Corpus: Pseudo Works

Ghazalian Corpus: Pseudo Works

Note that these works are of suspect attribution to Imam al-Ghazali and some have been a source of contention between scholars as to the validity of attributing these works to al-Ghazali.

  1. Sirr al-‘alamin wa khasf ma fi al-dariyyan (Secret of the two worlds and unvieling what  is in the two houses =worlds). [M:214; A:67,91; GAL no 31]
  2. Mukashafat al-qulub (Unveiling of the Hearts) [M:239; A:239]
  3. al-Madnun al-saghir[M:107; A:40, 119] (Smaller [book] of secrets) also called:
    • al-Naffakh wal-taswiya (Breathing (life) and Formation (of creation). [M:107; A:107]
    • al-Ajwaba al-Ghazaliyya ‘ala al-mas’il al-akhrawiyya. (Ghazalian Answers to Questions concerning the Hereafter.) [M:108; A:40]
  4. al-madnun bi hi ala ghayr ahlihi  [M:A:39] (controversial still!) however I moved it to the works page. I guess the jury is still out on this one.
  5. ma’arij al-qudus fi madarij ma’rifit al-nafs. [M:76; A:76] (controversial still!) however I moved it to the works page. I guess the jury is still out on this one too.
  6. al-risala al-ladunia [M:50, 193; A:90] (translated by Godlas)
  7. Minhaj al-‘arafin (Methodology of the Sufis) [M:356;  A:77, A:356]
  8. Minhaj al-‘abidin ila Jannati Rabbi ‘l-Alamin (Methodology of the Worshipful Servants to the Garden of the Lord of All the Worlds) (possibly a summary of the Ihya’) (planned translation by al-baz publishing, also published in India)[M:64; A:72]
  9. al-Fara’id al-la’ali min rasa’il al-Ghazzali majmu`ah mushtamilah `alá Mi`raj al-salikin wa-Minhaj al-`arifin wa-Rawdat al-talibin, wa-hiya min anfas ma katabahu al-Ghazzali / [tashih] al-Shaykh Muhammad Bakhit, [Cairo] : Faraj Allah Zaki, 1344 [1925]
  10. Risalat al-tayr  (Epistle of the Birds) See article: Al-Ghazzali’s Epistle of the Birds. N. A. Faris (PDF). [M:189; A:75]
  11. ar-Radd al-jamil ‘ala sarih al-Injil (The polite answer to the evident in the Gospels) (Arabic PDF) See article: “Al-Ghazali and the Arabic versions of the Gospels” Padwick, G. J., Muslim World 29(1939), pp. 130-140. Also in German: “Al-Ghazalis Schrift wider die Gottheit Jesu (Redd ül cemil)”, Franz-Elmar Wilms, Leiden, 1966. [M:194; A:83]
  12. Anwar hikmit [M: 91, A:103] (in Persian)
  13. al-Durrah al-fakhirah fi khasf ulum al-‘akhira.  [M:62; A:66]
    1. Critical edition: Le Perle Precieuse de Ghazali, ed. Leon Gauthier. (pdf)- reprinted Beirut, 1997.
    2. (the Precious Pearl) translated by Jane Idleman with an introduction. (PDF) (1979) Missoula, USA.
    3. Die Kostbare Perle über todund Jenseits, übersetzt von M. Brugsch. Hannover, 1924.
  14. A poem by al-Ghazali in Arabic.  al-Qaṣida al-munfarija [M:255; A:255, 122, 434, 435]
  15. Works on magic, talisman, witchcraft, litanies, dream interpretations, secrets of letters and numbers, etc. See A. Badawi’s mu’alafat al-ghazali pp. 277-302 (Numbers 96-127) for more information.


Prof. Mashhad al-Allaf has written a postscript to A. Badwai’s work giving detailed reasons why the above works (1-9) are not works by al-Ghazali. Reasons such as no mention in the texts of al-Ghazali’s other works; language that is used in these works is not the norm that al-Ghazali uses in his works; mention of works by people that were born years after al-Ghazali had died; terminology that al-Ghazali never used in his other works; foul language that scholars such as al-Ghazali would never use. For more information see his paper.

The numbers listed above in square brackets refer to M = Bouyges, Maurice. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-ghazali(Algazel). Edited by Michel Allard. Beirut: L’Institue de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth, 1959; A = Badwai, ‘Abd al-Rahman, Mu’allafat al-Ghazali. 2nd ed. Kuwait: Wakalat al-Mutbu’at, 1977- numbers as listed of al-ghazali’s works. There are many more the above list is not nearly comprehensive for more information see the Bibliography page.