Chronology

Chronology of historical Events

These are important events related the study of al-Ghazali  they are presented in two date formats Hijri/ Gregorian. The Islamic (Hijri) calendar (with dates that fall within the Muslim Era) is usually abbreviated A.H. in Western languages from the Latinized Anno Hegirae. Muḥarram (the first month of the year) 1, 1 A.H. corresponds to July 16, 622 C.E. For more detailed information on Muslim Dynasties see Zambour 1951, reprinted, 1980: pdf and the French version: E. de Zambaur Manuel de Genealogie et de Chronologie pour l’historic de l’Islam (Hanovre: Librairie Orientalist Heniz Lafair, 1927)

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  • c. 570: Birth of Muḥammad in Mecca
  • 1/622: The Hijra: Muḥammad Emigrates to Medina  (Islamic Calendar starts)
  • 11/630: Conquest of Mecca 
  • 13/632: Muḥammad dies in Medina.
  • 13-41/632-661 Guided Caliphates
  • 41-132/661-750 Umayyad Caliphate
  • 132-656 /750-1258 Abbasid Caliphate 
  • /756-1031 Umayyad emirate in Andalusia 
  • /910-1171: Faṭimid Caliphate in Egypt.
  • 110/ al-Hasan al-Basari (Scholar) dies in Baghdad.
  • 150/760 Abu Ḥanifah (Jurist) dies in Baghdad. See J. Schacht, ‘Abu Ḥanifah al-Nu‘man’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 1, pp. 123-4.
  • 179/796 Malik ibn Anas (Jurist) dies in Medina. (b. 93/714).
  • 204/820 al-Shafi’i (Jurist) dies in Egypt. (b. 150/767) see E. Chaumont, ‘al-Shafi‘i’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 9, pp. 181-5.
  • 241/ Ibn Hanbal (Traditionist) dies in Baghdad. (b.)
  • 256/873 al-Kindi dies in Baghdad. (b. 185/805)
  • 298/ al-Junyad (Sufi) dies in Baghdad.
  • 324/935 al-‘Asha`ri dies in Baghdad. (b. 260/873/4)
  • 334/946 Abu Bakr al-Shibli dies. (b. 247/861)
  • 339/950 al-Farabi dies in Aleppo. (b. 259/870)
  • 403/1013 Abu bakr al-Baqlani dies in Baghdad. 
  • 428/1037 Avicenna dies in Hamadan. (b. 370/980 ) see M. Mahdi, D. Gutas, et al., “Avicenna” in EncIr, volume 3, pp. 66-110; A.-M. Goichon, “Ibn Sina” in EI (2nd ed.), volume 3, pp. 941-947.
  • 440/1049 Abi Sa‘id ibn Abi al-Khayr dies, see H. Ritter ‘Abu Sa‘id b. Abi al-Khayr’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 1, 145-7.
  • 450/1058 al-Ghazali is born in Tus.
  • 455/1063 Sultan Toghril Bey dies / Alp Arslan succeeds / al-Juwaynī is in Nishapur’s Niẓāmiyya madrasa.
  • 461/1069 Ghazali begins his studies in earnest.
  • Ghazali travels to Nishapur to study with al-Juwaynī.
  • 465/1072 Alp Arslan is assassinated, his son Malikshāh succeeds him.
  • 478/1085 (August) al-Juwaynī (Imam al-Ḥaramyan) dies in Nishapur and al-Ghazali goes to the “camp” of Nizam al-Mulk
  • 484/1091 (July) al-Ghazali is appointed to teach at Baghdad’s Niẓāmiyah.
  • 485/1092 (Oct. 14) Nizam al-mulk is assassinated in Khurasan.
  • 485 / 1092 (Nov.) Malikshāh dies in Baghdad (succession is contentested by supports of his two sons- Maḥmūd and Berk-Yarūq) Ghazālī is asked to intervene to settle dispute). 
  • 486/1093 present at lectures in Baghdad’s Niẓāmiyya.
  • 487/1094 death of Malikshāh’s son Maḥmūd and his mother Terken Khātūn.
  • 487 (15th of Muḥaram)/1094 present at oath (coronation) to new caliph, al-Mustaẓhir(r. 487-512 16th of rabʿi thānī)
  • 488/1095 al-Ghazali  leaves Baghdad’s Nizamiyah (in Dhu’l – Qa’da 488/ November 1095). 
  • 489/1096 Makes the pilgrimage.
  • 490/1097 (June) Abū Bakr b. al-ʿArabī (d. 543) meets with him
  • 498/1105 al-Ghazali  returns to Tus.
  • 499/1106 al-Ghazali return to teaching at Nishapur’s Nizamiyah.
  • Quits Nishapur’s Nizamiyah and returns home.
  • 502/1108 completes al-Munqidh (deliverance from Error)
