JLT

Jurisprudence and Legal Theory (al-fiqhi wa isulihi)


 

Number:          [1 (M1, A1)]

Title:               {التعليقة} al-Taʿlīqa (a commentary)

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:         (a commentary on al-Juwanī’s [1028-1085] Usul al-fiqh work) This work would be superseded by the two works listed below a case of discipulus potior magistro.

Citation/Association:      cited by his major biographers including Subkī [Tāj al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿAlī al-Subkī, approx. 1327-1370]

Manuscript:      None available


 

Number:             [2 (M2, A2) GAL. no 52; K:11936]

Title:                   {المنخول من تعليقة الإصول} al-Mankhūl min taʿliqat al-iṣūl, (the sifted from the Commentary on the fundamentals)

Subject:           Jurisprudential Theory / Principles of Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:            AG’s early work on legal theory of Muslim Jurisprudence. It followed the teachings of al-Juwaynī [1028-1085], his teacher at the time who was reportedly impressed with this work as is mentioned in some of the early biographical accounts (Al-Fārisī).

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:      According to Badwaī in Dār al-kutub al-miṣrya there are two mss one number: (iṣūl al-fiqh-188) dated 591AH and a newer copy dated 1320AH (iṣūl al-fiqh-386);

Publication:       Arabic: al-Mankhūl min taʿliqat al-iṣūl. edited by Muḥammad Ḥasan Hītu. ND [Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 197?(intro. p.48)] 48pp+541pp. [aqqaqahu wa-kharraja naṣṣahu wa-ʿallaqa ʿalayhi Muammad asan Hītu. Yunsharu li-awwal marrah ʿan thalath nusakh makhuah.]

  • Available online in: [PDF], MS word file (zipped)

Commentaries:

Summaries:

Refutations:      There is untitled work by Shams al-ʾimah Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-satār b. Muḥammad al-ʿImādī al-Kurdī (b. 559- d. 642) in manuscript (in Dār al-kutub al-miṣrya Number: majāmīʿ 600) format that is a refutations of AG’s statements regarding Abu Hanifa in this work.


 

Number:             [3 (M3, A3) GAL. no 48]

Title:                   {البسيط} al-Basīṭ (The Spread)

Subject:              Jurisprudence/ Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:            AG’s early Jurisprudential work in Shāfiʿī fiqh. Condensed from ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʻAbd Allāh ibn Yūsuf al-Juwaynī’s [1028-1085] book Nihāyat al-maṭlab fī dirāyat al-madhhab, which is a commentary on Ismāʿīl b. Yaḥyā al-Muzanī’s, [791-878.] condensation of Shāfiʿī’s kitab al-Um. As far as I know al-Basīṭ has not been published.

Citation/Association:    

Manuscript:

Publication:       Sections of this work has been edited as part of a graduate thesis at the Islamic University in Madinah, KSA.

Commentaries:

Summaries:

Refutations:


 

Number:              [4 (M4, A4) GAL I, 424]

Title:                   {الوسيط في المذهب} Al-wasīṭ fī al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the [Jurisprudential] school).

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:            Al-wasit (The medium). This book is considered one of the five major works in Shāfiʿī school jurisprudence.

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:       Al-wasīṭ fī al-mathab: dirasah wa-tahqiq wa-taʿliq ʿAli Muhyi al-Din ʿAli al-Qarah Daghi; tunsharu li-awwal marrah ʿalā ʿashr nusakh fi ghayat al-qidam wa-al-ahammiyah. ([Cairo] : Dar al-Iʿtisam, 1984. 2 v. (879 p.) ; 24 cm.). Claims to have used: “10 old and important Mss” in preparing this edition. One of our source states that this book is not the complete work.

