SUF IBN AL-ðUSAYN al-R…z† (d. 304 [916/7])-159. A disciple of Dhu’l-N™n al-Mi¡r† and an associate of al-Kharr…z, he is remembered for the emphasis he laid upon sincerity: 'That I should meet God with every sin', he is represented as saying, 'would be preferable to me than to meet him with an atom’s weight of affectation'. (Qushayr†, I. 158; Sulam†, 175-82; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XIV. 314-9; Hujw†r†, 136.)
ZAYD IBN ARQAM al-Khazraj† (d. c 65 [684/5])-243. A Companion of the Prophet and a close associate of ‘Al†, for whom he fought at øiff†n. Thirteen of his |ad†ths are to be found in the collections of al-Bukh…r† and Muslim. (I¡…ba, I. 542; Mash…h†r, 47.)
ZAYD IBN ASLAM al-‘Adaw† al-¦™s† (d. 136 [753/4])-41, 110, 229. A respected traditionist and jurist who is said to have taught M…lik ibn Anas. A number of sayings on raj…’, hope for God’s forgiveness, are ascribed to him. (Mash…h†r, 80; Ab™ Nu‘aym, III. 221-9; Gh…ya, I. 296.)
ZAYD IBN ðƒRITHA al-Ka‘b† (d. 8)-248. A very early convert to Islam, given as a slave by Khad†ja to the Prophet, who set him free. So close was he to him that he was called 'Zayd ibn Mu|ammad.' He died leading the Muslim army at Mu’ta. (I¡…ba, I. 545-6.)
ZAYD IBN THƒBIT al-Khazraj† (d. 45 [665/6])-16. A Companion who joined Islam at the age of eleven. He was one of those that wrote down the verses of the Qur’…n as these were revealed. (I¡…ba, I. 543-4; Mash…h†r, 10.)
ZAYNAB bint Mu|ammad (d. 8 [629/30])-146, 150. The eldest of the Prophet’s daughters, she was married to her cousin Abu’l-‘ƒ¡[†] ibn al-Rab†‘, and came to Medina after the battle of Badr. Her daughter Um…ma married ‘Al† after the death of F…¥ima. (SEI, 653 [V. Vacca]; I¡…ba, IV. 306; Ist†‘…b, 304-5.)
ZUBAYDA bint Ja‘far ibn Man¡™r (d. 216 [831/2])-161. Married to H…r™n al-Rash†d in 165 AH, she became the best known of the Abbasid princesses. It is said that her palace 'sounded like a beehive' because she employed as maids a hundred women who had memorised the Qur’…n. She is particularly remembered for the donations she made to the ulema and to the poor, and for the improvements she effected to the road from Iraq to Mecca and Medina, which was renamed the 'Zubayda Road' in her honour. (Ÿafad†, XIV. 176-8; Tar†kh Baghd…d, XIV. 433-4; Bid…ya, X. 271.)
AL-ZUBAYR ibn al-‘Aww…m (d. 35 [655/6])-80, 202. One of the ten Companions who were guaranteed salvation. Perhaps the fifth convert to Islam, he was a cousin of the Prophet, who called him his 'apostle' (|…war†). His grave is said to be in the vicinity of Basra. (I¡…ba, I. 526-8; SEI, 660-1 [A. Wensinck].)
ZURƒRA IBN AB‡ AWFƒ al-‘ƒmir† (d. 93 [711/2])-19, 161. A judge at Basra and a respected traditionist. He was renowned for his fear of Hell and the Resurrection: it is said that he once acted as Imam for the dawn prayer at Basra, and that when he reached the verse When the Trumpet shall sound he fell dead from fright. (Mash…h†r, 95; Ab™ Nu‘aym, II. 258-61; K…shif, I. 250.)