  • 503/1109 Finished Mustaṣfa min ʿilm al-iṣūl (on Jurisprudential  Theory)
  • 504/1110 Quits Nishapur’s Nizamiyah and returns home.
  • 505/1111 (Monday December 18) al-Ghazali dies in Tus.
  • 517 0r 520/ 1123 or 1126 Aḥmad al-Ghazali (his brother) dies.
  • 529/1135 Abd al-Ghafir al-Farasi dies.
  • 543/ Abu bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi dies in Fez.  (b. 468 in Andalusia)
  • 581/1185 Ibn Ṭufayl dies in Morocco
  • 587/1191 al-Suhrawardi is executed in Aleppo.
  • 595/1198 Ibn Rushd dies in Morocco. (b. 520 Cordoba) see R. Arnaldez, “Ibn Rushd” in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 3, pp. 909-920.
  • 597/1201 Ibn al-jawzi dies in Baghdad. (b. 509 (510)/1114)
  • 606/1209 Fakhr al-din al-Razi dies in al-Rayy and is buried in his own house in secret for fear of his body will be descreated. (b. 505) see G.C. Anawati, ‘Fakhr al-Din al-Razi’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 2, pp. 751-5.
  • 620/ Ibn Qudama al-Maqdasi dies in Damascus.
  • 638/1240 Muḥyi al-Din ibn ‘Arabi (b. 1165) dies in Damascus, see A. Ates, ‘Ibn al-‘Arabi’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 3, pp. 707-11.
  • 672/1274 Naṣr al-din al-Ṭusi dies.
  • 676/ al-Nawawi dies in Nawa his hometown.
  • 681/1282 Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ibn Khallikan dies in Damascus (b. 608/1211 in Irbil).
  • 728/1328 Ibn Taymiyah (Ahmad b. ‘Abdalhalim) dies in Damascus in Prison. (b. 661/1263)
  • 748/1348 al-Dhahabi, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Uthman  (Historian) dies in Damascus. (b. 673/1274). see M. Ben Cheneb and J. de Somogyi, ‘Dhahabi’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 2, pp. 214-6.
  • 771/1371 Taj al-din al-Subki dies in Cairo. (b. 727/1327).
  • 776/1375 Ibn al-Khatib, Lisan al-Din dies in Gharnata (Granada) (b. 713/1313) see Bosch-Vilá, “Ibn al-Khatib” in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 3, pp. 835-7; GAL, vol. 2, pp. 260-264 (337-340) and GAL-S , pp. 372-373
  • 806 /1404 Zayn al-Din al-‘Iraqi dies in Cairo.
  • 808/1406 Ibn Khaldun dies in Cairo. (b. Tunis: 732/1332)
  • 852/1449 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani dies in Cairo. (b. Cairo: 773/1372)
  • 898/1492 Jami, Nur al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman Ahmad ibn Muhammad (Persian Poet) dies in Herat (b. 817/1414) see C. Huart and H. Massé, ‘Djami’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 2, pp. 421-2..
  • 899/1493 End of Andalusia’s Muslim sovereignty.
  • 911/1505 Jalaludin al-Suyti dies in Cairo.  (b. 849) see GAL-S vol. 1, pp. 178-198; and E. Geoffroy, “Suyuti”, EI (2nd ed.), vol. 9.
  • 968/1561 Tashköprüzade, abu al-Khayr ibn Muslih al-Din Mustafá dies. Born in Bursa in 901/1495 Encyclopediaist, author of Miftah al-sa’ada, see F. Babiner and Christine Woodhead, ‘Tashköprüzade (2)’ in EI (2nd ed.), vol. 10, pp. 351-2.
  • 1050/1640 Mulla Sadra dies in Basra.
  • 1067/ Hajji Khalifia dies also known as (aka) Kâtib Çelebi, Mustafa b. Abdullah, an Encyclopediaist, author of the famed Kashf al-zunun `an asami al-kutub wa-al-funun. b. 1017/
  • 1205/1791 Murtda al-Zabidi dies in Zabid in Yemen.
  • 1269/1853 First printed copy of the Ihya’ with moveable type in Bulaq Egypt in 4 books bound in 2 volumes measuring 33cm.
  • 1864 First printed copy of the Ihya’ offset (Ha’jari) in Lucknow, India in 4 volumes measuring 35cm.
  • 1311 ithaf al-sada is printed by al-mutaba al-Maymaniya in Cairo, 10 vols.
  • 1379/1957, Isa’ al-babi al-Halabi’s edition of Ihya’ is printed in Cairo, 4 vols.
  • 2001, June this website goes online. 🙂
  • 2011, 900 year anniversary of his death.

The Crusades Through Arab Eyes: Chronology.