SE

Sufism and Ethics


 

Number:                   [M:21; A:21]

Title:                         {ميزان العمل} Mīzān al-ʿamal, (Criterion of Action)

Subject:               

Short description:

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:             Mīzān al-ʿamal, Edited by S. Dunya in Arabic

Translation:        

  • Amellerde Ilahi Terazi, trans. Abdullah Aydin, Istanbul: Aydin Yayinevi, 1971.
  • Mīzān al-ʿamal, by A. A. Kasmm’i, Tehran, 1995. Persian translation of the S. Dunya edition.
  • Timbangan amal: menuju kebahagiaan akhirat trans. M. Ali Chasan Umar;
  • A. Chumaidi Umar / Kuala Lumpur: Alharamain, 1984. 239 pp.
  • M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL’AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 97-274 with extensive introduction in 96 pp. ISBN: 8802060746.
  • Das Kriterium des Handelns = Mizan al-`amal / Abu-Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali; aus dem Arabischen u¨bersetzt, mit einer Einleitung, mit Anmerkungen und Indices; herausgegeben von `Abd-Elsamad `Abd-Elhamid Elschazli. Darmstadt: WBG, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2006.
  • Crite`re de l’action = Mizan al-a`mal : traite´ d’e´thique psychologique et mystique / de Abou-Hamid Mouhammad b. Mouhammad b. Mouhammad al-Ghazzali ; version franc¸aise et e´tude analytique par Hikmat Hachem ; pre´face de Louis Massignon. Published/Created: Paris: G.P. Maisonneuve, 1945.
  • English translations of two chapters (unpublished).
  • Hebrew translation.

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Number:             [M:28; A:28; GAL, I, 422, S., I, 748]

Title:                   {إحياء علوم الدين} Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din (Revival of Islamic Knowledge)

Subject:           Sufism and Ethics

Short description:             For more detailed entry see below entry on the Ihya since it is a major work.

Summaries:       {مختصر إحياء علوم الدين / لباب إحياء علوم الدين} Mukhtasr ihya’ ulum al-din (Summary of the Ihya’) It is most likely by Al-Ghazali’s brother Ahmad (abu al-futuh d. 1126) also called (lubab Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din) and there are many others.

 

 

 


 

Number:             [M:219, 220; A:93]

Title:                   {مختصر إحياء علوم الدين / لباب إحياء علوم الدين} Mukhtasr ihya’ ulum al-din (Summary of the Ihya’) It is most likely by Al-Ghazali’s brother Ahmad (abu al-futuh d. 1126) also called (lubab Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din)

Subject:          

Short description:

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:       Mukhtasr ihya’ ulum al-din printed by mu’asat al-kutub al-thaqifia (Beirut, 1990) 286pp.

Translation:   

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Number:             [M:35; A:35]

Title:                   {بداية الهداية} Bidāyat al-hidāya (Beginning of Guidance)

Subject:          

Short description:

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:

    • Bidāyat al-hidāya fi al-adab wa-al-akhlāq wa-al-taṣawwuf lil-Shaykh Zayn al-Din Ḥujjat al-Islam Abi Ḥamid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī al-Ṭusī. Wa-yaliha al-Risalah al-waʿẓiya, al-Maktaba al-Tijariya al-Kubrá (Cairo, N.D. 19??).
    • Bidāyat al-hidaya edited by Muhammad Saud al-Ma’yni, (Baghdad, 1988)
    • Bidayat al-hidāya, edited by Abdelhamid Muhammad al-Darwish, Dar Sader, Beirut 1998
    • Bidāyat al-hidāya ed. by Hajjar, 2001.
    • Bidāyat al-hidāya ed. by Kasht, Cairo, 1985.
    • Bidāyat al-hidāya published in India.

 

Translation:   

    • Partially translated by W. M. Watt, who claimed that the second half as unauthentic(?) and fully translated by Muhammad Abul Qasem, self published in Malaysia.
    • Dual language edition (Arabic/English) by M. Al-Allaf. (St. Louis, 2004)
    • Chechen translation
    • Hell, Joseph, and Walter Otto. 1915. Die Religion des Islam 1 Von Mohammed bis Ghazâlî. Jena: Diederichs.

 

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Number:                   [M:38, 95; A:38; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]

Title:                         {الأربعين في أصول الدين} al-’Arabin fi isul al-din (the Forty fundamentals of religion)

Subject:              

Short description:

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:             M. S. Kurdi edition (Cairo, 1328 and 1344 => by al-istiqamah Press) and another edited by ‘Abdullah A.H. ‘Arawni, dar al-qalam (Damascus, 2003) 303pp. An edition based on Kurdi’s published edition and Mss from al-zaytuna, Tunisia. Nicely produced volume.