  • Al-wasīṭ fī al-mathab: edited by Abi ʿAmr al-Husayni ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-Rahim (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyah, 2001. 4 v. ; 25 cm). While this work contains the complete text it leaves much to be desired in a publication.
  • Al-wasīṭ fī al-mathab: editing by Ahmad Mahmud Ibrahim, published with al-Nawawi’s commentary (al-Tanqih fi sharh al-Wasit) and 3 other minor commentaries by dar al-salam Cairo, 1997. [PDF, last accessed 19 April 2016]

Commentaries:      al-Nawawī’s [1233-1277] commentary al-Tanqīḥ fī shar al- wasīṭ, Ibn al-Salāḥ’s Sharh mishkil Al-wasīṭ, al-Ḥamawī’s Sharh mishkilāt Al-wasīṭ, Abu al-dam’s taʿlīqa mujaza ʿalā al-wasīṭ

Summaries: None available as far as we know

 


 

 

Number:          [M5?, 36; A36; GAL I, 424; K:14191]

Title:               {الوجيز في فقه الإمام الشافعي} Al-wajiz fi fiqh al-imam al-shafi’i. (The condensed in Imam Shafi’i’s Jurisprudence)

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:          A shorter work on Shafi’i fiqh [Islamic Jurisprudence], includes contrary opinions of Malik, Abu Hanifa and al-Muzni.

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:       Al-wajiz fi fiqh al-imam al-shafi’i. 2 vol. ed. ʿAlī Maʿwad and ʿAdil ʿAbdelmawjud, Dār al-ʾarqam: Beirut, 1997. also DKI’s version [PDF last accessed on 19 April 2016]

Commentaries:      This book was then expanded upon (sharh) by abul-Qasem al-Rafi’ai called al-aziz sharh al-wajiz which in turn was summarized by al-Nawawi in a book called rawdat al-talibin.

Summaries:       A summarized (mukhtasr)  version by abul-Qasem al-Rafi’ai called al-muharar which in turn was summarized by al-Nawawi in a book called minhāj al-ṭālibīn wa ʿumdat al-muftīn. This work alone has had at least 100 commentaries on it, c.f. pp. 18-43 for an annotated listing.

 


 

Number:          [M6; A6; GAL S I, 754; K:8378 &11628]

Title:               {خلاصة المختصر ونقاوة المعتصر} Khulaṣat al-mukhtaṣir wanaqāwat al-muʿtaṣir. (Néctar of the condensed  and the purified in the squeezed)

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Shāfiʿī fiqh

Short description:          A  condensed version of al-Muzni’s fiqh work on Shafi’i fiqh [Islamic Jurisprudence].

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:

Publication:       Khulaṣat al-mukhtaṣir wanaqāwat al-muʿtaṣir Amjid Rashīd Muḥammad ʿAlī, Dār al-Minhaj: Jedda, 2007. [PDF, last accessed 19 April 2016]

Commentaries:

Summaries:

 


 

Number:          [M:59 ; A:63; GAL,S. I. 754, no 51; K:11936]

Title:               (المستصفى من علم الأصول) al-Mustaṣfā min ‘ilm al-iṣūl. (On Legal theory of Muslim Jurisprudence).

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Principles, I

Short description:          A celebrated work of al-Ghazālī on Uṣūl al-fiqh is considered one of four works that all iṣūl works revolve around and they are: 1. The muʿtazalitī ʿAbd al-Jabār (d. 415) al-Qadī’s al-ʿumad; 2. abu al-Husain Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. al-Ṭayyib (d. 436/1044) al-Basri’s sharḥ al-ʿumad (commentary on al-ʿumad); 3. al-Imam al-Ḥarmayyin abū al-Maʿālī (d. 478) Jūwaynī’s al-Burhān and 4. this book. (See Hito’s introduction to al-mankhul p.9 ;27).

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:     Ahmet III number 1256, uṣūl copied in 596/1200 (250 sheets) and Ahmet III number 1258, uṣūl copied in 617/1220 (301 sheets).

Publication:    Since this work is very popular it has been reprinted many times that it is quite hard to keep up with the many editions available below is a listing of some those editions and some important ones.