Translation:         Paritial translation with commentary Harun Spivack

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Studies:                    Originally written as part of Jawahir al-Qur’an and permission was given for it to be a separate work. Partial translation was completed as an MA thesis in AUC.

 


 


 

Number:                   [M:45; A:45]

Title:                         {كميائي سعادات} Kimiya-ye Saadah (Alchemy of Happiness)

Subject:              

Short description:            Al-Ghazali’s own Persian version of the Ihya’ a shorter work. Considering al-Ghazali’s pedagogical tendencies one could assume that the Ihya’ is larger/deeper work on the subject, the Kimiya to be the medium work and the ‘arbain to be the summary work.

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:             Persian original in two volumes

Translation:        

    • English: Alchemy of Happiness Widely circulated translation which could be the one from the Hundistani translation of the Arabic translation. A questionable pedigree but widely available on the open market as well as on the net.
    • Arabic Translation (not a complete translation it was originally written in Persian)
    • by Prof.  M. Capanini. LA BILANCIA DELL’AZION e altri scritti, UTET (Torino, 2005) pp. 351-370. ISBN: 8802060746.
    • Jay R. Crook as Alchemy of Happiness (Kimiyā al-saʿadat) Chicago: Kazi, 2008.
    • A translation by Muhammad Asim Bilal and revised by Dr. Munir Ahmad Mughal, Kazi publications, Lahore: 2001.
    • Urdu translation

 

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Number:                   [M:46; A:46; GAL, I, 423; K:6010]

Title:                         {إيها الولد المحب} Ayahā al-wald al-muib (O beloved Son)

Subject:               Sufism, Pedagogy

Short description:            Originally written in Persian but was quickly translated into Arabic which became the widely circulated version that was readily available. Persian original was lost and is no longer available.

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:            Qadiriyah Library Manuscript # F 1432 and S 1418

Publication:             Ayuhā al-walad al-muḥib. Edited by Jamil Ibrahim Habib.

Translation:         Ghazzālī, and Joseph Hammer-Purgstall. 1838. O kind! Die berühmte ethische Abhandlung Ghasali’s. Arabisch und deutsch, als Neujahrsgeschenk. Wien: Gedruckt bey A. Strauss’s sel. Witwe. O Disciple. English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, (Beirut: Catholic Press, 1951) Ghazali’ letter to a Disciple, a dual language edition translated by Toby Mayer. Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 2004. Brief an den Jünger : arabisch und deutsch : mit einer kleinen Einführung in die Geschichte der Esoterik und Sufi-Philosophie = Ayuha-’l-Walad / Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali ; nach der französischen Übersetzung von Tufiq as-Sabagh ; und mit einem Vorwort von George H. Scherer ; ins Deutsche gebracht durch M.P. Steiner. (Basel, Schweiz : Edition Oriflamme, 2009.)

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Number:             [M:47; A:47; GAL, I, 423 no 30 & S., I, 750]

Title:                   {التبر المسبوك في نصحية الملوك} al-Tibr al-masbuk fi naihat al-muluk (The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings).

Subject:          

Short description:

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:      Manuscript: al-tabr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk wa alwuzara wa al-wulat (MS:l72.2:G4ltbA), Quoting the site: “a manual of advice composed for rulers, ministers and governors on how they should govern their realms. The manuscript was probably produced in Egypt at the beginning of the fifteenth century. It is a fine example of a late Mamluk manuscript that can be seen in the quality of the colored paper, the beauty of the calligraphy and the contemporary brown morocco binding. The [Jafet] library of the American University of Beirut Archives and Special Collection.

Publication:       nasihat al-muluk, ed., Jalal al-din Huma’yi (Tehran: Intisharat-i Babak, 1361/1982)

Translation:   

    • al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk. Arabic (html text minor proof reading) This is the Arabic translation of the book which was originally written in Persian as Nasihat al-Muluk (only the first part of this book was written by al-Ghazali, however. cf.
    • English Translation: Counsel for Kings. translated by F. R. C. Bagley, from the Persian text edited by Jalal Huma’i and the Bodleian Arabic text, edited by H. D. Isaacs, with introduction, notes, and biographical index (London : Oxford University Press, 1964)
    • Насихат ал-мулук – Совет владыкам- A Russian Language translation by Alexey A. Khismatulin Published by: Петербургское Востоковедение ; Note that: Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali al-Tusi. The Kimiya-yi sa’adat (“ЭЛИКСИР СЧАСТЬЯ”). Part 2: Rukn 2: Obychai (with Supplements A&B) / Tr. from the Persian, Introduction, commentaries and indices by Alexey A. Khismatulin. St.Petersburg: Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie, 2007.ISBN 987-5-85803-359-2. The translation of the Nasihat al-muluk is in Supplement A, pp. 369-406. The Persian original was published by Jalal al-din Huma’yi in 1361/1982 (Tehran: Intisharat-i Babak), the 2nd ed. pp. 341-377.