    • Originally published: Būlāq, Miṣr: al-Maṭbaʻah al-Amīriȳah, 1324 [1935], recent reprints: al-Mustaṣfá min ʻilm al-uṣūl / li-Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī ; wa-maʻahu Kitāb Fawātiḥ al-raḥamūt li-ʻAbd al-ʻAlī Muḥammad ibn Niẓām al-Dīn al-Anṣārī, bi-Sharh Musallam al-Thubūt fī Uṣūl al-Fiqh li-Muḥibb Allāh ibn ʻAbd al-Shakūr. Bayrūt, Lubnān : Dār Iḥyāʼ al-Tārīkh al-ʻArabī : Muʼassasat al-Tārīkh al-ʻArabī, 1993. [A recent reprint with new typesetting by dār al-Araqam is online at archive.org last accessed 21April2016.]
    • another edition without the margins is available here as well last accessed 21April2016.
    • al-Mustaṣfa min ‘ilm al-uṣūl / li-Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī ; taḥqīq wa-taʻlīq Muḥammad Sulaymān al-Ashqar. Bayrūt, Lubnān : Muʾassasat al-Risālah, 1997.
    • Recent edited edition in 4 volumes, edited by H. Z. Hafiz, Jeddah, n.d.:    al-Mustafá min ʻilm al-uṣūl / taʾlīf Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī ; dirāsat wa-taḥqīq Ḥamzah ibn Zuhayr Ḥāfiẓ. [Medina] : Ḥ.b.Z. Ḥāfiẓ, 1413 [1993 or 1994], using Būlāq edition and the two Ahmet III manuscripts,  See this link on archive.org  last accessed 21April2016.

Translation:   

    • English: Vol. 1 was translated in: Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali’s Juristic Doctrine in ‘Al-Mustasfa min ‘ilm al-usul’ with a Translation of Volume One of ‘al-Mustasfa min ‘ilm al-usul’. Hammad, Ahmad Zaki, PhD. The University of Chicago, 1987.
    • Turkish: Islam Hukunda: Deiller va Yorum Metodolojisi, Turkcesi Yunus Apaydin, Rey Yayincihk, Kayseri, 1994.

Commentaries: Badawī say al-Nasafī completed a commentary on this work in 665/1266, a manuscript of it is in Berlin.

Summaries:     by Ibn Rushd [1126-1198], Muḥammad b., al-arūrī fī uṣūl al-fiqh, aw, Mukhtaar al-Musta, li-Abī al-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Rushd al-Ḥafīd ; taqdīm wa-taḥqīq Jamāl al-Dīn al-ʻAlawī ; taṣdīr Muḥammad ʻAllāl Sīnāṣir. Bayrūt : Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 1994. And Ibn Rashīq al-Mālikī, al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAtīq, Lubāb al-maḥṣūl fī ʿilm al-uṣūl aw Mukhtaar al-Musta lil-Ghazzālī, taʾlīf al-Faqīh al-Uṣūlī Ibn Rashīq al-Mālikī Jamāl al-Dīn al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAtīq ibn al-Ḥusayn al-Taghlabī al-Miṣrī al-Mālikī ; taḥqīq al-Duktūrāh Thanāʿ Muḥammad ʿAlī al-Ḥalabī. Dimashq : Dār al-Nawādir, 2012.

Studies:              Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali’s Juristic Doctrine in ‘Al-Mustasfa min ‘ilm al-usul’ with a Translation of Volume One of ‘al-Mustasfa min ‘ilm al-usul’. Hammad, Ahmad Zaki, PhD. The University of Chicago, 1987.

 


 

Number:          [M:67; A:61]

Title:               {اساس القياس} Asās al-Qiyās, (foundation of Analogical [reasoning])

Subject:           Jurisprudence, Analogical Reasoning

Short description:          A primer on Analogical reasoning with examples

Citation/Association:

Manuscript:     Published from a single available manuscript in Hacı Beşir Ağa collection, Süleymaniye Library, Istanbul, No. 650, ff. 178-201 (dated 815/1412).

Publication:     Asās al-Qiyās, edited by Fahd ibn Muḥammad al-Sadḥān (al-Riyad : Maktabat al-ʿUbaykān, 1993).

Translation:   

Studies:              Germana Porcasi, “On the Islamic Judicial Logic in al-Ghazālī’s ‘Asās al-qiyās”, Journal of Islamic Philosophy 3( 2008) pp. 68-111. And R. BRUNSCHVIG, Valeur et fondement du raisonnement juridique par analogie d’après al-Ghazali, in «Studia Islamica», 34 (1971).

 


 

Number:          [M:14; A:13]

Title: Fatāwy, Fatāwy al-ghazālī

Subject:          Fiqh, Jurisprudence, law, shāfiʿī jurisprudence

Short description: a collection of 190 rulings according to the shāfiʿī jurisprudence school of law

Citation/Association: mentioned by Tāj al-dīn ibn al-Subkī (d. 771/1370) “Ṭabaqat al-shāfiʿiya al-kubra” vol. 6. pp. 191-389.; Taqī al-dīn ibn Qādī Shahba (d. 851/1447) in his “Ṭabaqāt al-Shafiʿiya”; Tash Kubrā Zādah (d. 962/1365) “Miftaḥ al-saʿāda wa misbāḥ al-siyada” p.208; Ibn al-ʿImād al-Ḥanbalī (d.1089/1679) – “Shadharāt al-dhahab fī akhbār man dhahab” Beirut: 1989, Dar ibn Kathir; 6:18-22. (PDF); Katip Celebi’s Kashf al-ẓunūn, 2:1227; Ismail Pasha’s Hadiyat al-ʿarifīn) 2:80; and finally in (Ithaf al-sadah al-mutaqin bi sharh ihya’ ʻulum al-din) by Murtada al-Zabidi (d. 1791) who described it well as is in the printed edition mentioned below.

Manuscript: dār al-kutb al-ẓāhiriyya 3 mss (number: 5258/ta31; Number: 2303/ta16 copied in 913/1507; Number: 2311/ta1 copied in 753/1352); Princeton University Library’s two manuscripts from the Garret collection number: 1402/4152, copied in 868/1464; and number: 1418 /547 that has ownership record in 1153/1740. Abu Sway mentions that Nizam Yaqubi had mentioned to him that there is a copy in the Vatican Library.

Publication:       Fatāwy al-Ghazālī (Verdicts of al-Ghazālī) edited by Mahmoud M. Abu Sway, Kula Lumpur (1996)- also: al-Fatāwaʹ lil-Imām Muḥammad bin Muḥammad al-Ghazzālī / taḥqīq ʻAlī Muṣṭafaʹ al-Ṭassah ; qadama lahu Muṣṭafaʹ Dīb al-Baghā. al-Yamama, Damascus: 2004, al-Yamāmah lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ. An edition that utilizes different manuscripts (3 from dar al-kutub al-zahirya) that Abu Sway was not able to get a hold of.

 


Number:

Title:                   [حقيقة القولين ] Ḥaqīqat al-qawlayn

Subject:           Shāfiʻī, Muḥammad ibn Idrīs, 767 or 768-820 — Criticism and interpretation — Early works to 1800.

Short description:

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Manuscript:

Publication:       Kitāb Ḥaqīqat al-qawlayn : fī tawjīh takhrīj al-Imām al-Shāfiʿī li-baʿḍ al-masāʾil ʿalā qawlayn / taʾlīf Abī Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī al-Ghazāli ; taḥqīq Abī ʿAbdallāh al-Dānī ibn Munīr Āl Zahwī. Beirut: Mūʾassasat al-Rayyān, 2007

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