 

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Studies:              P. Crone Did al-Ghazali Write a Mirror for Princes? in: Jerusalem Studies of Arabic and Islam 10 (1987) pp. 167-191.)

 


 

 

Number:                   [M:56; A:56]

Title:                         {المنقذ من الضلال} al-Munqidh min al-alāl (Rescuer from Misguidance). considered to be autobiography an apologia pro vita

Subject:               Autobiographical account, sufism

Short description:            considered to be autobiography an apologia pro vita

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:

    • Edited with an introduction by J. Saliba and K. Ayyad 7th edition. (near critical edition!)
    • Edited with an introduction by A. Shamsaldin.
    • M. Bejou’s edition (Damascus: 1992) with notes, introduction (mini study of the influence of al-Ghazali’s methodical doubt on Descartes).

 

Translation:        

    • A Modern updated translation. (Translation notes not included) courtesy of CUA.
    • Watt’s Translation. (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1967)
    • McCarthy, R. J. Freedom and fulfillment : an annotated translation of Al-Ghazalis al-Munqidh min al-dalal and other relevant works of al-Ghazali by Richard Joseph McCarthy. (Boston:Twayne Publishers, c1980). It was republished by Fons Vitate
    • I’traifat Ghazzali motarjim zainaldin Ki’ya’ Nazad. A Persian Translation.
    • El-Munkizu Miin-Ad-Dalal. By Hilmi Gungor, a Turkish Translation.
    • Khair al-maqal fi tarjamat al-munqidh min al-dalal. Translation and commentary by Muwalwi Syed Mumtaz Ali
    • Ghazâlî, Abû-Hâmid Muhammad ibn-Muhammad al-: Der Erretter aus dem Irrtum (Al-Munqidh min ad-dalâl). Aus d. Arab. übers., mit e. Einl., mit Anm. u. Indices hrsg. v. ‘Abû Elhamîd Elschazlî. Hamburg: Meiner 1988 (Philosophische Bibliothek; Bd. 389).
    • Erreur et Délivrance, Traducion Françasise avec introduction et notes par Farid Jabre. (Deuxième Édition) A dual language edition French Translation/Arabic. Commision Libanaise Pour La Traduction Des Chefs-D’œuvre, Beyrouth: 1969.
    • El salvador del error, Introducción y notas del Emilio Tornero. A Spanish Translation.
    • Malay: Selamat dari kesesatan tr. Asiah Ali; Kuala Lumpur: Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia, 1983.
    • A TÉVELYGÉSBÔL KIVEZETÔ ÚT in Hungarian (Arabból magyarra fordította / Translated from Arabic into Hungarian by : NÉMETH, Pál)
    • De redder uit de dwaling, Uit het Arabisch vertaald en tocgelicht door Prof. Dr J. H. Kramers. A Dutch (Holland/Netherlands) Translation..
    • Hebrew translation by Hava Lazarus-Yafah, Jerusalem 19??.

 

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Number:             [A:72]

Title:                   {منهاج العابدين} Minhaj al-ʿābidīn (Curriculum of the worshipers).

Subject:          

Short description:             Attributed to al-Ghazali

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:       Older Arabic edition of 1337h. and another edition, Edited by Mahmoud Mustafa Halawi. (mu’sasat al-risala: Beirut: 1989)

Translation:    Urdu Translation and an English Translation. And by Mohammed Faghfory.

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Studies:              As popular as this work it is not an authentic work of al-Ghazali. It is by someone else for the following reasons: According to Ibn ‘Arabi (d.1240) it is by abu Hasan ‘Ali al-Masqar al-sabti [whom he met in person]. Also in this book many books of the author are referenced which are not known works of al-Ghazali e.g. “al-qurba ila al-Allah” and “akhlaq al-abrar wa al-najat min al ‘ashrar.” Also he does not reference any of al-Ghazali’s known works. Many times the author mentions word forms that al-Ghazali never mentions in his works e.g. Our sheikh said or My sheikh al-Imam said and he quotes poetry and astute readers of al-Ghazali know that al-Ghazali never mentions this format or mode of writing and quotations even in his early writings completed in his youth. The author of this work has very good knowledge of al-Ghazali’s Iḥyāʾ [not to mention a good grasp of Arabic –which explains its popularity] and has summarized it well with many of his own additions.